In 2012, CCG hosted a fortnightly lunchtime seminar series exploring issues such as migration and intercultural relations; international relations; Asia-Pacific regionalism; Asian culture and society; the politics and culture of the Middle East; issues surrounding governance, democracy and citizenship at a global, national and local level.

Citizenship and Globalisation Seminars

Yumi ol man blong Vanuato (We are the People of Vanuatu): Ni-Vanuatu Tertiary Student attitudes to national identity

Nation-building remains a key challenge across Melanesian societies, including Vanuatu. From the origins of the new nations of Melanesia following decolonisation in the 1970s and 1980s, it was clear that creating a unifying sense of national identity and political community from multiple languages and diverse traditional cultures would be difficult. Despite an apparent greater success than neighbouring Melanesian states, the legacies of dual Anglo-French colonialism presented additional challenges to the post-independence political elites of Vanuatu.

This paper presents new survey and focus group data on attitudes to national identity among tertiary students in Vanuatu, based on research conducted at the University of the South Pacific and other tertiary institutions in Port Vila in 2010. Among other things, this paper argues that despite linguistic ties to political affiliation easing since Independence, there remains a strong ongoing association between the language of education and certain key attitudes towards national identity and different understandings of political community. These findings cast new light on the attitudes of likely future elites towards regional, ethnic, intergenerational and linguistic fault lines in Vanuatu, and the challenges of building a cohesive sense of political community and national identity.

(Research undertaken by Matthew Clarke, Mike Leach and James Scambary)

Professor Clarke: 
Professor Clarke is the Head of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at Deakin University. Professor Clarke has been chief investigator on six national Category 1 research grants valued at $2m during the last five years, and has published or presented over 100 academic journal papers, book chapters and conference papers. Professor Clarke undertakes regular evaluations of community development projects in the Pacific and South-east Asia for various non-government organisations, with a particular interest in HIV/AIDS and health-related projects.

International Trends in Social Democratic Party Politics

This seminar will survey the current state of social democratic and labour parties in Australia, Britain and Europe including the fragmentation of their previous constituencies.  It will outline policy priorities and political approaches which could strengthen the prospects of social democratic and labour parties.  It will compare the recent changes and realignments on the Left of centre of Australian politics with alliances between social democratic or labour, and environmentalist and other, parties in northern Europe including the 'red-green' coalition which governed Germany from 1998 to 2005 and the 'red-green' coalition which has governed Norway since 2005.  The seminar will question prevailing pessimism about globalisation eliminating all 'varieties of capitalism' and all policy options for individual nation states.  It will review the recent election of a Social Democrat government in Denmark and the continuing rise of the Greens in Germany; and it will preview this year's French presidential election which the Socialist Party is currently expected to win.

Associate Professor Scott: 
Andrew commenced at Deakin in 2011 following ten years as a prominent full-time University Lecturer then Senior Lecturer elsewhere. He has taught courses in Australian politics, international comparative politics, economic policy, social policy, and political history. His books and articles have been extensively discussed both in Australia and overseas. Andrew's activities and approach draw from his experience before entering academia as a senior national policy adviser on employment and training issues, as a research officer for a major trade union and as an elected student leader. He is actively researching achievable alternatives to neoliberal economic policies, comparing the Australian Labor Party to northern European social democratic parties and assessing attempts by mainstream left of centre political parties in western nations to deal with the end of the economic "golden age" since the early 1970s. He is also enquiring into, and advocating, the lessons for Australia from the continuing policy achievements of Sweden and other nations of Nordic Europe including through their: reduction of income and wealth inequalities, reduction of child poverty, democratising of access to public education, promotion of more fulfilling and effective work lives, adoption of more family-friendly workplace arrangements and provision of comprehensive paid parental leave.

"Taking our houses" Perceptions of the impact of asylum seekers, refugees and new migrants on housing assistance in Melbourne

A 2010 research project of interviews with homeless people about their experiences of homelessness in Melbourne raised some unexpected findings. Many interviewees revealed that they were aware that their needs were being assessed and ranked by housing authorities to create a priority list for housing solutions. Interestingly, some expressed the concern that the needs of asylum seekers, refugees and migrants were given higher priority than the needs of 'Australians': indeed, that these groups are 'taking our houses'. I argue that that this perception is consistent with contemporary social and political discourse in Australia that attributes increased pressure in the housing market to population pressures in general and immigration specifically. More broadly, this empirical evidence supports theories that hostility towards asylum seekers, refugees and migrants from within the Australian community can be attributed to a personal sense of economic insecurity.

Dr Nethery:
Dr Amy Nethery is an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Fellow in the Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation at Deakin University. Her PhD thesis entitled Immigration Detention in Australia (2010) was awarded the Isi Leibler prize for advancing knowledge about racism. Her research interests include asylum and migration policy in Australia and the Asia-Pacific, histories and theories of incarceration, and democracy.

