Faculty of Arts and Education

Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation

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3rd Annual International Symposium on Multiculturalism

Reclaiming Multiculturalism:
Global Citizenship and Ethical Engagement with Diversity

Hosted by the Centre of Citizenship and Globalisation (CCG)

15-16 November 2012
Venue: The Richard Searby Room (hd 2.006)
Melbourne Burwood Campus, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia

 

Accepted Papers

The Challenge of the Intercultural
Mr Michael Aitkinson, PhD Candidate, Deakin University, Australia

Muslim Women's Participation in Multicultural Australian Society
Mrs Seham Al-Shwayli, PhD Candidate, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Australia

Faith and Feminism: Australian Muslim Women’s Self-Determination Through Art and Fashion
Dr Barbara Bloch, Research Affiliate, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Centre, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

The Nature, Impact and Response to Antisemitism in Australian Schools: The Experience in the Australian Capital Territory
Associate Professor Danny Ben-Moshe, Principal Research Fellow (Grants and Partnerships), The Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University

At the Coal-Face: Experiencing Multiculturalism in Australia
Dr Martina Boese, ARC Postdoctoral Research Fellow, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia
Ms Melissa Phillips, PhD Candidate, University of Melbourne, Australia

Intercultural Dialogue and Interaction in German Multinational Enterprises: Experiences from a Case in Australia
Ms Sandra Blumberg, PhD Candidate, Macquarie University, Australia

A Cosmopolitan Approach to Forced Migration in Australia?
Ms Libby Effeney PhD Candidate, Deakin University, Australia

Beyond Multiculturalism? The Intercultural Alternative
Ms Paula Fernandez Arias PhD Candidate, Monash University, Australia

Beyond Cultural and Social Capital: Institutional Reasons of Educational Failures of Turkish Youth in Germany
Associate Professor Fuat Gullupinar, Anadolu University, Turkey

The ‘Religion in Schools Debate’ in Victoria
Dr Anna Halafoff, Research Fellow, Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Australia

The Role of Multicultural Advisory Bodies in Reclaiming Multiculturalism
Ms Natalie-Anne Hall, Masters Graduate, Graduate School of International Development, Nagoya University, Japan

Intercultural Engagement in a Multi-ethnic context: The case of Mardin
Ms Ayse Guc Isik PhD Candidate, Australian Catholic University, Australia

Multiculturalism, More and Less: Claims for Religious and Cultural Accommodations to School Uniform Regulations in Comparative Perspective
Dr Patrick Lenta, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Thinking About Multicultural Realities in a More-Than-Human World
Dr Michele Lobo, Alfred Deakin Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Australia

Digital Storytelling Using Social Networking Sites: A Case of Afghan Young People in Adelaide
Ms Ekaterina Loy, PhD Candidate, The University of Adelaide, Australia

Reclaiming Multicultural Queer Histories and Engaging with Contemporary Multicultural Queer Realities
Ms Lian Low, Prose Editor, Peril, Australia
Dr Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli, Senior Lecturer, School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Australia

Australian Multiculturalism: Combining Utopian Projection with Piece-Meal Social Engineering
Dr Alexander Naraniecki Alfred Deakin Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Australia

Stereotypings and the Self of the Stereotyped Group Members
Ms Yopina Galih Pertiwi, Junior Lecturer, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta-Indonesia, Indonesia

Recognising Racism, Supporting Multiculturalism
Dr Naomi Priest, Senior Research Fellow, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Dr Jessica Walton, Research Fellow, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Associate Professor Yin Paradies, Co-Deputy Director, The Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Australia

SBS and the Future of Australian Multiculturalism: A Case Study
Dr Joshua M. Roose, Senior Project Officer, Religion and Society Research Centre, The University of Western Sydney, Australia
Professor Shahram Akbarzadeh, Deputy Director of the National Centre of Excellence for Islamic Studies, The University of Melbourne, Australia

The Hermeneutics of Globalisation: Negotiating Te Papa as a Pluralist Cosmopolitan Space
Dr Philipp Schorch, Research Fellow, Afred Deakin Research Institute, Deakin University, Australia

Shifting reflections on Multiculturalism, Interculturalism, and, Transculturalism due to increased interactions within the Digital Media Space in the Caribbean Region
Stefanie Thomas, Director, Artistic Expressions Limited, Jamaica

‘Alhamdulelah’ and a ‘Fair Go’: Muslim Women Engage With ‘Belongingness’
Ms Farnaz Zirakbash, PhD Candidate, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia


Michael Aitkinson The Challenge of the Intercultural

Both multiculturalism and inter-culturalism advocate the practice of ICD. This project aims to widen the debate on the benefits and the challenges of intercultural dialogue/intercultural encounter (ICD/ICE).

The first part of the paper explores different empirical practices and experiences of ICD/ICE as discussed in the literature, through a phenomenological tradition of inquiry. This results in the identification of a variable set of culturally and socially contextualized interpretations of the intercultural.

During the second part, these interpretations are viewed from a perspective which foregrounds the socially and culturally contextualized learning of the 'other'. The argument for this is that this perspective is not only valid in terms of formalised processes, but also in personal intercultural encounters. These results in the positioning between what broadly may be defined as the intercultural as interpreted and the impact of power, feelings of identity, negotiation of cultural meaning, and ways of participation, within the intercultural space.

In the third part, the benefits and challenges of ICD/ICE, viewed through a social learning perspective are examined in the light of a plural society.

The project ends with a review of some of the issues that have been discussed.

Michael joined the Centre in 2011 as a Doctoral candidate. In March 2012 he started work as a research assistant. His PhD project explores the process of intercultural dialogue.

Mr Michael Aitkinson PhD Candidate, Deakin University, Australia

Michael has worked in the field of teaching English as a Second Language for a number of years. After spending a year in Vietnam with Australian Volunteers International he returned home to complete his Masters in the social identity of adult migrant English language learners. He is presently living in Ballarat where he and his wife bring up their three sons amongst the gum trees and the kangaroos.


