Profile image of Euan Ritchie

Dr Euan Ritchie

STAFF PROFILE

Position

Senior Lecturer

Faculty

Faculty of Sci Eng & Built Env

Department

School of Life & Env. Sciences

Campus

Melbourne Burwood Campus

Qualifications

Bachelor of Science, James Cook University, 1999
Doctor of Philosophy, James Cook University, 2007
Graduate Certificate of Higher Education, Deakin University, 2012

Biography

For more details please see my personal webpage www.euanritchie.org

Read more on Euan's profile

Career highlights

2013 Eureka Award for Environmental Research
2013 Vice Chancellor’s Award (Early Career Research), Deakin University
2013 Award for excellence in Research and Teaching, Deakin University
2011 Award for excellence in Research and Teaching, Deakin University

Affiliations

Centre for Integrative Ecology http://cie-deakin.com/

Units taught

SLE151

SLE220

Professional activities

Director (Research Chapters) for Ecological Society of Australia http://www.ecolsoc.org.au/about-us/board

Media appearances

Follow me on Twitter @EuanRitchie1

Publications

Filter by

2017

Stop jumping the gun: a call for evidence-based invasive predator management

T Doherty, E Ritchie

(2017), Vol. 10, pp. 15-22, Conservation letters: a journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, Chichester, Eng., C1

journal

Trophic cascades in 3D: network analysis reveals how apex predators structure ecosystems

A Wallach, A Dekker, M Lurgi, J Montoya, D Fordham, E Ritchie

(2017), Vol. 8, pp. 135-142, Methods in ecology and evolution, London, Eng., C1

journal

Impacts and management of feral cats Felis catus in Australia

T Doherty, C Dickman, C Johnson, S Legge, E Ritchie, J Woinarski

(2017), Vol. 47, pp. 83-97, Mammal review, London, Eng., C1

journal

Enumerating a continental-scale threat: how many feral cats are in Australia?

S Legge, B Murphy, H McGregor, J Woinarski, J Augusteyn, G Ballard, M Baseler, T Buckmaster, C Dickman, T Doherty, G Edwards, T Eyre, B Fancourt, D Ferguson, D Forsyth, W Geary, M Gentle, G Gillespie, L Greenwood, R Hohnen, S Hume, C Johnson, M Maxwell, P McDonald, K Morris, K Moseby, T Newsome, D Nimmo, R Paltridge, D Ramsey, J Read, A Rendall, M Rich, E Ritchie, J Rowland, J Short, D Stokeld, D Sutherland, A Wayne, L Woodford, F Zewe

(2017), Vol. 206, pp. 293-303, Biological conservation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal

The global impacts of domestic dogs on threatened vertebrates

T Doherty, C Dickman, A Glen, T Newsome, D Nimmo, E Ritchie, A Vanak, A Wirsing

(2017), Vol. 210, Part A, pp. 56-59, Biological conservation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal

Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock

L van Eeden, M Crowther, C Dickman, D Macdonald, W Ripple, E Ritchie, T Newsome

(2017), pp. 1-9, Conservation biology, Chichester, Eng., C1

journal

Top predators constrain mesopredator distributions

T Newsome, A Greenville, D ?irovi?, C Dickman, C Johnson, M Krofel, M Letnic, W Ripple, E Ritchie, S Stoyanov, A Wirsing

(2017), Vol. 8, pp. 1-7, Nature communications, London, Eng., C1

journal

Making a new dog?

T Newsome, P Fleming, C Dickman, T Doherty, W Ripple, E Ritchie, A Wirsing

(2017), Vol. 67, pp. 374-381, BioScience, Oxford, Eng., C1

journal

Shifting public values and what they mean for increasing democracy in wildlife management decisions

L van Eeden, C Dickman, E Ritchie, T Newsome

(2017), pp. 1-5, Biodiversity and conservation, Berlin, Germany, C1

journal

Responses of invasive predators and native prey to a prescribed forest fire

B Hradsky, C Mildwaters, E Ritchie, F Christie, J Di Stefano

(2017), Vol. 98, pp. 835-847, Journal of mammalogy, Oxford, Eng., C1

journal

Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes

C Carroll, B Hartl, G Goldman, D Rohlf, A Treves, J Kerr, E Ritchie, R Kingsford, K Gibbs, M Maron, J Watson

