Pharmaceuticals in Developing and Emerging Economies:
Production, Innovation, and Access to Medicines in the Wake of TRIPS
University of Hyderabad
Co-sponsored by the
University of Hyderabad, India and
Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia.
Friday 17 September 2010 - Sunday 19 September 2010
Venue: University of Hyderabad, India
The conference examined the state of drug production and innovation in the global South in the wake of the implementation of TRIPS-mandated intellectual property rights. The interface between industrial capabilities, and access to essential medicines, is a second major theme. The aim is to provide a landmark assessment of these critical areas in global health and development.
This event provided a unique opportunity for researchers, policy makers, public health advocates, and industry representatives to deliberate on the economics and politics of the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines, across the developing and emerging economies.
Conference Organising Committee
Honorary Conference Chair & Organising Committee Members
Professor Seyed E. Hasnain
University of Hyderabad
Honorary Conference Chair
Dr Hans Lofgren
Professor J. Manohar Rao
University of Hyderabad
Dr G. Vijay
University of Hyderabad
Mr Dean Coldicott
Mrs Chippy Kurian Sunil
Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University
The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement imposes global minimum standards for intellectual property protection to be phased in across all members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The stated purpose is to improve the conditions for innovation and technology transfer – for the benefit not only of incumbent industry leaders but also developing and emerging economies.
It is not evident however that the overall gap in the global pharmaceutical industry between developed and developing countries has diminished. The global drug market and global health research remain dominated by North America, Europe and Japan. These regions account for around 75% of global sales and more than 90% of global health-related research. From this perspective, TRIPS would seem to impose a ‘one size fits all’ model on the developing countries, notwithstanding different health needs or stage of economic development.
Yet firms and research organisations in some emerging economies have established a significant presence in global innovation and production networks. India is the outstanding case and countries such as China, Brazil, Cuba, Thailand and South Africa also have notable capabilities. But there is scarce systematic knowledge of the present state and future prospects of pharmaceutical production and innovation across the global South – a deficiency addressed by this conference. Among the papers presented will be detailed studies of the impact of TRIPS on the pharmaceutical industry and public health in particular countries in all major regions of the developing world.
Professor D. Balasubramanian
Professor D Balasubramanian is the Director of Research at L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. His research interests are in eye biology, and at the LVPEI he conducts and directs basic and translational research into treating eye disorders. Earlier, he was Director, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, and Professor and Dean, University of Hyderabad. As the first Chairman of the Biotechnology Advisory Board of the State of Andhra Pradesh, he helped set up the Biotech Park (Genome valley) near Hyderabad. He was until recently President of the Indian Academy of Sciences, and is currently Secretary General of the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS), Trieste, Italy.
- Professor Bhargava P. M.
Professor P. M. Bhargava is a legendary figure in Indian science and science policy. He was the founding director of the renowned Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad and is widely regarded as the architect of modern biology and biotechnology in India. He was previously Vice-Chairman of the National Knowledge Commission.
- Dr Mira Shiva
Dr. Mira Shiva is Public Health Physician involved in issues of Gender, Health and Equity, Rational Use of Medicines, Rational Drug Policy, Health and Public Policy for over 30 years. Dr. Shiva is also the Coordinator, Initiative for Health and Equity in Society, Founder Coordinator and presently coconvenor All India Drug action Network (AIDAN). She is also the founder member and presently steering Committee member of People’s Health Movement. Dr Shiva is also the founder member, former Chairperson and presently Advisory Committee member of Health Action International-Asia Pacific. She is also the founder member and Coordinating Committee member Doctors for Food and Biosafety, and also part of Third World Network, South Asian Focal Point for International Peoples Health Council and member Central Ethical Committee on Biomedical Research and member of Central Social Welfare Board. Dr Mira Shiva was also the former chairperson and Advisory Council member of Health Action International Asia -Pacific (HAIAP) and also founding member of National working Group on Patent Laws.