Seham Al-ShwayliMuslim Women's Participation in Multicultural Australian Society

Australia is one of the most culturally diverse societies in the world. Over the past three decades, this diversity has been successfully managed through policies and programs which promote multiculturalism. Some migrants and refugees, however, still face barriers in accessing services, finding a place to live, getting a job and dealing with discrimination and prejudice. If we are to continue to build strong and socially inclusive communities, it is vital that people of all backgrounds have the support they need to build positive and productive lives.

In spite of the differences between cultures and societies between Islamic countries and non-Muslim Australian culture and society, at the most recent census, Muslims in Australia totalled 280,871, 1.2 per cent of all Australians. Muslims come mostly as families from more than 70 nations, including Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, South-East Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Albania and the Cocos Islands. The most populous states of Australia, New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria, are home to the majority of Muslims. This presentation will explore Muslim women's difficulties and barriers to participation in social and civil life in Multicultural Australian society in terms of education, work, sport and social and family life.

Mrs Seham Al-Shwayli, PhD Candidate, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Australia

Seham Al-Shwayli is a PhD candaite in the faculty of Education at Monash University, Clayton. Originally from Iraq, Seham holds a bachelor degree in Arts from Basra University in Iraq in 1996. Seham also holds a masters degree in TESOL from Monash University in 2010. Seham has worked as English teacher for twelve years in Iraq, and as ESL teacher in Australia.


Barbara BlochFaith and Feminism: Australian Muslim Women’s Self-Determination Through Art and Fashion

In 2012 in Sydney two major exhibition spaces simultaneously hosted work featuring Muslim women: The Powerhouse Museum In Ultimo held an exhibition Faith, fashion, fusion: Muslim women’s style in Australia while the Casula Powerhouse Arts Centre presented No Added Sugar: Engagement and Self-Determination, Australian Muslim Women Artists. The aim of this paper is not directly to compare these two exhibitions (although their differences speak volumes about the politics and priorities of Muslim women’s interests, as well as about the institutions presenting the exhibitions). Rather, it uses each exhibition as a spring-board to reflect on and analyse a number of broader questions related to a number of the symposium’s themes.

By way of the concept of intersectionality, I explore the complexity of the lived experiences of Muslim women, as self-represented within these exhibitions. These representations challenge contemporary rhetoric surrounding a homogenised view of ‘the oppressed Muslim woman’, as understood by society and the media in general, and within western feminist discourse, in particular. The art in Casula’s exhibition, speaks to the varying ways faith and love of the divine manifest - intertwining with, or distinct from, themes of gendered subjection and strength, racism, fear, migration, individuality and the collective, the local and the global, and the position of the artist within Australia’s multi-faith and multicultural nation.


Dr Barbara Bloch, Research Affiliate, Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Centre, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Barbara Bloch is a part-time tutor/lecturer and Research Affiliate in the Cosmopolitan Civil Societies Centre, all within the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at UTS.

Following a doctorate on the role and effects of Zionism and Israel on the Australian Jewish Community, Barbara’s research interests and publications include the diminishing status of official multiculturalism in Australian politics over the past decade, the positive and negative ways local ethnically diverse communities negotiate difference, the intersections of gender, class, ethnicity and religion in current debates in relation to people’s lived experiences and the rise of religious discourse in public life.


The Nature, Impact and Response to Antisemitism in Australian Schools: The Experience in the Australian Capital Territory

This paper explores the manifestations of Antisemitism as experienced by Jewish children in Canberra schools. It considers the characteristics of that Antisemitism, when and why it occurs, its impact on the Jewish children, and also the responses to it by the children, the schools and the Jewish community. Based on separate focus groups with the Jewish school children, their parents, and key Jewish community stakeholders, the paper reveals that Antisemitism is common and widespread in Canberra schools, as almost all Jewish children have experienced Antisemitism, which draws on classical Antisemitic stereotypes. The study also revealed that schools are failing to understand the nature of this hatred and as a result are not responding adequately. This is leading to negative impacts on the wellbeing of the children and to a sense of social exclusion by both the children and their parents from their broader school communities.

Associate Professor Danny Ben-Moshe, Principal Research Fellow (Grants and Partnerships), The Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University

Associate Professor Ben-Moshe is a Principal Research Fellow at the Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University. He completed an undergraduate degree in law and politics at the school of Oriental and African studies at the University of London and a PhD on racist and antisemitic ideologies at Melbourne University. Associate Professor Ben-Moshe's two main areas of research interest include racism and antisemitism, and diasporas and identity.


At the Coal-Face: Experiencing Multiculturalism in Australia

Multiculturalism as a contemporary policy framework and practice has been the subject of sustained criticism and debate. Our research on the resettlement experiences of newly arrived migrants and refugees shows how Australian multiculturalism has become a limited symbolic cultural space where ‘ethnic Others’ are permitted to display their minority ethnicity to the white ethnic majority group. We argue that the official and public meanings of multiculturalism today remain constrained by its past, specifically the historical legacy of White Australia and the contested but still entrenched remnants of the term ‘assimilation’. As a result, new arrivals and existing cultural ‘Others’ are expected to gradually ‘blend in’ - a euphemism that in effect, veils a form of cultural assimilation. Such a process occurs at the expense of acknowledging the everyday realities of cultural diversity, and the possibilities for a more proactive, reciprocal and ongoing cultural, political and social exchange within and between all diverse communities of Australia. Based on our recent research findings we argue that a more transformational form of multiculturalism has emerged that we term as (re)multiculturalisation. The notion of (re)multiculturalising points to a multi-layered process and seeks to encapsulate some of the ways in which multiculturalism operates within Australia today across a variety of public and private settings.

Dr Martina Boese, ARC Postdoctoral Research Fellow, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia

Martina Boese is an ARC Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the School of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Melbourne. Her research interests include migration and the labour market, social in/exclusion, racism and the third sector. She has published on these topics in the Journal of Language and Politics, Ethnic and Racial Studies and the International Journal for Cultural Studies.