(2017), pp. 1-9, Conservation biology, London, Eng., C1

journal

Human-modified habitats facilitate forest-dwelling populations of an invasive predator, Vulpes vulpes

B Hradsky, A Robley, R Alexander, E Ritchie, A York, J Di Stefano

(2017), Vol. 7, pp. 1-12, Scientific Reports, London, Eng., C1

journal

Bayesian networks elucidate interactions between fire and other drivers of terrestrial fauna distributions

B Hradsky, T Penman, D Ababei, A Hanea, E Ritchie, A York, J Di Stefano

(2017), Vol. 8, Ecosphere, C1

journal
2016

Effects of the fire regime on mammal occurrence after wildfire: site effects vs landscape context in fire-prone forests

E Chia, M Bassett, S Leonard, G Holland, E Ritchie, M Clarke, A Bennett

(2016), Vol. 363, pp. 130-139, Forest ecology and management, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal

Fire affects microhabitat selection, movement patterns, and body condition of an Australian rodent (Rattus fuscipes)

A Fordyce, B Hradsky, E Ritchie, J Di Stefano

(2016), Vol. 97, pp. 102-111, Journal of mammology, Oxford, Eng., C1

journal

Crying wolf: limitations of predator-prey studies need not preclude their salient messages.

E Ritchie, J Schultner, D Nimmo, J Fischer, J Hanspach, T Kuemmerle, L Kehoe, I Dorresteijn

(2016), Vol. 283, pp. 1-3, Proceedings of the royal society b: biological sciences, London, Eng., C1

journal

Concordance in phylogeography and ecological niche modelling identify dispersal corridors for reptiles in arid Australia

J Melville, M Haines, J Hale, S Chapple, E Ritchie

(2016), Vol. 43, pp. 1844-1855, Journal of biogeography, Chichester, Eng., C1

journal

Invasive predators and global biodiversity loss.

T Doherty, A Glen, D Nimmo, E Ritchie, C Dickman

(2016), Vol. 113, pp. 11261-11265, Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of USA, Washington D.C., Wash., C1

journal

Phylogeography of the antilopine wallaroo (Macropus antilopinus) across tropical northern Australia

J Wadley, D Fordham, V Thomson, E Ritchie, J Austin

(2016), Vol. 6, pp. 8050-8061, Ecology and evolution, London, Eng., C1

journal
2015

The effects of topographic variation and the fire regime on coarse woody debris: insights from a large wildfire

M Bassett, E Chia, S Leonard, D Nimmo, G Holland, E Ritchie, M Clarke, A Bennett

(2015), Vol. 340, pp. 126-134, Forest ecology and management, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal

Resolving the value of the dingo in ecological restoration

T Newsome, G Ballard, M Crowther, J Dellinger, P Fleming, A Glen, A Greenville, C Johnson, M Letnic, K Moseby, D Nimmo, M Nelson, J Read, W Ripple, E Ritchie, C Shores, A Wallach, A Wirsing, C Dickman

(2015), Vol. 23, pp. 201-208, Restoration ecology, London, Eng., C1

journal

Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia

N Davis, D Forsyth, B Triggs, C Pascoe, J Benshemesh, A Robley, J Lawrence, E Ritchie, D Nimmo, L Lumsden

(2015), Vol. 10, pp. 1-28, PLoS one, San Francisco, Calif., C1

journal

Stemming the tide : progress towards resolving the causes of decline and implementing management responses for the disappearing mammal fauna of northern Australia

M Ziembicki, J Woinarski, J Webb, E Vanderduys, K Tuft, J Smith, E Ritchie, T Reardon, I Radford, N Preece, J Perry, B Murphy, H McGregor, S Legge, L Leahy, M Lawes, J Kanowski, C Johnson, A James, A Griffiths, G Gillespie, A Frank, A Fisher, A Burbidge

(2015), Vol. 6, pp. 169-225, THERYA, [California Sur, México], C1

journal

Data management challenges in analysis and synthesis in the ecosystem sciences

A Specht, S Guru, L Houghton, L Keniger, P Driver, E Ritchie, K Lai, A Treloar

(2015), Vol. 534, pp. 144-158, Science of the total environment, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal

Multiple threats, or multiplying the threats? Interactions between invasive predators and other ecological disturbances

T Doherty, C Dickman, D Nimmo, E Ritchie

(2015), Vol. 190, pp. 60-68, Biological conservation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal

Incorporating anthropogenic effects into trophic ecology: predator-prey interactions in a human-dominated landscape

I Dorresteijn, J Schultner, D Nimmo, J Fischer, J Hanspach, T Kuemmerle, L Kehoe, E Ritchie

(2015), Vol. 282, pp. 1-8, Proceedings of the Royal Society B : biological sciences, London, Eng., C1

journal

Predators help protect carbon stocks in blue carbon ecosystems

T Atwood, R Connolly, E Ritchie, C Lovelock, M Heithaus, G Hays, J Fourqurean, P Macreadie

(2015), Vol. 5, pp. 1038-1045, Nature climate change, London, Eng., C1

journal

Fire severity and fire-induced landscape heterogeneity affect arboreal mammals in fire-prone forests

E Chia, M Bassett, D Nimmo, S Leonard, E Ritchie, M Clarke, A Bennett

(2015), Vol. 6, pp. 1-14, Ecosphere, Washington, D.C., C1

journal
2014

Human dimensions of dog-wildlife interactions

K Miller, E Ritchie, M Weston

(2014), pp. 286-304, Free-ranging dogs and wildlife conservation, Oxford, England, B1

chapter

Dogs as predators and trophic regulators

E Ritchie, C Dickman, M Letnic, A Vanak

(2014), pp. 55-68, Free-ranging dogs and wildlife conservation, Oxford, England, B1

chapter

Top-dogs and under-dogs : competition between dogs and sympatric carnivores

A Vanak, C Dickman, E Silva-Rodriguez, J Butler, E Ritchie

(2014), pp. 69-93, Free-ranging dogs and wildlife conservation, Oxford, England, B1

chapter

Experiments in no-impact control of dingoes : comment on Allen et al. 2013

C Johnson, M Crowther, C Dickman, M Letnic, T Newsome, D Nimmo, E Ritchie, A Wallach

(2014), Vol. 11, pp. 1-3, Frontiers in zoology, London, England, C1

journal

Differing impact of a major biogeographic barrier on genetic structure in two large kangaroos from the monsoon tropics of Northern Australia

M Eldridge, S Potter, C Johnson, E Ritchie

(2014), Vol. 4, pp. 554-567, Ecology and Evolution, England, C1

journal

Status and ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores

William Ripple, James Estes, Robert Beschta, Christopher Wilmers, Euan Ritchie, Mark Hebblewhite, Joel Berger, Bodil Elmhagen, Mike Letnic, Michael Nelson, Oswald Schmitz, Douglas Smith, Arian Wallach, Aaron Wirsing

(2014), Vol. 343, pp. 1-11, Science, Washington, D.C., C1

journal

The influence of non-climate predictors at local and landscape resolutions depends on the autecology of the species

D Harris, S Gregory, B Brook, E Ritchie, D Croft, G Coulson, D Fordham

(2014), Vol. 39, pp. 710-721, Austral ecology, London, Eng., C1

journal

Towards a cohesive, holistic view of top predation: a definition, synthesis and perspective

F Sergio, O Schmitz, C Krebs, R Holt, M Heithaus, A Wirsing, W Ripple, E Ritchie, D Ainley, D Oro, Y Jhala, F Hiraldo, E Korpimäki

(2014), Vol. 123, pp. 1234-1243, Oikos, London, Eng., C1

journal

Does fire influence the landscape-scale distribution of an invasive mesopredator?