And in the Finance News... The Financialisation of Everyday life

This paper has its origin in the realisation made in the middle of 2007, as the GFC struck home, that my hitherto altogether unpolitical and 'aneconomic' mother had become a lay-expert on global finance, eagerly watching the markets with one eye on her super.  'Financialisation' in some economic discourse is a term used to describe a number of processes characteristic of recent advanced capitalist economies: notably, rising proportions of profit-take in the non-productive, paper economy; escalating private and total debt in the global system; but also the increasing dependency of productive companies (eg: GM) on their own "financial" interests; together with a wider tendency to reconceive equity either as a potential financial instrument or a derivative of a financial instrument.  In this paper, engaging with Foucaultian material on neoliberalism and the micropractices associated with what Michael Power has called today's "society of the audit", this paper will explore the way that "financialisation" as a process wherein people are made to reconsider their economic priorities, educate themselves in the elements of global finance, and to manage financial risk and debt can be seen to have permeated advanced nations' cultures, including our own.

Dr Sharpe:
Doctor Matthew Sharpe teaches philosophy and psychoanalytic studies at Deakin University. He is co-author of Zizek and Politics (Edinburgh UP 2010), The Times Will Suit Them: Postmodern Conservatism in Australia (Allen & Unwin 2008), Understanding Psychoanalysis (Acumen 2008), and Slavoj Zizek: A Little Piece of the Real (2005). He completed his PhD on Zizek at the University of Melbourne in 2002, after completing his honours thesis on the political philosophy of Albert Camus in 1998. He has since published extensively on critical theory, political philosophy, classical thought and the history of ideas, psychoanalytic theory, film and contemporary politics. His ongoing research interests include political philosophy, psychoanalysis and critical theory, epistemology, and conservative and reactionary political thought. Dr Sharpe is a founding member of the Melbourne School of Continental Philosophy where he periodically gives lectures.

My School

The ALP Ministers of Education who have promoted My School hope it will encourage parents to contribute to improving their children's schools. The Murdoch press hopes the website will allow parents to make better-informed choices about schools. To answer the research question of voice or exit, community or market, the research triangulates data from three high schools. One corner analyses socio-economic structures over the last ten years. A second corner comprises interviews with teachers, and parents about the future of their school. A third corner comprises analyses each school's internal policies and efforts to influence their students' circumstances and prospects. The deeper comparisons possible with only three schools over a longer period are in progress but they allow reflection on the relationships between closer monitoring and neo-liberalism, between union activism and parents' engagement in their children's education, and between education policy and the wider objectives of social democracy.

Dr Vandenberg:
Dr Andrew Vandenberg has published on economic rationalism, social democracy, online learning, terrorism, social movement unionism, and contentious politics. He has edited Citizenship and Democracy in a Global Era (2000 Macmillan) and Cultural Citizenship and the Challenges of Globalisation (2010 Hampton). He is currently completing an ARC Linkage Grant in partnership with the Australian Council of Trade Unions, about networked computers and unionism. At Deakin he teaches units on democratisation, democratic governance, democracy and citizenship, and comparative politics.

Social movements in the 21st century: reconfiguring democracy and citizenship

Classical models of social movements opposed theories of organization and rational action to theories of community and identity. Contemporary movements exhibit very different logics of action and communication. This paper explores these transformations through considering the centrality of embodied experience in movement mobilizations, with reference to Tahrir Square in Egypt, the M15 movement in Spain, and the Occupy Movement. The paper considers the dimensions of precarcity, intercorporeality, and the materiality of embodiment, all of which suggest a different rhythm and temporality from the street march that emerged in an earlier period of social mobilization. The paper discusses the place of strangeness and imagination in these movements, together with the question of violence, including violence against the self involved in self-immolation. The paper considers the extent that these patterns of action constitute a new language of agency, and the implications for the way we understand the political and citizenship.

Professor McDonald: 
Kevin McDonald is sociologist and director of the Centre for Cultural Diversity and Wellbeing at Victoria University. He has held appointments at the University of Melbourne, RMIT University, Goldsmiths College in London and the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris. He recently completed a Marie Curie International Fellowship exploring paths into jihadi-related activism in Europe, and is currently completing an ARC-funded study into Muslim activism. The themes explored in this paper are drawn from a book to be published by Polity Press in 2013

Netpeace: The Multifaith Movement, Cosmopolitan Governance and the Politics of Understanding

The ultramodern era has been characterised paradoxically as one of great fear and great hope. A politics of fear and exclusion has permeated Western societies, accompanied by a growing interest in collaborative cosmopolitan solutions addressing the most pressing risks of our times. This paper examines how multifaith initiatives have been implemented as cosmopolitan peacebuilding strategies to counter global risks - such as climate change and terrorism - and advance common security in Western societies. By drawing on the findings of 54 interviews with expert professionals in the field of multifaith relations, the Netpeace study is among the first to employ Ulrich Beck's (2006) model of 'methodological cosmopolitanism' by investigating the local context of Victoria, Australia within a 'global' framework of Australia, the UK and the USA.  The findings of this study indicate that religious and state actors have transformed recent crisis events into opportunities to build new cosmopolitan models of activism and governance and that the politics of fear can best be countered by a politics of understanding, modelled by the multifaith movement.