Ms Melissa Phillips, PhD Candidate, University of Melbourne, Australia

Melissa Phillips is a PhD candidate at the University of Melbourne whose current research focuses on the impact of pre-arrival experiences on the settlement of migrants and refugees. Melissa has worked for many years with refugees and asylum-seekers in the spheres of advocacy, policy and refugee protection. She is also Assistant Editor on the Journal of Intercultural Studies.


Sandra BlumbergIntercultural Dialogue and Interaction in German Multinational Enterprises: Experiences from a Case in Australia

This paper investigates the intercultural experiences employees encounter in the subsidiary of a German multinational corporation in Sydney, Australia. It is part of a doctoral research project on how employees in this type of company define, develop and practice cultural intelligence, with the overall aim to facilitate intercultural communication in the workplace. Employing qualitative case study research, this paper presents some of the findings from eleven semi-structured interviews that have been conducted with employees from one of the thirty largest multinational corporations registered on the German stock exchange (DAX30) in their Sydney branch in 2012. It is argued that corporate environment and candidate selection criteria play key roles in the attitude towards cultural diversity at work. Despite the criticism multiculturalism has been subject to in recent years, the challenges collaboration between members of different cultural groups can inflict as well as the manifestation of racism in Australia, the large majority of interviewees prefer working in a culturally heterogeneous, rather than culturally homogeneous setting. The paper discloses the benefits these employees see in working across cultures as well as the challenges the company faces in creating such corporate environment. In an outline of how these challenges can be reduced, it is concluded that intercultural skills are not only critical for leadership positions, but for all other roles within the organisation.

Ms Sandra Blumberg, PhD Candidate, Macquarie University, Australia

Sandra Blumberg is a PhD Candidate in International Communication at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. She is completing her PhD on a scholarship and will visit the Viadrina University in Frankfurt/Oder in Germany for a Cotutelle in 2013. Sandra has lived, worked and completed her studies in Germany, England, New Zealand and Australia. Managing products, marketing and sales for companies operating on a global level has raised her research interest in cultural intelligence, investigating how employees experience and handle the challenges of cultural diversity at work. In her PhD she focuses on German multinational corporations in Australia, employing qualitative case study research.


Libby Effeney A Cosmopolitan Approach to Forced Migration in Australia?

This paper explores the potential for a cosmopolitan ethical approach to the politics of forced migration in Australia. It argues that the political issues in debates surrounding forced migration are concerned with defining the boundaries of belonging and the extent to which constructions of “us” and “them” continue to be naturalized. Indeed, the politics of refuge and asylum has become a site of some of Australia’s most intense racialized confrontations, which expose fault lines in the country’s ethical commitment to human rights and multiculturalism. Such political controversy reenacts in practice the theoretical dilemma of discursive scope, as Universalist norms are mediated with the self-understanding of local communities. This paper posits that while the notion of ethical citizenship in Australia is underpinned by the country’s legal and rhetorical commitment to universal human rights, government policy towards forced migrants contravenes such a normative claim.  It argues that forced migrants arriving to Australia embody the most important anthropocentric challenge to the country’s political system to articulate ethical arrangements that seek to reconcile notions of value and human agency in a culturally plural world. Following the discourse-theoretic approach of Seyla Benhabib, this paper will argue that cosmopolitanism, as a critical ideal, represents a viable trajectory out the horns of the dilemma in which the country finds itself.

Ms Libby Effeney, PhD Candidate, Deakin University, Australia

Ms Effeney joined the Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation in December 2010 as a Doctoral candidate and research assistant. Her PhD project is entitled, 'Exploring the Potential for a Cosmopolitan Ethic in Australia: the Case of Iraqi Asylum Seekers' She is also involved in the Centre's ARC Linkage Project, 'Social Networks, Belonging and Active Citizenship among Migrant Youth in Australia.'

In 2009, Libby graduated with a Masters of Middle East Studies from Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. Her thesis in political anthropology was entitled 'Political Identities of Kurdish Youth in Ankara, Turkey'. Libby enjoys learning languages and spending time outdoors.


Paula AriasBeyond Multiculturalism? The Intercultural Alternative

In a world defined by ever greater possibilities, mobility and visible difference strategies to manage diversity have been created and debated and some even pronounced dead. Multiculturalism has been since the 1970s the predominant discourse on diversity management however, in the past decade it has sustained considerable attacks from feminism, far right political players and terrorism. Presently only Canada and Australia retain their multicultural status with Australia committing to receive over 13,000 humanitarian entrants each year. In a post 9/11 world interculturalism, with its uncompromising view on gender equality and human rights, has emerged as Europe's response to the increasing divides between factions. What is the difference between them? And can diversity really ever be managed? This presentation will explore the theoretical differences between multiculturalism and interculturalism in the light of the current doctoral research project being undertaken by the author.

Ms Paula Fernandez Arias, PhD Candidate, Monash University, Australia

Paula Fernandez Arias came to Australia in 2007 having completed her B.A. Honours in English Literature and Linguistics, PUC Chile. She then obtained an M.A. in Gender Studies and Development from the University of Melbourne in 2008. Since then she has worked in the NGO sector with refugees and other humanitarian entrants and is currently a PhD student at Monash University. Her PhD focuses on the relationship between resettlement policies, the process of UNHCR African refugees and the theoretical framework of multiculturalism.