C Payne, E Ritchie, L Kelly, D Nimmo

(2014), Vol. 9, pp. 1-9, PLoS One, United States, C1

journal

Ecological connectivity or barrier fence? Critical choices on the agricultural margins of Western Australia

K Bradby, J Fitzsimons, A Del Marco, D Driscoll, E Ritchie, J Lau, C Bradshaw, R Hobbs

(2014), Vol. 15, pp. 180-190, Ecological management and restoration, London, Eng., C1

journal

Strongly interactive carnivore species: maintaining and restoring ecosystem function

C Dickman, A Glen, M Jones, M Soule, E Ritchie, A Wallach

(2014), pp. 301-323, Carnivores of Australia : past, present and future, Melbourne, Vic., B1-1

chapter
2013

The dingo and biodiversity conservation : response to Fleming et al. (2012)

C Johnson, E Ritchie

(2013), Vol. 35, pp. 8-14, Australian mammalogy, Melbourne, Vic., C1

journal

Refuges for fauna in fire-prone landscapes : their ecological function and importance

N Robinson, S Leonard, E Ritchie, M Bassett, E Chia, S Buckingham, H Gibb, A Bennett, M Clarke

(2013), Vol. 50, pp. 1321-1329, Journal of applied ecology, London, England, C1

journal

A cost-effective and informative method of GPS tracking wildlife

B Allan, J Arnould, J Martin, E Ritchie

(2013), Vol. 40, pp. 345-348, Wildlife research, Melbourne, Vic., C1

journal
2012

Top predators as biodiversity regulators : the dingo Canis lupus dingo as a case study

M Letnic, E Ritchie, C Dickman

(2012), Vol. 87, pp. 390-413, Biological reviews, Oxford, England, C1

journal

Ecosystem restoration with teeth : what role for predators?

E Ritchie, B Elmhagen, A Glen, M Letnic, G Ludwig, R McDonald

(2012), Vol. 27, pp. 265-271, Trends in ecology and evolution, London, England, C1

journal

Effects of predator control on behaviour of an apex predator and indirect consequences for mesopredator suppression

L Brook, C Johnson, E Ritchie

(2012), Vol. 49, pp. 1278-1286, Journal of applied ecology, Oxford, England, C1

journal

The dingo and biodiversity conservation : response to Fleming et al. (2012)

C Johnson, E Ritchie

(2012), Vol. 35, pp. 8-14, Australian mammalogy, Collingwood, Vic., C1

journal
2011

The disappearing mammal fauna of northern Australia : context, cause, and response

J Woinarski, S Legge, J Fitzsimons, B Traill, A Burbidge, A Fisher, R Firth, I Gordon, A Griffiths, C Johnson, N McKenzie, C Palmer, I Radford, B Rankmore, E Ritchie, S Ward, M Ziembicki

(2011), Vol. 4, pp. 192-201, Conservation letters, Oxford, England, C1

journal

Evolutionary origins and diversification of dragon lizards in Australia's tropical savannas

J Melville, E Ritchie, S Chapple, R Glor, J Schulte

(2011), Vol. 58, pp. 257-270, Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, Maryland Heights, Mo., C1

journal
2010

Ecology and conservation of the antilopine wallaroo : an overview of current knowledge

E Ritchie

(2010), pp. 179-186, Macropods : the biology of kangaroos, wallabies and rat kangaroos, Collingwood, Vic, B1-1

chapter

Putting the bite back into biodiversity conservation and rangeland management : what role(s) for dingoes?

E Ritchie, C Johnson

(2010), pp. 24-24, AMS 2010 : Proceedings of the Australian Mammal Society Scientific Meeting and Rock Wallaby 2010 symposium, Canberra, A.C.T., E1-1

conference

Dingoes : managing for ecosystem resilience and pastoral productivity

E Ritchie, C Johnson

(2010), Queensland Pest Animal Symposium Proceedings 2010, Gladstone, Qld., E1-1

conference

Predator control promotes invasive dominated ecological states

A Wallach, C Johnson, E Ritchie, A O'Neill

(2010), Vol. 13, pp. 1008-1018, Ecology Letters, Oxford , England, C1-1

journal
2009

Predator interactions, mesopredator release and biodiversity conservation

E Ritchie, C Johnson

(2009), Vol. 12, pp. 982-998, Ecology letters, Oxford, England, C1-1

journal

Separating the influences of environment and species interactions on patterns of distribution and abundance : competition between large herbivores

E Ritchie, J Martin, C Johnson, B Fox

(2009), Vol. 78, pp. 724-731, Journal of animal ecology, Oxford, England, C1-1

journal

More than mere numbers: the impact of lethal control on the social stability of a top-order predator