Dr Halafoff:
Dr Anna Halafoff joined CCG in early 2012 as a Research Fellow. Prior to coming to CCG, Anna was a lecturer at the School of Political and Social Inquiry, and a researcher for the UNESCO Chair in Interreligious and Intercultural Relations - Asia Pacific, at Monash University (2005-2012).

Anna holds a Doctor of Philosophy, Sociology (Monash University), Master of Letters, Peace Studies (University of New England) Graduate Diploma in Education (University of New England) and a Bachelor of Arts (University of Melbourne). Anna's current and recent research projects/interests include: intercultural and interreligious relations; cosmopolitan governance; multiculturalism; community engagement and countering violent extremism; religions and beliefs (worldviews) education; and Buddhism in Australia.

In 2011, Anna was named a United Nations Alliance of Civilizations Global Expert in the fields of multifaith relations, and religion and peacebuilding.

Applicability of Community-Led and Asset-Based Development Approaches to Myanmar

Effective development empowers those who are most marginalized, powerless and poor to achieve a better life for themselves, and this requires people being able to imagine their world differently then take action to change their circumstances. Research has found development agencies operating in Myanmar claiming that such highly participatory, community-led and asset-basedapproaches to development are particularly effective forms of poverty mitigation and community empowerment within this socio-political context. Drawing on the ideas of Freire (Pedagogy of the Oppressed, 1972) and Chambers (Rural Development,1983), this research explores why such an approach may fit the difficult socio-political context of Myanmar. This research is based on recent field interviews within Myanmar, particularly exploring the ActionAid Myanmar/Shalom Foundation's 'change maker" Fellowships program, and Graceworks Myanmar'sCommunity Development Education program.

Anthony Ware:

Understanding and Changing attitudes: A Consumer Behaviour Perspective

We assume that individuals are able to reflect upon how and why they make decisions, but most research in the psychology tells us otherwise. What we do know is that people have finite capacity for processing information, use shortcuts and mental schemes to help them make decisions, and reject information that might challenge their current views. While education and information about the best choices is useful, this really only works for the people who want to be educated and informed. CEOs, strategic planners, regulators and government need to be careful about how they approach the provision of information, and recognise the limits of education. In this presentation, Paul argues that if we are serious about issues such as public health, changing attitudes about asylum seekers, and ultimately influencing society through our research, we need to focus on a multi-level approach that encompasses information, education, persuasion, ease of operation and legislation. 

Dr Harrison:

Paul Harrison, PhD, is the research cluster leader (Impact of Marketing) at Deakin's Centre for Sustainable and Responsible Organisations, and the unit chair of consumer behaviour and advertising in the MBA program at Deakin University. He is a council member of the Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman, and past chair (and current board member) of the Asylum Seeker Resource Centre. Dr Harrison is also a filmmaker and blogs regularly at his site, Paul's current research seeks to explore consumerism, material culture, and the broader effect of marketing on the exploitation of humans, animals, and the environment. He is also interested in the psychology of emotional and rational behaviour, and how our biology and the environment interact to influence the way that we behave. His work using video-autoethnography has helped businesses and policy makers develop a deeper understanding of consumer behaviour, and he is currently working with the Rudd Center for Food Policy at Yale University using this technique to understand how children and adolescents respond to food marketing. Paul has worked on a range of research projects in recent years, including projects funded by the Victorian Department of Justice, the Australian Securities and Investment Commision (ASIC) and the South Australian Health Department examining the role of marketing in decision-making. His work has been published in a range of media, including the Journal of Product and Brand Management, Consumption, Markets and Culture, Public Health Nutrition, Marketing Science, and the Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing.

Alfred Deakin Research Institute Research FellowAlfred Deakin Research InstituteDeakin University

Anthony's research interests revolve around international development in difficult contexts, with a particular emphasis on sensitivity to socio-political context and the distinctive role of International NGOs in aid and development within so-called 'fragile' and 'pariah' states. Anthony is particularly interested in Myanmar (Burma), and therefore in understanding Myanmar politics, reform, religion and culture.

Anthony's doctoral thesis examined the manner in which International NGOs work in Myanmar, as a case study exploring development that is sensitive to difficult socio-political contexts more generally. Myanmar offered an interesting example, being a developing nation with a large proportion of the population living in extreme poverty and a wide range of associated humanitarian needs, yet with abundant resources and some strong state institutions. Poverty has come from poor governance and international isolation, due in turn to legitimacy issues, concerns over abuse of power, human rights violations and suppression of democracy. This research documented ways in which these NGOs contextualise their approaches in order to maximise development effectiveness within this complex context, analysed in terms of the ways in which they: a) work in local communities, under the ideas of participation, equity, sustainability, active citizenship and culture-sensitivity); b) relate to other stakeholders in development, including civil society, NGOs, donors and government officials, under the ideas of partnership, capacity building, advocacy, rights-based approach and accountability; and, c) seek to expand the humanitarian space. It also proposed extensions to participatory development ideas to account for the role of the NGO field workers. The research found that a nuanced understanding of the socio-political context and its deep historical antecedents aids understanding of how to approach such complexity with sensitivity, and that when acting sensitively to the context, NGOs have greater freedom to operate and program effectiveness than is widely recognised outside the country.