Fuat GullupinarBeyond Cultural and Social Capital: Institutional Reasons of Educational Failures of Turkish Youth in Germany

The paper examines the educational experiences of Turkish youth in Germany with special references to the statistical data of Educational Report, PISA surveys. The results of the educational statistics of Germany show that more than group characteristics like social and cultural capital, structural and institutional factors (multi-track system with its selective mechanism, education policy, context of negative reception of Germany, institutional discrimination, and lack of intercultural curriculum) could have a decisive role in hampering the educational and labor market integration and social mobility of Turkish youth. This can be explained by a mix of factors: the education system which does not foster the educational progress of children from disadvantaged families; the high importance of school degrees for accessing to the vocational training system and the labor market; and direct and indirect institutional discrimination in educational area in Germany. Thus, this work suggests that the nature of the education system in Germany remains deeply “unequal,” “hierarchical” and “exclusive.” This study also demonstrates maintaining the marginalized position of Turkish children in Germany means that the country of origin or the immigrants’ background is still a barrier to having access to education and the labor market of Germany.

Associate Professor Fuat Gullupinar, Anadolu University, Turkey

Fuat Gullupinar received a PhD from the Department of Sociology of Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, in 2010. During his PhD, he works as a Visiting Researcher at Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology (Halle/Saale) in Germany between the years 2005-2006. In 2009-2010, he was also awarded by the Department of Sociology of Princeton University as a Visiting Student Research Collaborator to work at Center for Migration and Development. Now, he works as an Assistant Professor at Sociology Department of Anadolu University. Gullupinar is interested in sociology of migration, sociology of citizenship, social stratification and inequality. Gullupinar has conducted extensive research on citizenship, inequality, immigration and integration, race and ethnicity, education and the labor market, and the European Union. He published various articles in Turkish and English. With Professor Patricia Fernandez-Kelly, he is the co-author of the article “The Unequal Structure of the German Education System: Structural Reasons for Educational Failures of Turkish Youth in Germany” published in the International Journal of Urban and ExtraUrban Studies in 2012.


Anna HalafoffThe ‘Religion in Schools Debate’ in Victoria

While the role of religion in Australian schools has been vigorously debated since the 1870s, the VCAT case Aitken and others vs. DEECD, heard in March 2013, has recently generated considerable controversy regarding Special Religious Instruction (SRI) in Victoria. Christian volunteers currently teach 96% of students enrolled in SRI classes in Victoria’s Government schools. Faith communities, including Buddhists, Jews, Hindus, Baha’is and Greek Orthodox also provide SRI taught by accredited volunteer ‘teachers’, while a proposal to teach non-religious SRI ethics classes was rejected by the Victorian Government. Concerns have been raised that the exclusive nature of these religious programs, coupled with an emphasis on instruction into a particular religious tradition, is problematic in an increasingly secular, multifaith society such as Victoria. While the 2006 Victorian Education and Training Reform Act finally allowed the teaching of General Religious Education (GRE) in Government schools, GRE programs are yet to be developed and implemented other than in the final two years of secondary schooling. Scholars, parents and community groups have all called for a review of Victoria’s SRI program, yet while a review of Special Religious Education (SRE) will be conducted in New South Wales in 2014-2015, the findings of the VCAT case are yet to be announced. This paper examines the ‘religion in schools debate’ in Victoria, within the broader context of religion and governance theories, arguing that a cosmopolitan approach to both governance and religion and beliefs education (RBE) can promote social inclusion in culturally and religiously diverse societies such as Australia and counter existing prejudices against minority groups.

Dr Anna Halafoff, Research Fellow, Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Australia

Dr Halafoff is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University. Previously, Dr Halafoff was a lecturer at the School of Political and Social Inquiry and a researcher for the UNESCO Chair in Interreligious and Intercultural Relations - Asia Pacific, at Monash University (2005-2012). Her current and recent research projects/interests include: intercultural and interreligious relations; cosmopolitan governance; multiculturalism; community engagement and countering violent extremism; religions and beliefs education; and Buddhism in Australia. In 2011, Dr Halafoff was named a United Nations Alliance of Civilizations' Global Expert in the fields of multifaith relations, and religion and peacebuilding.


Natalie-Anne Hall The Role of Multicultural Advisory Bodies in Reclaiming Multiculturalism

Multicultural advisory bodies (MABs) have played an important role in developing Australia’s multicultural policy. However, within the trend towards criticism of multiculturalism, their role in policymaking has come to be described as minimal. Despite this, MABs could have much to contribute to the reclaiming of multiculturalism. Not only can they be used to bring together the valuable experiences of community members to produce insight for incorporation into real policy, but they may also serve as realms for political participation of minorities and minority-majority/minority-policymaker dialogue. These realms give minorities a voice in the political process, help to raise their status in society and promote equality, and empower them to participate in the political and social spheres as responsible and ethical citizens. They also promote understanding and relationships of trust between minorities, the majority and governments. However, the way in which MABs are implemented must be reexamined if they are to play this role. Based on sociological theory and a comparative case study of two MABs in local governments in Japan - a country in the fledgling stages of multicultural policymaking - this presentation offers insight for the re-assessment of effective MAB establishment in Australia and around the world.

Ms Natalie-Anne Hall, Masters Graduate, Graduate School of International Development, Nagoya University, Japan

Natalie-Anne Hall is a graduate of the Masters Program of the Graduate School of International Development, Nagoya University, Japan, majoring in Human Migration and Cross-Cultural Understanding. She completed her undergraduate study at Griffith University, and spent five years in Japan studying Japanese language and society. Her research analyses multicultural policy advisory structures in Japan’s central and local governments, drawing on the experiences of Australia. She has presented her findings at the Japan Association for Migration Policy Studies in December 2011, and has been accepted to continue her research as a PhD candidate at the University of Bristol from 2013.