- James Love
James Love is the Director of Knowledge Ecology International (KEI). Mr. Love is also the U.S. co-chair of the Trans-Atlantic Consumer Dialogue (TACD) Intellectual Property Policy Committee, chair of Essential Inventions, an advisor to the X-Prize Foundation on a prize for TB diagnostics, and a member of the UNITAID Expert Group on Patent Pools, the MSF Working Group on Intellectual Property, the Stop-TB Partnership working group on new drug development, and the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) Dynamic Coalition on Open Standards. He advises UN agencies, national governments, international and regional intergovernmental organizations and public health NGOs, and is the author of a number of articles and monographs on innovation and intellectual property rights. In 2006, Knowledge Ecology International received a MacArthur Award for Creative and Effective Institutions. Mr. Love was previously Senior Economist for the Frank Russell Company, a lecturer at Rutgers University, and a researcher on international finance at Princeton University. He holds a Masters of Public Administration from Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and a Masters in Public Affairs from Princeton’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
- Dr Usha Ramanathan
Dr Usha Ramanathan is an internationally renowned expert on law and poverty. She is a research fellow at the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, teaches environmental law, labour law and consumer law at the Indian Law Institute and is a regular guest professor at many universities around the world. Dr Ramanathan is a frequent adviser to non-governmental and international organizations. She is, for example, a member of Amnesty International's Advisory Panel on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and has been called upon by the World Health Organisation as an expert on mental health. Dr Ramanathan has published extensively in India and abroad and is the South Asia Editor of the Law, Environment and Development Journal. Her research interests include human rights, displacement, torts and environment. In particular, she has devoted her attention to the Bhopal gas disaster, the Narmada valley dams and the issue of slum evictions in Delhi.
- Mr Anand Grover
Mr Anand Grover is Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health appointed by The United Nations Human Right Council on 1 August 2008. Mr Grover is Director of the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS in India, having offices in Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore which he co-founded in 1981 with Ms. Indira Jaising, The Unit dealing with HIV/AIDS was established in Mumbai in 1998. Anand Grover is a pioneer in the field of HIV and has handled several hundred HIV/AIDS related litigations in India. He appeared in the first HIV case relating to the HIV activist, Dominic D Souza, The Lucy D’ Souza case, challenging the isolationist Goa Public Health Amendment Act. He also fought the first case on blood transfusion in the Calcutta High Court, P v. Uol as well as successfully arguing against the patenting of anti-AIDS drug Nevirapine Hemi-hydrate. Mr. Grover has also appeared in several well known cases as lead counsel in various public interest and human rights matters, including the first HIV case in India relating to employment law, MX v. ZY, the Bombay Pavement Dwellers case, several environmental cases including the Bhopal Gas Disaster case, the Goa Zuari Agrochemicals case, various sexual harassment cases including the India Air Hostess cases, the Shehnaaz Mudhbatakal v. Saudi Arabian Airlines, and various animal rights cases, such as the Camel case, the Kamani Tubes Ltd. Case, and the Garware Nylons Case. He has also acted as an advocate in many important cases regarding the right to marry and the rights of sex workers, such as the Mr. X v. Hospital Z case and the Mumbai Bar Dancers case. He serves as member of various renowned health boards. He was a member of the drafting group of the International Guidelines on Human Rights & HIV/AIDS and is currently a member of the Reference Group on Human Rights to Peter Piot, Executive Director, UNAIDS. He is a National Advisory Board Member of International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, a member of the World Care Council, a member of the Board of the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO), a member, National Board, AVAHAN, the India AIDS Initiative, Gates Foundation, a member of the Core Group of NGOs representatives in the National Human Rights Commission of India and the member of the National Advisory Board on HIV and AIDS set up the Prime Minister of India.
- The pharmaceutical industry in the global South: country studies
A central purpose of the conference is to generate knowledge of the state of drug industry production and innovation across the global South in the wake of TRIPS. We invite papers that present general country studies, including reports on medium-sized and smaller developing countries which have been largely neglected in the international literature. Regional sessions will be organised for papers on South America, Africa and different parts of the Asia-Pacific region.
- TRIPS and national flexibilities: cases and disputes
Changes introduced in intellectual property rights legislation to provide for TRIPS compliance have different effects on different segments of the pharmaceutical industry and the general population. The implications are typically significant for the availability of affordable medicines and the nature of drug innovation and production. Papers in this stream will focus on policy and legal rulings regarding patenting, compulsory licensing, ‘data protection’, and related issues pertaining to the flexibilities available under TRIPS.
- Access to appropriate and affordable medicines
Access to appropriate and affordable medicines should be universally equitable and sustainable. Essential medicines lists are used in many developing countries to select and prioritise appropriate medicines. Related measures include support for generic drugs, bulk purchasing, and price control schemes. There has also been significant recent activity to foster innovation through private-public partnerships such as the Medicines for Malaria Venture, the TB Alliance, and the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative. There is an intense global debate on the potential of prize systems to stimulate innovation. We invite papers that address issues of affordable access, and innovation initiatives addressing the needs of the poor.