Anthony's current research project is entitled Failed, Fragile, Pariah: Context-Sensitive Development in Difficult Socio-Political Contexts.

Love huts and sex boxes: the global politics of sports-related sex trafficking

Since the Athens Olympics in 2004, increasing attention has been paid to human trafficking and sporting mega-events. Trafficking for the purpose of prostitution and sexual exploitation occupies a position of emerging salience in debates about women, human rights and sport, particularly as countries in the Global South win the right to host major sporting events such as the World Cup or the Olympic Games and Paralympics. This paper charts the associations between sports mega-events and sex trafficking, and examines the issues and questions that this raises for sport, human rights and the staging of global sports mega-events.

Associate Professor Palmer:
Associate Professor Palmer joined Deakin in October, 2011 after teaching appointments at the University of Adelaide, Flinders University and Durham University, UK. At Deakin, she is the Director of the Master of Applied Social Research while holding teaching responsibilities for research methods in the undergraduate sociology programme. Her research interests include qualitative and ethnographic research that explores the relationship between sport and social policy. Associate Professor Palmer is interested, particularly, in sport-related social interactions, the consequences that might follow from those interactions, and their implications for policy and practice. Her research is focused on three main areas. Firstly, the social contexts of sport and alcohol: social practices and drinking identities, including under-represented identities (women, non-drinkers), culture change interventions and "athlete addicts". Secondly, sporting mega-events and violence against women: sexual exploitation, trafficking, domestic violence and London 2012, human rights, the politics of the Global South and Rio 2016. Thirdly, sport and social change: refugees and resettlement, sports-related activism and athlete advocates.

Entrapping Christian and Muslim Arabs in Cartoons: The Other Anti-Semitism

Racial Cartoons are a powerful force disguised as entertainment operating to shape public opinion. Cartoons in the Australian press during the eighties, nineties and after 9/11 were particularly directed against Muslim and Christian Arabs without remorse or fear of redress or accountability. The offensive of such cartoons has essentially been focused on three fronts - oil, politics and religion. The drawback resulting of socio-cultural, historical and other differences are no doubt visible; but equally obvious is that much detested anti-Semitism which was directed against the Jews in the 1930s and 40s is today mostly directed against PR deprived, opinion silenced and undemocratically governed ethnically diverse Arabs. It is argued that several forces were behind such distorted visual strategies. Pre-judgement stemming from an inbuilt bias of the cartoonist, or highlighting characteristics which conforms to the national interest are likely factors. The debate as to whether public images and attitudes of a minority 'cause' or 'determine' policy or whether policy itself changes attitudes is still largely resting with the jury.

Dr Ata:
Dr Ata graduated in psychology at the American University and was soon nominated as a delegate to the United Nations' World Youth Assembly in New York. He completed his doctorate at Melbourne University in 1980 and has since been teaching in several Australian, American, Jordanian, West Bank and Danish universities. Dr Ata's teaching and research interests focus on the relationship between cultural and religious diversity and the impact of this on social relationships, well being, social attitudes and social distance. Dr Ata's background is in cross-cultural training which has led him to embrace multidisciplinary and culturally sensitive approaches when conducting and interpreting a wide range of research projects. This is evident in his publications of 15 books and 102 articles. These include: Bereavement and Health in Australia: Gender, Cross-cultural, Religious and Psychological Issues (1996); Christian and Muslim Intermarriage in Australia (2005); and Us and Them: Christian-Muslim Relations and Social Harmony in Australia (2009), which was nominated for the Prime Minister's Literary Book Awards in 2010.

Becoming a high quality and an inclusive university through Community-University Invested Partnerships

Many universities talk of community engagement and service and both their commitment to and actions developed to serve their communities. Yet, too many universities behave as socially dominant organisations directing and intervening in community directions driven by a strong sense of themselves and a diminished sense of their community. This seminar will discuss some exemplars of community engagement from Australia and US. It explores the shift from university-community engagement to community-university engagement and presents both working examples, principles and outcomes which demonstrate and develop effective engagement with communities. Curiously, this research revealed that successful engagement was more powerfully driven by self-interest, rather than simply a commitment to social justice and capacity building.

This seminar will raise and invite questions, including how universities can develop and respond to communities and build successfully on and connect commitments to partnership, social justice, equity and excellence. This presentation challenges university perspectives and the practices of our teaching and research, our focus on quality and our understanding of how these are best achieved. We will discuss underlying assumptions about community engagement and its link to university quality. We will explore the apparent contradiction between a truly inclusive university and a high quality, high status one.