Ayse Guc IsikIntercultural Engagement in a Multi-Ethnic Context: The Case of Mardin

Bordering with Syria, the province of Mardin in the south east of Turkey has been home to different religious and ethnic groups such as Muslim Kurds, Muslim Arabs, Armenians, Ezidis, Syrian Christians, and Turks. The cultural context of this province has been recently considered as a model for the peaceful co-existence of diverse identities by both politicians and academics in Turkey. In addition to this approach, cosmopolitanism has become a dominant yet contested discourse for the locals of the city under the influence of a global discourse of ‘culture’, ‘ethnicity’ and ‘rights’. Bearing in mind these points, this paper intends to analyse the intercultural relations of four ethno-religious groups, Muslim Kurds, Muslim Arabs, Syrian Christians, and Ezidis, in Mardin. In doing so, it considers the multicultural approach and it principles discussed by B. Fay (1999). It also discusses the fact of engagement in the cultural fabric of Mardin giving examples for the cultural and religious interaction of Mardinitie groups. Finally, the paper aims to argue whether multiculturalism as a theory is applicable for the case of Mardin to promote the religious and cultural diversity of the city.

Ms Ayse Guc Isik, PhD Candidate, Australian Catholic University, Australia

Ayse Guc Isik graduated from the Faculty of Theology, Uludag University, Turkey. She continued her master degree and got a research assistant position in the Department of Sociology of Religion in the same university. She is currently in the last stage of a PhD in Asia-Pacific Centre for Interreligious Dialogue at Australian Catholic University on the intercultural engagement in Mardin, a city of Turkey. Her thesis particularly focuses on the interaction of four ethnic-religious groups to analyse the relationship between religion and culture in intercultural relations.


Patrick LentaMulticulturalism, More and Less: Claims for Religious and Cultural Accommodations to School Uniform Regulations in Comparative Perspective

In this paper, I contrast the decisions of three national courts of ultimate constitutional jurisdiction concerning claims for accommodations to school regulations to permit the wearing of religious and cultural dress and adornment by pupils. Begum (2006), adjudicated by the UK House of Lords in the aftermath of the 7/7 London bombing, concerned a claim by a Muslim pupil for an accommodation to permit her to wear a jilbab, a long coat-like garment, the wearing of which she perceived as a religious obligation. I argue that the Court’s reasoning upholding the school’s refusal to grant an exemption reflects an anxiety about Islamic fundamentalism that motivates the recent retreat from multiculturalism in favour of an emphasis on community cohesion, shared values and common identity. I claim that Begum gives credence to essentialism categorising all devout Muslims as insidious jihadis; that it emphasises the duty of Muslims to accommodate themselves to the rules of state schools, rather than the duty of schools reasonably to accommodate religious and cultural diversity; that it accepts without evidence school’s contention that a tiny minority of devout Muslim pupils constitute a threat to peace and stability within the school; and that it uncritically accepts the idea that accommodation is likely to undermine social cohesion. I contrast Begum with two genuinely multiculturalist decisions, the Multani decision of the Canadian Supreme Court (2005), which dealt with a claim to permit a Sikh pupil to carry a kirpan, and the Pillay decision of the South African Constitutional Court (2008), which concerned a Hindu pupil’s wearing of a nose stud. I argue that the reasoning in Multani and Pillay contains the seeds of an important ethical critique of Begum and provides support for the arguments of those (Modood, Kymlicka, Murphy and others) who defend continuing adherence to multiculturalist accommodationism against critics who evince disillusionment with it.

Dr Patrick Lenta, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Patrick Lenta is an Associate Professor in Philosophy at the University of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. He holds a PhD in Law from Cambridge University. He was for several years a co-editor of the journal Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory. His current research focuses on the judicial practice in constitutional democracies such as Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and South Africa of accommodating members of religious and cultural groups by granting exemptions from facially neutral laws of general application.


Michele LoboThinking About Multicultural Realities in a More-Than-Human World

Following acts of violence in major cities attributed to religious fundamentalists and white supremacists, multiculturalism as a philosophy and state-sponsored policy has become increasingly associated with cultural crisis and social uncertainty that has proliferated inter-racial tensions and decadence rather than peace and interdependence. Feelings of anger, hurt, shame and frustration can be more palpable and complex in white settler societies like Australia where Indigenous peoples of diverse cultural backgrounds have histories of displacement and dispossession and continue to be racialised. Given the circulation of these populist discourses and embodied sentiments it appears there are some limits to ethical humanism that centres the wilful subject in valuing difference. This paper therefore shifts our attention to multicultural realities and processes of becoming in the city that entangle the embodied subject with a more-than-human world. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Darwin, Australia, I argue that attention to everyday spaces as an assemblage of bodies, material things and circulating affects makes visible but also unsettles boundaries that are kept in place by national policy frameworks and the global circulation of skewed media reports. Such a focus on the city that is underpinned by vitalist ontologies of the world has the potential to inform a more progressive version of multiculturalism and an ethical vision of citizenship that decentres white entitlement.

Dr Michele Lobo, Alfred Deakin Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Australia

Michele Lobo is an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia. Her research focuses on whiteness, belonging and the lived experience of citizenship in Australian cities.


Ekaterina LoyDigital Storytelling Using Social Networking Sites: a Case of Afghan Young People in Adelaide

The link between migration and identity is intricate and multidimensional. While there are various reasons for people to embark on a journey of a migrant, one of
the outcomes is quite common and certain - the image of Self and Other will be altered and continually readjusted. In many ways, media has been instrumental in building diasporas and exile cultures. In recent years, this process has gained another component - new media - creating so-called 'digital blur' in generally bicultural balance. Via the digital channels, the information about migrants' home countries is available at any time at the click of a button, and is open for comments and sharing. My paper is a bottom-up study of the ways young Afghan people in Adelaide are using new media. Their activities on social networking sites are the contemporary equivalent of diaries, and give an interesting insight into the lives of their authors. There are the tales of hope, the stories of despair, the memories of home, and the dreams of peace. But most of all, there are the accounts of living in today's complex society, and maintaining culture while finding the way to belong.

Ms Ekaterina Loy, PhD Candidate, The University of Adelaide, Australia

Ekaterina holds a BSc in Linguistics from Herzen State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; and an MSc in Art & Technology from Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden. Currently Ekaterina is undertaking PhD studies at the Department of Media, University of Adelaide. Her research interests include Digital Humanities, Media and Culture, and Ethnic/Multicultural Affairs. In addition, Ekaterina has practical experience in her current research field. At present she coordinates a multicultural youth program at Radio Adelaide. As well, Ekaterina serves at several Boards and Committees, and has recently participated in Youth roundtable on the National Anti-Racism Strategy.