A Wallach, E Ritchie, J Read, A O'Neill

(2009), Vol. 4, pp. 1-8, PLoS ONE, San Francisco, Calif., C1-1

journal
2008

Large-herbivore distribution and abundance : intra-and interspecific niche variation in the tropics

E Ritchie, J Martin, A Krockenberger, S Garnett, C Johnson

(2008), Vol. 78, pp. 105-122, Ecological monographs, Washington, DC, C1-1

journal

Australia's savanna herbivores : bioclimatic distributions and an assessment of the potential impact of regional climate change

E Ritchie, E Bolitho

(2008), Vol. 81, pp. 880-890, Physiological and biochemical zoology, Chicago, Il., C1-1

journal
2007

A molecular based taxonomic revision of Amphibolurus, Lophognathus and Pogona

E Ritchie, J Melville

(2007), ASH 2007 : Proceedings of the Australian Society of Herpetologists Meeting, Albany, W.A., E1-1

conference

Interspecific differences in factors influencing the distribution and abundance of two wallaroo species : management implications.

E Ritchie, J Martin, C Johnson

(2007), Proceedings of the Australian Mammal Society Conference, Armidale, N.S.W., E1-1

conference

The Viggers & Hearn conundrum : a kangaroo home range study with no implications for land management

J Martin, G Coulson, J Di Stefano, E Ritchie, A Greenfield, H Catachin, L Evans

(2007), Vol. 44, pp. 1080-1085, Journal of applied ecology, New York, NY, C1-1

journal
2006

An antilopine autecology : distribution, abundance and conservation of Macropus antilopinus. Macropod Symposium

E Ritchie, J Martin, S Garnett, A Krockenberger, C Johnson

(2006), Proceedings of the Australian Mammal Society Conference, Melbourne, Vic., E1-1

conference

Predictions of the impacts of climate change on large macropods in Northern Australia.

E Ritchie, E Bolitho

(2006), Proceedings of the Australian Mammal Society Conference, Melbourne, Vic., E1-1

conference

Southern Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae feeding on the Fungus Pislithus albus in North Queensland

E Ritchie, J Martin

(2006), Vol. 23, pp. 46-47, Australian field ornithology, Nunawading, Vic., C1-1

journal
2002

Parasite (Ribeiroia ondatrae) infection linked to amphibian malformations in the western United States

P Johnson, K Lunde, E Thurman, E Ritchie, S Wray, D Sutherland, J Kapfer, T Frest, J Bowerman, A Blaustein

(2002), Vol. 72, pp. 151-168, Ecological monographs, Tempe, Ariz., C1-1

journal

Adaptive biases in offspring sex ratios established before birth in a marsupial, the common brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula

C Johnson, E Ritchie

(2002), Vol. 13, pp. 653-656, Behavioral ecology, Oxford, Eng., C1-1

journal
2001

Adjustment of offspring sex ratios in relation to the availability of resources for philopatric offspring in the common brushtail possum

C Johnson, M Clinchy, A Taylor, C Krebs, P Jarman, A Payne, E Ritchie

(2001), Vol. 268, pp. 2001-2005, Royal Society of London : proceedings B : biological sciences, London, Eng., C1-1

journal

Morphological abnormality patterns in a California amphibian community

P Johnson, K Lunde, E Ritchie, J Reaser, A Launer

(2001), Vol. 57, pp. 336-352, Herpetologica, Lawrence, Kan., C1-1

journal

Funded Projects at Deakin

Australian Competitive Grants

Pyroherbivory and the nexus between Aboriginal fire mosaics and kangaroos

Prof David Bowman, Dr Brett Murphy, Dr James Radford, Dr Euan Ritchie, Dr Thomas Vigilante

ARC Linkage - Projects

  • 2017: $30,000
  • 2016: $30,000

Other Public Sector Funding

The effective management and monitoring of cats and foxes in the Grampians national park

Dr Euan Ritchie, A/Prof John White

  • 2011: $8,200

Ecology of the Southern Brown Bandicoot in the for Koo Wee Rup Swamp area and surrounds