Professor Cherednichenko:
Professor Brenda Cherednichenko commenced at Deakin as Pro Vice-Chancellor Arts and Education on 1st December, 2011. Brenda came to Deakin from Edith Cowan University in Western Australia where she was Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Engagement, Equity and Indigenous and Executive Dean, Faculty of Education and Arts from 2007. With a teaching background in schools and then in teacher education and the social sciences, Brenda's research has focussed on educational equity and community-university partnerships for improved educational opportunity and socially just outcomes. She has worked on many projects and partnerships with Indigenous Australian leaders and communities to enhance educational and social experiences for Aboriginal peoples. Brenda has her earliest qualifications from Deakin's predecessor institutions, her Master from the University of Rochester, NY and her PhD is from the University of Melbourne. She has been a director and board member of several boards and is currently President-elect of the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In previous roles Brenda was Director, Access and Success, Head of Campus at the outer urban campus in Melton and Head, School of Education at Victoria University. In 2009 she was a Fulbright Senior Scholar and studied community-university partnerships at the University of Texas, El Paso. Her commitment to the role of the Arts and Education as essential to community building and social inclusion is realised as a Chief Investigator on current ARC linkage project with a consortium of Australian universities which examines social inclusion through community embedded university education.

The Dynamics of Religious Diversity in Australia: Census 2011

Issues such as the future of religions in Australia, the shape of national identity and the religious context of social policy debated are each shaped by Australia's changing religious profile. This lecture seminar focuses on Religious identity including those declaring 'no religion', religion and age, and religion and migration to paint a picture of the religious factor in policy debates.

Emeritus Professor Bouma:
Gary D Bouma is Emeritus Professor of Sociology and UNESCO Chair in Intercultural and Interreligious Relations - Asia Pacific at Monash University and an Associate Priest in the Anglican Parish of St John's East Malvern. From 2006-2010 he was Chair, Board of Directors for The Parliament of the World's Religions 2009. His research in the sociology of religion examines the management of religious diversity in plural multicultural societies, post modernity as a context for doing theology, religion and terror, religion and public policy. He is the author of over 20 books. Recent books include: Australian Soul: Religion and Spirituality in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge University Press); Democracy in Islam (Routledge);Religious Diversity in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands: National Case Studies (Springer); and Freedom of Religion and Belief in 21st Century Australia (Australian Human Rights Commission). His latest book is Being Faitfhful in Diversity: Religions and Social Policy in Multifaith Societies (Australasian Theological Forum).

 Health Cosmopolitanism: Delivering a Good Birth

A qualitative research study canvassed the maternity care programs within three diverse, developing nations - Timor Leste, Vanuatu and The Cook Islands - chosen because they face similar health issues in response to modernisation and globalisation. The objective was to assess whether their maternity programs delivered a good birth, one that met the criteria of health cosmopolitanism; a hybrid term coined to describe a combination of both physiological and relational criteria. Physiological criteria include the usual health objectives (safety, equity and universality). Relational criteria comprise principles of cosmopolitan social justice, namely, egalitarian individualism (self-determination); reciprocal recognition (social equality between carer and woman); and reasoning from an impartial moral standpoint (respect for cultural difference). Good health and a good birth are usually measured in narrow physiological terms such as a live mother and baby at the end with relational criteria regarded as a social nicety; an optional extra.  I argue that relational criteria facilitate good physiological outcomes. Maternity programs that meet the larger criteria of  health cosmopolitanism may be said to achieve 'a good birth'.  I used the presence or absence of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) as a signifier for traditional knowledge and practices or as a partial indicator of the extent to which governments recognised the social justice criteria of health cosmopolitanism. From the evidence, TBAs not only facilitated good physiological outcomes but were more likely to facilitate all relational criteria and they also played wider social roles in addition to the provision of health care.  
Along with analysis of primary and secondary literature, qualitative methods were used to gather data via in-depth interviews with a total of 50 participants including health administrators, obstetricians, midwives, traditional birth attendants and women in Timor Leste, Vanuatu and the Cook Islands.    Integrating TBAs back into the formal health system would represent an enlightened policy of meeting Millennium Development Goals aimed at reducing Maternal and Infant Mortality Rates.

Dr Lane:
Dr Lane is a senior lecturer in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. Her research interests include media; sociology of knowledge, sociology of professionalisation, midwifery, obstetrics, and consumer participation.

Understanding and Changing attitudes: A Consumer Behaviour Perspective

We assume that individuals are able to reflect upon how and why they make decisions, but most research in the psychology tells us otherwise. What we do know is that people have finite capacity for processing information, use shortcuts and mental schemes to help them make decisions, and reject information that might challenge their current views. While education and information about the best choices is useful, this really only works for the people who want to be educated and informed. CEOs, strategic planners, regulators and government need to be careful about how they approach the provision of information, and recognise the limits of education. In this presentation, Paul argues that if we are serious about issues such as public health, changing attitudes about asylum seekers, and ultimately influencing society through our research, we need to focus on a multi-level approach that encompasses information, education, persuasion, ease of operation and legislation. 