Lian LowReclaiming Multicultural Queer Histories and Engaging with Contemporary Multicultural Queer Realities

Post-White Australia, Australia’s subsequent multicultural policies and community action enabled its culturally and linguistically diverse population of migrants and refugees from non-Anglo-Celtic background to gain citizenship rights. However, absent from these multicultural histories are multicultural gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender Australian narratives. In 2012, there still exists the silencing of sexual and gender diversities in heterosexist multicultural discourses, community spaces and services. Can “reclaiming multiculturalism” sit comfortably and confidently with “global citizenship and ethical engagement with diversity” if it does not engage with and include sexual and gender diverse histories, heritages and contemporary realities?

In this paper, we will address this question by exploring three examples of how the reclaiming of multicultural queer histories and contemporary realities is occurring as part of reclaiming/developing a multiculturalism that engages with diversity. First, we will present the work being done to uncover and recover pre-colonial and pre-Christian histories and heritages; and second, we will present the work of ILGA (International Lesbian and Gay Association) and AGMC (Australian GLBTIQ Multicultural Council) in addressing the rights of multifaith, multicultural GLBTIQ peoples and communities. Third, we will present the Asian-Australian publication, “Peril” and also examine examples of other Asian-Australian/multicultural literary media that represent multisexual multigender realities.

Ms Lian Low, Prose Editor, Peril, Australia

Lian Low graduated from Monash University with a Bachelor of Arts (Hons) majoring in Drama and Theatre Studies.  She also graduated from RMIT’s Professional Writing and Editing program. She is the current Prose Editor of Peril , an online Asian-Australian arts and cultural magazine funded by the Australia Council for the Arts. She has articles published in When Our Children Come Out - How to support gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered young people (ed Dr. Maria Pallota-Chiarolli), Growing Up Asian in Australia (ed. Alice Pung) and her online writings have been published by ArtsHub Australia and Vibewire Youth Media.

Dr Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli, Senior Lecturer, School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Australia

Senior Lecturer in the School of Health and Social Development at Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia, Dr Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli writes and researches on social justice, diversity and equity issues in education and health. Her primary areas of interest are cultural diversity, gender diversity, sexual diversity and family diversity. Maria is also an External Faculty Member of Saybrook Graduate Centre, San Francisco, and Founding Member of AGMC Inc (Australian GLBTIQ Multicultural Council), which is a member of FECCA (Federation of Ethnic Communities’ Council of Australia). Apart from academic chapters, research monographs and journal articles, her publications include: Someone You Know, Australia’s first AIDS biography; Girls Talk: Young Women Speak Their Hearts And Minds, which involved researching with culturally and sexually diverse girls and young women; Tapestry, a biographical narrative on five generations of her Italian family. Tapestry was short-listed for the NSW Premier’s Award in the Ethnic Affairs Commission category and in the Children’s Book Council Non-Fiction Award. Her book When Our Children Come Out: how to support gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered young people has been translated into Spanish.


Alex NaranieckiAustralian Multiculturalism: Combining Utopian Projection with Piece-Meal Social Engineering

We can utilize the Australian philosopher Wayne Hudson’s work on the purchase for social reform of non-totalizing utopian thought in order to show that Australian multicultural thought contains a utopian surplus that projects itself beyond the already existing multicultural features of society. Hudson’s approach to utopianism is indebted to the work of the Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch. It demonstrates that such non-totalistic projective envisioning is compatible with a Popperian praxis of piece-meal social engineering. The Australian tradition exemplifies particularly sophisticated articulations of multiculturalism which project future arrangements which avoid unified or totalising ethical visions in public domains yet aims to avoid ‘cultural relativism’. This paper argues that multicultural theorists, policy makers and practitioners already engage in utopian reasoning, even though this is not noted in the current literature. Multiculturalism can be viewed as a non-totalising utopia. It is only ever partially realised and constantly aspires for greater social equity in diversity through the dual goals of cohesion and inclusion. It is these two goals that prevent the possibility of a single totalising goal for a society. The advantage of non-totalistic thinking for multiculturalism is that the projective envisioning of multicultural policy in Australia leaves obscure the ‘shared’ or ‘Australian values’. There are no ‘typical’ types of values or cultures that make a ‘good’ Australian.

Dr Alexander Naraniecki, Alfred Deakin Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Australia

Alex Naraniecki is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation. His current research project is titled ‘New Foundations for Multiculturalism’ and is currently working on various publications including a monograph, research papers, scholarly articles and book chapters as well as research projects focusing on the development of multiculturalism in Australia. Dr Naraniecki is also working on collaborative empirical projects looking at the role of recognition and dialogue in promoting intercultural relations. Dr Naraniecki is further involved in collaborative research projects within the Migration and Intercultural Relations Research Cluster.


Yopina PertiwiStereotypings and the Self of the Stereotyped Group Members

Stereotype is the cognitive element about social groups which include traits or characteristics believed to be shared by members of the group. It is a general belief about group of people in either positive or negative ways, which can be true or completely false. Stereotype, even the positive ones, have many consequences for the people who are being stereotyped. One of the consequences is the individual self-fulfilling prophecies which can affect many of the life aspects of the person. Whereas, Indonesian people are known to be collectivist, with the interdependent self-construal, where the lives of the people are influenced mostly by relations with family and other people. Hence,  questions arise: How do the members of the stereotyped groups develop their sense of self? How do those stereotypes influence the way people see themselves? This paper will discuss a study investigating the conception of self of group members who receive the most unfavorable stereotype contents. Cultural and psychological aspects of the self will be the focus of the discussion.