- Business strategies in the pharmaceutical industry: perspectives from the South
Mergers and acquisitions, and the reengineering of corporate structures, including increased reliance on outsourcing and external collaborations, suggest far-reaching changes in the global pharmaceutical industry. The politics of drug regulation is intense in both developed and developing countries, and include issues of appropriate marketing, safety regulation, cost-effectiveness assessments, and reimbursement and insurance arrangements. Here we invite papers that address, from the perspective of the South, global industry developments and corporate strategies. This could include the role and strategies of companies headquartered in countries such as India, China, South Africa and Brazil.
- Pharmaceutical manufacturing in the South: political, economic, social and environmental dimensions
A growing proportion of the global production of active pharmaceutical ingredients and finished drugs is located in developing countries, particularly India and China. Hyderabad is an example of a significant clustering of drug manufacturing activities. Licensing and outsourcing arrangements are common but international companies at times also make direct investments in manufacturing facilities in developing countries. We are calling for papers that address the political, economic, social and environmental implications of pharmaceutical manufacturing in developing and emerging economies.
University of Hyderabad
About University of Hyderabad
The University of Hyderabad over the last three decades, distinguished itself as one of the best in the country as a centre for teaching, research and innovations. With a highly qualified and internationally renowned faculty, motivated students, scholars, and support staff, University of Hyderabad has carried out cutting edge research in disciplines such as the sciences, social sciences, humanities, technology, visual arts, communication, management and continuing education. The University’s mission is to promote a dynamic mindset in the field of education and research, and address the challenging tasks of the contemporary world. To this end, it seeks active collaboration, cost sharing and partnership programs with the industry and the corporate world.
Deakin University PhD Scholarship
Deakin University, Australia, in collaboration with the University of Hyderabad, is offering a PhD scholarship for a student based at the University of Hyderabad.
This scholarship forms part of the Deakin India Research Initiative (DIRI). Applicants must be Indian citizens. They may be living in India or elsewhere, but must be willing and prepared, during the period of candidature, to be based at the University of Hyderabad. The scholarship is available for a period of 3 years initially and is extendable for six months if required. The student is expected to work full-time on this project until completion of the dissertation.
The successful applicant will:
- be enrolled as a Deakin PhD candidate
- receive a tuition fee scholarship worth over AUD 75,000 towards the Deakin PhD tuition fee and a generous annual stipend
- be supported by a principal supervisor, and an associate supervisor, from Deakin University, and a member of the doctoral committee from the University of Hyderabad
- be provided with the support and facilities normally made available to PhD students in the Department of the University of Hyderabad where the student is based
- make three visits to Deakin’s Melbourne campus during the period of candidature, for which travel and living expenses shall be provided by Deakin University
- the last of these three visits, towards the end of the candidature, will be up to six months
The research question addressed in this PhD dissertation shall relate to the role of the pharmaceutical industry and access to appropriate and affordable medicines in the ‘global South’. The research project shall have a public policy orientation. The candidate is expected to make a contribution through this dissertation to the international policy debate on the gap between developed and developing countries in the pharmaceutical sector and the challenge of equitable access to appropriate and affordable medicines.
Applicants should have completed a Master’s or equivalent degree from a recognized university in India in a social science. The candidate should have cleared all the exams from High School up to the Master’s level in First Class scoring above 60% marks in the final exams.
Applicants who meet the eligibility criteria should submit the DIRI ‘research degree postgraduate application’ by 22 August 2010, with attachments as specified. The application form is available here.
Download Application Form
Questions about the application process are to be addressed to Mr Pawan Solanki
We reserve the right not to award this scholarship at this time, should we be unable to identify an appropriate project and/or an appropriately qualified applicant. Shortlisted applicants will be invited by email to an interview at the University of Hyderabad in the week commencing 14 September, in the days before the opening of the conference on 17 September 2010. Interviewees will have to make their own way to Hyderabad and make their own arrangements for accommodation, etc.Mere fulfilling of the minimum requirements stipulated in this announcement does not automatically entitle an applicant for an interview. The decision on short listing and the final decision on offer of the scholarship cannot be appealed. Canvassing in any form and/or bringing in any influence, political or otherwise, will be treated as a disqualification.