Dr Harrison:

Paul Harrison, PhD, is the research cluster leader (Impact of Marketing) at Deakin's Centre for Sustainable and Responsible Organisations, and the unit chair of consumer behaviour and advertising in the MBA program at Deakin University. He is a council member of the Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman, and past chair (and current board member) of the Asylum Seeker Resource Centre. Dr Harrison is also a filmmaker and blogs regularly at his site, Paul's current research seeks to explore consumerism, material culture, and the broader effect of marketing on the exploitation of humans, animals, and the environment. He is also interested in the psychology of emotional and rational behaviour, and how our biology and the environment interact to influence the way that we behave. His work using video-autoethnography has helped businesses and policy makers develop a deeper understanding of consumer behaviour, and he is currently working with the Rudd Center for Food Policy at Yale University using this technique to understand how children and adolescents respond to food marketing. Paul has worked on a range of research projects in recent years, including projects funded by the Victorian Department of Justice, the Australian Securities and Investment Commision (ASIC) and the South Australian Health Department examining the role of marketing in decision-making. His work has been published in a range of media, including the Journal of Product and Brand Management, Consumption, Markets and Culture, Public Health Nutrition, Marketing Science, and the Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing.

Social Cohesion -- The Concept and its Discontents

The term 'social cohesion' has become common in global debates about human rights and social justice.  Its meaning in these settings is intuitively clear, connoting social solidarity and a more just, safer, caring, and harmonious national society. People seeking to translate 'social cohesion' into empirical research, however, have often been stymied by uncertainty about exactly what it means. Can social cohesion truly be assessed simply by considering the sum of economic and social indicators, such as job growth, educational attainment and racial integration? The term seems to allude to more than the sum of such parts, suggesting some larger, overarching quality or condition in society either drives those indicators or emerges from them. But if social cohesion is a distinct quality or condition of society, how is that quality identified and measured? Is social cohesion a driver or outcome of public policy - i.e., an independent or dependent variable? If it is both, and best understood as a 'virtuous circle' in which it functions as both cause and effect, how precisely does it contribute to that circle? Given such puzzles, an alternative view is that 'social cohesion' is actually a 'quasi-concept', invented to help political and economic elites to explain and prescribe for an eclectic package of policy challenges. This interpretation suggests that debate about social cohesion, while resonating for people at all levels of society, is also being instrumentally encouraged by state elites seeking to resolve problems arising from their own policies by enlisting popular capacity, enthusiasm and political will to support them. The origins of that project would be found in a state-led model of economic development that involves passing responsibility for society to society itself.

Associate Professor Tilley:
Virginia Tilley is Associate Professor and Director of the post-graduate program in Governance studies at the University of the South Pacific at Laucala, Suva. She specialises in the comparative study of racial and ethnic conflict, the politics of development and ideologies of nation-building. Previously, she served for six years as Chief Research Specialist at the Democracy and Governance Program of the Human Sciences Research Council of South Africa, where she led or participated in numerous research projects on democratisation, nation reconciliation and anti-poverty national development strategies. Prior to her work in South Africa, she served for eight years as Associate Professor of Political Science at Hobart and William Smith Colleges in Geneva, New York, where she taught courses in comparative politics, international relations, Middle East and Latin American politics and the politics of development. She has lived and conducted research in the Middle East, Latin America and South Africa, and has authored or edited three books and many articles, papers and policy briefs on racial and ethnic conflict, the politics of development, and the interplay of domestic nation-building with conditions generated by the the international system.

Racialised Bodies Encounter the City:' Long Grassers' and Asylum Seekers in Darwin

The visibility of 'bodies of colour' in public space engenders cultural anxieties, social insecurities, and physical discomfort in cities with white majority cultures. Such embodied responses that privilege whiteness have effects in the way they mark bodies of colour as 'out of place' in public spaces of the city. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Darwin, Australia, I argue, however, that such white spaces are interrupted by habits of touch, multi-sensory routine activities that contribute to fleshy moments of belonging for racialised bodies who experience dispossession and displacement. Such belonging emerges from the intertwining fleshiness of bodies in a world where we affect and are affected by other bodies and things. The paper explores two events held in public spaces of suburban Darwin, a weekly painting activity at a beach reserve that engages 'Long Grassers', Aboriginals who live in open spaces and a cooking session in a community centre that engages asylum seeker families from a detention centre. Felix Ravaisson's philosophy of habit as virtue and spontaneous practice is a starting point for thinking about how haptic knowledges can provide a nuanced understanding of belonging, encounter, and ethical engagement in a racially diverse white settler city.

Dr Lobo:
Michele Lobo is an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation, Deakin University. She is a social and cultural geographer whose work focuses on whiteness, diversity and inclusive citizenship in Australian cities. Her postdoctoral project explores the potential for transformative encounters and affective moments of belonging in Darwin, a city with a visible indigenous presence. Michele has published articles in Gender, Place and CultureGeographical Research, South Asian Diaspora, Population, Space and Place, Urban Policy and Research andAustralian Critical Race and Whiteness Studies.She is the author of Reimagining Citizenship in Suburban Australia: Voices from Dandy (2009) and the co-editor of Migration, Citizenship and Intercultural Relations: Looking through the lens of Social Inclusion (2011) and Intercultural Relations in a Global World (2011).