Ms Yopina Galih Pertiwi, Junior Lecturer, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta-Indonesia, Indonesia

Yopina Galih Pertiwi is a junior lecturer at the Department of Social Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta-Indonesia. She is also the executive secretary of the Center for Indigenous and Cultural Psychology at the same university. She has completed her Master Degree in Human Developmental Psychology from University of Delhi India, after completed her undergraduate degree in Psychology at Universitas Gadjah Mada. She is now interested in working on the topics related to Self, Intergroup Processes, and Multicultural Psychology.


Recognising Racism, Supporting Multiculturalism

Naomi PriestRecognising, understanding and countering racism are critical steps toward ethical citizenship and a socially inclusive multicultural society. While racism is widely recognised as a complex social phenomenon, lay understandings of racism in everyday contexts are not well understood. Drawing on seven cognitive interviews and four focus groups conducted in November 2010 and January 2011 with predominately Anglo-Australian adults from a diverse range of socioeconomic backgrounds, this paper explores contextual factors that frame everyday racism. Participants defined and identified racism based on tropes of intentionality, familiarity, relationality and acceptability. Participants were more likely to think of racism as having negative, overtly offensive and emotional connotations. Due to a heightened potential for offense, they were also more likely to recognise racism in situations where they were not familiar with those present. Racialised speech that was not blatantly racist was more contested and as a result, participants engaged in complex lay theorising about what constituted racism and whether this was socially acceptable. The contextual and ambiguous nature of everyday racism demonstrated in this paper necessitate greater sophistication in anti-racism theory and practice. This paper contributes to a clearer understanding of the intersection between everyday racism and everyday multiculturalism as a critical step towards building a more ethical, civic and inclusive society.

Dr Naomi Priest, Senior Research Fellow, The University of Melbourne, Australia

Dr Priest is a Senior Research Fellow and leader in racism, child public health and health inequalities. Her disciplinary background is in public health and her current research is focused on addressing child health inequalities through combating racism and promoting diversity and inclusion. She is also conducting research to understand how school-aged children are socialised to think about race and culture at home and school.

Dr Jessica Walton, Research Fellow, The University of Melbourne, Australia

Dr Walton is a Research Fellow in racism, anti-racism and diversity studies. Her disciplinary background is in socio-cultural anthropology and her current research involves developing approaches to promote intercultural understanding and examining how race and culture are learnt and conceptualised in everyday contexts. Her research interests also include identity, belonging and the lived experience of transnational adoption.

Associate Professor Yin Paradies, Co-Deputy Director, The Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University, Australia

A/Prof Paradies conducts internationally recognised research on the health, social and economic effects of racism as well as on anti-racism theory, policy and practice. A/Prof Paradies has authored 83 publications, including 48 peer-reviewed articles/book chapters. He has delivered 118 presentations, is an investigator on grants worth $13 million and an invited reviewer for 27 referred journals.


Josh Roose and Shahram AkbarzadehSBS and the Future of Australian Multiculturalism: A Case Study

In the past decade, scholars have perceived the development of a ‘new conservative modernity’ and a retreat from multiculturalism. However few studies have sought to test how this retreat is enacted, if at all, through Government funded public institutions. This paper contributes to filling this important gap. The SBS television network, with its multicultural charter is held as a beacon of Australian multiculturalism. It has historically contributed to mutually beneficial cultural exchange. Consequently it may be expected that contemporary SBS programs reflect this commitment, with balance, objectivity and sufficient depth to generate the dialogue essential to fostering respect and recognition amongst diverse communities. If however multiculturalism is ‘in retreat’, it is hypothesised that this would be reflected in the networks programming.

This research examines two particularly controversial shows on the Insight program in late 2010 that bring these issues firmly to the fore. These programs, focussed on Islam, caused a considerable backlash within Muslim communities. In May 2012, Muslim community leaders, activists and academics took the unprecedented and politically significant step of collectively boycotting participation in an Insight program focussing on polygamy. This paper is based on interviews with past guests, boycott participants, an analysis of program content, ratings data and engagement with the SBS board. It yields important insights into both the dynamics of this controversy, the contemporary approach of SBS and larger questions about the current and future directions of Australian multiculturalism.

Dr Joshua M. Roose,  Senior Project Officer, Religion and Society Research Centre, The University of Western Sydney, Australia

Joshua M. Roose is a Senior Project Officer at the University of Western Sydney Religion and Society Research Centre on a, ARC funded project led by Adam Possamai examining Shari’a Law and Legal Pluralism. He completed his PhD at the University of Melbourne’s NCEIS in 2012 titled ‘Contesting the Future: Muslim Men as Political Actors in the Context of Australian Multiculturalism’. Joshua’s most recent publications are ‘Young Muslims of Australia: Anatomy of a Multicultural Success Story’ (La Trobe Journal No. 89, May 2012) and “Muslims, Multiculturalism and the Silent Majority’ (Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, Vol 31, No.3, 2011 with Shahram Akbarzadeh).

Professor Shahram Akbarzadeh, Deputy Director of the National Centre of Excellence for Islamic Studies, The University of Melbourne, Australia

Shahram Akbarzadeh (PhD) is Professor of Asian Politics (Middle East and Central Asia) at Asia Institute, and Deputy Director of the National Centre of Excellence for Islamic Studies at the University of Melbourne. He has an active research interest in the politics of Islam and Muslims in Australia, as well as the Middle East. He has published more than 40 research papers. Among his publications are Uzbekistan and the United States (Zed 2005), and US Foreign Policy in the Middle East (Routledge 2008 with K Baxter). His recent works are The Routledge Handbook on Political Islam (Routledge 2011); and Challenging Identities: Muslim Women in Australia (MUP 2010). Prof Akbarzadeh is a regular media commentator.