Dr Euan Ritchie

  • 2012: $9,000
  • 2011: $27,525

Conservation and ecology of the northern quoll

Dr Euan Ritchie, Miss Hannah Pusey

  • 2012: $3,800

Ecology of the Southern Brown Bandicoot in peri-urban Melbourne

Dr Euan Ritchie, Miss Sarah Maclagan

  • 2014: $1,000

The impacts of wild dogs across the public-private land interface in North West Victoria

Dr Euan Ritchie

  • 2013: $15,000

Southern Brown Bandicoot habitat disturbance study in Bunyip Main Drain

Dr Euan Ritchie, Miss Sarah Maclagan

  • 2014: $15,425
  • 2013: $36,000
  • 2012: $20,575

Understanding the influence of fire, habitat type and quality, grazing and introduced predators on mammal distribution and abundance in Wilsons Promontory National Park

Dr Euan Ritchie

  • 2016: $10,000
  • 2015: $10,000
  • 2014: $10,000

Robust mammal fire response models

Dr Euan Ritchie

  • 2016: $25,454
  • 2015: $10,909

Grampians Ark Predator Monitoring Project 2015

Dr Euan Ritchie, A/Prof John White

  • 2016: $40,000

Industry and Other Funding

Living on the edge: ecology of the endangered Southern Brown Bandicoot in Melbourne's urban fringe

Dr Euan Ritchie, Miss Sarah Maclagan

  • 2013: $7,000
  • 2012: $7,000
  • 2011: $6,000

Specialist versus generalist species: a comparative ecological study of common and mountain brushtail possums

Dr Euan Ritchie, Mr Blake Allan

  • 2013: $7,000
  • 2012: $5,000
  • 2011: $5,000

Ecology and Conservation of the Northern Quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus)

Dr Euan Ritchie, Miss Hannah Pusey

  • 2011: $4,000

Mesopredator interactions and prey preferences in Australia

A/Prof John White, Ms Eloise Dowd, Dr Euan Ritchie, A/Prof Raylene Cooke

  • 2012: $6,000

Ecology of the Southern Brown Bandicoot in peri-urban Melbourne

Dr Euan Ritchie, Miss Sarah Maclagan

  • 2012: $6,000

Discovering Papua New Guinea's Mountain Mammals

Dr Euan Ritchie, Jim Thomas

  • 2013: $21,656

Predator ecology in a fire-prone landscape

Dr Euan Ritchie, Mr William Lachlan Geary

  • 2015: $1,000

How healthy are backyard bandicoots?

Dr Euan Ritchie, Dr Terry Coates, Miss Sarah Maclagan

  • 2015: $22,549

Next generation tracking: animal movement in the third dimension

Dr Euan Ritchie, Mr Blake Allan

  • 2014: $4,868

How does land-use intensity affect wildlife in farming landscapes?

Dr Dale Nimmo, Dr Euan Ritchie, Prof Andrew Bennett, Mrs Connie Warren

  • 2015: $7,000
  • 2014: $5,500

Conservation in agricultural landscapes: the role of land-use

Dr Euan Ritchie, Mrs Connie Warren, Dr Dale Nimmo, Prof Andrew Bennett

  • 2015: $1,500

The Big Roo Count

Dr Euan Ritchie

  • 2015: $19,944

Arresting the pernicious decline of keystone habitats in agricultural landscapes

Dr Tim Doherty, A/Prof Daniel Ierodiaconou, Dr Euan Ritchie, Prof Don Driscoll

  • 2017: $11,814

Fighting over the scraps: meso- and apex-predator interactions at carcass sites

Dr Thomas Newsome, Dr Euan Ritchie, Emma Spencer

  • 2017: $5,885

Supervisions

Principal Supervisor
2017

Blake Allan

Thesis entitled: Refining technology to examine animal movement in modified landscapes

Doctor of Philosophy (Life & Env), School of Life and Environmental Sciences

2016

Michelle Bassett

Thesis entitled: Wildfire, mammals and their habitats in a fire-prone forest ecosystem

Doctor of Philosophy (Life & Env), School of Life and Environmental Sciences

Evelyn Chia

Thesis entitled: Wildfire, Landscape Heterogeneity and Fauna in Fire-prone Forests

Doctor of Philosophy (Life & Env), School of Life and Environmental Sciences