The Stigma of White Privilege and the Politics of Anti-Racism in Indigenous Australia

Beginning in the 1970s, the efforts of the Australian settler state to help its Indigenous minority shifted away from 'assimilation' and embraced the principles of 'self-determination'. According to the rhetoric of the self-determination era, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians should be in control of efforts to improve their lives, ultimately making state intervention redundant. A by-product of this shift was to radically change the role of non-Indigenous people who sought to participate in Indigenous development. No longer in charge of Indigenous advancement, theywere now cast as facilitators and supporters.

Drawing on ethnographic research in northern Australia, this seminar explores the complexities of 'white anti-racist' subjectivities in the self-determination era. A striking feature of white anti-racist discourse is a reluctance to claim any agency in the process of Indigenous improvement. I argue that applying the concept of stigma to white privilege is a novel and productive approach to understanding this. The negative characteristics associated with whiteness act as a barrier preventing the construction of viable white anti-racist subjectivities and making self-effacement a necessity. In their attempts to overcome this barrier and transcend white stigma, white anti-racists mobilise the identity tropes of missionary, mother, and child. Ultimately, these efforts at self-fashioning point to the ultimate fantasy of decolonisation: the desire of white anti-racists to disappear.

Dr Kowal:
Dr Emma Kowal has a background in clinical medicine and public health and is currently a cultural anthropologist of white anti-racism and Indigenous governance in Australia. She is the co-editor of Moving Anthropology: Critical Indigenous Studies and her work has been published in journals including American AnthropologistSocial Science and Medicine,Cultural Studies, Postcolonial Studies, Medical Anthropology and Ethnicities. Dr Kowal is a Senior Research Fellow in the School of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Melbourne supported by an ARC Discovery Early Career Researcher Award.

Harm Reduction as Anarchist Practice: A User's Guide to Capitalism and Addiction in North America

In spite of its origins as an illegal, clandestine, grassroots activity that took place either outside or in defiant opposition to state and legal authority, there is growing evidence to suggest that harm reduction in North America has become sanitized and depoliticized in its institutionalization as public health policy. Harm reduction remains the most contested and controversial aspect of drug policy on both sides of the Canada-US border, yet the institutionalization of harm reduction in each national context demon- states a series of stark contrasts. Drawing from regional case study examples in Canada and the US, this article historically traces and politically re-maps the uneasy relationship between the autonomous political origins of harm reduction, contemporary public health policy, and the adoption of the biomedical model for addiction research and treatment in North America. Situated within a broader theoretical interrogation of the etiology of addiction, this study culminates in a politically engaged critique of traditional addiction research and drug/ service user autonomy. Arguing that the founding philosophy and spirit of the harm reduction movement represents a fundamentally anarchist- inspired form of practice, this article concludes by considering tactics for reclaiming and re-politicizing the future of harm reduction in North America.

Dr Smith:
Dr Smith is a lecturer in sociology at Deakin University. His research interests include sociology of health and health care, socio-cultural constructions of 'addiction', historical development of addiction research and treatment paradigms, autonomous organizing and activism among people who use illicit drugs at the local, national and international scales, urban sociology, gentrification and urban redevelopment, and body/space metaphors in the English language (anatomical metaphors applied to urban space, i.e. 'the heart of the city', and spatial metaphors applied to the human body, i.e. 'I am falling apart / going to pieces').

Growing Older in a Foreign Land: The Importance of Identity for Rural Migrant Men and their Families

Being a man presents unique risks to both physical and mental health. Being a man who is growing older in an Australian rural community, and is a member of a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) group exacerbates these risks. This presentation draws on the findings from a qualitative study of how older CALD men living in a rural Victorian community perceive and make sense of their own health and wellbeing. Undertaken from 2009 to 2011, we conducted interviews with 26 men from Italian, Macedonian, Turkish, and Albanian backgrounds, and four women from Italian and Albanian backgrounds. Service providers and community leaders also contributed their views and thus enabled us to identify the challenges they face in addressing the health needs of this group of men. The experiences of these older men challenge the dominant biomedical perspective on ageing. The study underlinestheimportance of considering the complex and interconnecting experiences of migration, gender, family and personal identity inunderstanding the men's lives. In particular, it indicates the need for supportive interventions that go beyond a focus on narrowlydefined concepts of 'health' to pay cognisance to the diverse influences of older CALD men's experiences. Specifically,we highlight the importance of identity maintenance in response to a lifetimepunctuated by change.

Associate Professor Susan Feldman is Director of the Healthy Ageing Research Unit (HARU) Monash University. Her research interests include the psychosocial health and well being of women, community dwelling older people, particularly women and older people from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities. She has a special interest in the experience of widowhood for women and relationships between the generations. Her publications include numerous peer reviewed international journal articles and five edited collections: The Art of Ageing Well and the Art of Caring for Older Adults, Baywood Press 2007, A Certain Age: Women Growing Older, 1999 Allen & Unwin, Something that Happens to Other People 1996 Random House, and Family Violence: Everybody's Business, Somebody's Life. 1991, Federation Press.

Dr Harriet Radermacher is a Research Fellow at the Primary Care Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Monash University. With a background in Community and Applied Psychology, her research explores the experiences of people marginalised in current society, with a focus on cultural diversity and ageing.