Philipp SchorchThe Hermeneutics of Globalisation: Negotiating Te Papa as a Pluralist Cosmopolitan Space

This paper illuminates the hermeneutics of globalisation by venturing beyond political and economic overdetermination towards interpretive complexity. Although the idea of a ‘methodological cosmopolitanism’ gains momentum, the debate remains mainly on a theoretical and normative level without offering sophisticated empirical investigations. This paper, however, approaches the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (Te Papa) as a global public sphere through a narrative examination of ‘cultural action’ in the form of ‘interpretive contests’ and their ‘articulation’ by museum visitors, or cultural actors. While the study is situated within a single national place, it simultaneously embodies a ubiquitous ‘cosmopolitanised’ discursive space.

The research findings support my argument that cross-cultural dialogue is processed not only through the opening towards the Other but through the interpretive ontological endeavour of what I term the shifting Self. The associated multiple identifications subject otherness to an endemic relativity and transform the ‘neither/nor’ dilemma of a ‘hybrid Third Space’ into a ‘both/and’ prospect of what I call a pluralist cosmopolitan space. This discursive terrain for the interpretive negotiations of a cross-cultural hermeneutics is characterised by a twofold movement of the frame of reference: the simultaneously expanding ‘cosmopolitanised’ horizon and contracting humanisation of culture through ‘stories’ and ‘faces’.

Dr Philipp Schorch, Research Fellow, Afred Deakin Research Institute, Deakin University, Australia

Philipp Schorch is a Research Fellow at the Alfred Deakin Research Institute (ADRI) and the Cultural Heritage Centre for Asia and the Pacific (CHCAP) at Deakin University. He received his PhD in Museum and Heritage Studies from Victoria University of Wellington in partnership with the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (Te Papa). Philipp has presented at several international conferences, published in academic books and journals, and received various awards, scholarships and research grants. He is currently working on a monograph The museum as forum? Exploring Te Papa as a global public sphere.


Stefanie ThomasShifting reflections on Multiculturalism, Interculturalism, and, Transculturalism due to increased interactions within the Digital Media Space in the Caribbean Region

The Cuban Historian Fernando Ortiz introduced the term ‘Transculturaltion’ in 1940 as an alternative way of rationalizing how culture evolved and existed in the Caribbean. He viewed the cultural dynamic as a process of merging cultures, affected by migrations, and, the creation of “a new, composite and complex reality”.  The reflections on cultural diversity within the Caribbean have been explored within the context of multiculturism, interculturalism and transculturalism. The arts have in many ways secured the retention of sub-cultural practices especially relating to transplanted Africans. The reflection on cultural diversity must evolve to incorporate increased interactions with digital and social media. Digital and social media allows a more interactive way of presenting manifestations of cultural evolution to a connected region and its Diaspora.  It increases the participation of individuals as cultural agents who previously had no control over the dissemination of information re: culture. The last ten (10) years have seen increased growth of interactive digital arts and culture media interaction throughout the Caribbean and its Diaspora, through channels such as: digital media publications, youtube, facebook, and Instagram. The paper defines the cultural dynamics of the changing landscape in the Caribbean within the context of the three proposed cultural paradigms multiculturalism, transculturalism and interculturalism. The paper then assess the role of preservation of sub-cultures in the age of new digital media by surveying the emerging Digital New Media Landscape and the shift in dynamics that this represents. The paper concludes that as the use of New Digital Media increases so too does the ability of individuals to act as cultural agents, and consequently there is a shift of the effective Cultural paradigm towards interculturalism.

Stefanie Thomas, Director, Artistic Expressions Limited, Jamaica

Stefanie Thomas is a Director of Artistic Expressions Limited, a non-profit organization focused on the promotion of the visual and performing arts in the Caribbean. Stefanie is also Creative Editor of 'Cultural Voice eZine' a digital magazine that highlights the development of Cultural Trends and emerging talent. Stefanie holds a Master of Science degree in Economic Development Policy from the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Economic and Studies at the University of the West Indies, a Bachelor of Arts in Economics and Biology from Colgate University, New York and has worked in Policy Development and Implementation and Business Development in both the public and private sectors. She served as a CARICOM Youth Ambassador for Jamaica and represented youth on both the Cultural and Youth Advisory Committees of the Jamaica National Commission for UNESCO. Stefanie is active within the UNAOC Network, having represented the youth of the Americas in 2008 in Madrid, Spain and also as a representative of Artistic Expressions and the Jamaica National Commission for UNESCO in 2011 in Qatar. Stefanie is a proud member of the National Dance Theatre Company of Jamaica since 2005 touring with the company throughout the Caribbean and North America.


Farnaz Zirakbash‘Alhamdulelah’ and a ‘Fair Go’: Muslim Women Engage With ‘Belongingness’

The focus of this paper is on the articulation of feelings as a way to better understand how Muslim women position themselves as self-representing agents - a role understood, here, as a first step towards engaged citizenship. We are not interested in citizenship per se, nor, it must be said, in Islam for itself, though how these elements are conceptualised by these Muslim women certainly shapes this project and cannot remain invisible.

We are examining how the identities of Muslim women transition towards settlement when they relocate. We therefore ask, how are inclusion and exclusion, as a double-sided expression of Samina Yasmeen’s ‘belongingness’ (2007) actually experienced and then articulated by Muslim women? Both this concept and this question are placed at the heart of our paper; ‘belongingness’ is our central structuring and analytical principle. As settlers developing their social and cultural capital, these women effectively conduct their own analyses of their ‘belongingness’ without ever using that unusual word. Nevertheless, they constantly articulate their feelings about the process of developing new ways of being. This, we argue, is what sets ‘belongingness’ apart from the more objective observation of belonging. Belongingness requires the analysis of feelings about belonging and the development of strategies that move subjects towards the identity shifts that constitute manageable ways of living in a new country.

Ms Farnaz Zirakbash, PhD Candidate, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

Farnaz Zirakbash is a PhD candidate at school of Life and Social Science, Swinburne University of Technology. Her PhD research is based on professional Iranian women immigrants in Australia and the relationship between education, migration and identity.


 

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7th November 2012