The Expansion of Participatory Budgeting Worldwide: Reflections on a Goverannce Tool in Permanent Evolution

The present world financial crisis raises issues related to the distribution of resources. The need to find innovative strategies is especially felt regarding local administrative institutions, affected by diminishing State transfers and self-funding opportunities, but also struck by a legitimacy crisis. These challenges have been addressed worldwide by innovations in public policies, seeking to develop participatory mechanisms allowing citizens to share public actors' responsibilities in decision making and so to rebuild. One of them is Participatory Budgeting (PB), which involves citizens in discussing and deciding on the priorities of budgeting documents to be implemented using public resources. Considered as "ideoscape" (as in the Appadurai theory), signifying a political model which travels globally but only exists through local appropriation, PB, after first being shaped during the '90s in semi-peripheric Latin American countries, where it contributed to consolidating new democratic institutions, spread to Europe, Asia and Africa at the end of the millennium. At the moment, more than 1,500 cities are experimenting practices inspired by Participatory Budgeting, so that the very different examples require to set clear principles in order to frame this innovation and avoid its "dilution" in term of radicalism. The seminar will specifically examine participatory budgeting as a governance tool continuously transformed in order to adapt its shared rules to very different institutional and social frameworks. A special attention will be given to the issue of deliberative quality which is today becoming a central focus for the worldwide discussion of this participatory process. The seminar will also address the main limits and challenges for the future, starting from analysing some experiences of "scaling-up" PB at regional and provincial level.

Giovanni Allegretti
Giovanni Allegretti is an architect, planner and senior researcher at the Center of Social Studies, an excellency structure linked to the Coimbra University, Portugal. From 2001 to 2006, he has been assistant professor in Town Management at the University of Florence, where he got his Ph.D in Town and Territorial Planning. He studied in Brazil, Denmark and Japan with scholarships of the Ministry of Foreign affairs. Since 1997 his mainly research topics have been Participatory Budgets and techniques for citizens' participation to urban planning, topics on which he published several articles, essays and books. He has been scientific director of two EU projects in the field of Participation: "Participando" and "INCLUIR - Participatory Budget as a tool for fighting social exclusion". He is co-director of the Ph.D. course "Democracy in the XXI century" and coordinator of the PEOPLES' Observatory on Participation, Innovation and Local Powers. For the World Bank he worked as a resource person in training (in SouthAfrica and Senegal) and as an evaluator (Congo RDC), and is consultant of the Swedish Associations of Municipality and Regions (2007-2012) to support the first experiments of participatory budget in that country. He has been consultant of the world association of Cities (UCLG) for the Observatory of Inclusive Cities, and - at present - for a research on Citizens-based Monitoring of Public Policies.

Special Guest Seminars

Contentless Minds! Defending the Very Idea

The cognitive revolution deposed behaviourist thinking (in both philosophy and psychology) and licensed a return to active theorizing about the properties of mental states and their place in nature. Promoting representational and computational theories of mind, many researchers have assumed that the contentful properties of mental states get manipulated in computational processes, enabling intelligent activity. But to date no tenable naturalised theory of content has emerged.  Moreover, newly articulated non-representationalist approaches in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science - enactive, embodied approaches - are growing in popularity. Against this backdrop, I give reasons for thinking that radically embodied/enactive accounts of cognition are both conceptually coherent and preferable for understanding basic minds than their rivals, which buy into the traditional assumptions of classical cognitive science. Using what I call 'The Hard Problem of Content' as a foil I argue for a fundamental shift in how we conceive of the nature of basic minds.

Daniel D. Hutto

Daniel D. Hutto is Professor of Philosophical Psychology and Research Leader for Philosophy at the University of Hertfordshire, UK. He is a chief co-investigator for the Australian Research Council 'Embodied Virtues and Expertise' project (2010-2013) and collaborator in the Marie Curie Action 'Towards an Embodied Science of Intersubjectivity' initial training network (2011-2015) and the 'Agency, Normativity and Identity' project (2012-2015) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Research. His publications include The Presence of Mind (John Benjamins, 1999), Beyond Physicalism (John Benjamins, 2000), Wittgenstein and the End of Philosophy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), Folk Psychological Narratives (MIT Bradford Books, 2008) and (with Erik Myin) Radicalizing Enactivism: Basic Minds without Content (MIT Press, 2013). He is co-editor of Folk-Psychology Re-Assessed (Springer, 2007) and editor of Narrative and Understanding Persons (CUP, 2007) and Narrative and Folk Psychology (Imprint Academic, 2009). "Radical Enactivism," a special yearbook issue of Consciousness and Emotion focussing on his work on intentionality, phenomenology and narrative, was published in 2006.

This event has been organised in partnership with the School of Humanities and Social Sciences.

At Home or Out of Place? National Belongings and the Next Generation

How are feelings and practices of national belonging or exclusion made real in the everyday spaces of young people's lives? Drawing on research with young people living in Australia's most multicultural neighbourhoods, this paper explores how those who actively claim a right to multicultural citizenship are re-minoritised through demands that they be in civic space in the 'right' ways. It suggests that such spatial policing positions those who feel increasingly comfortable with hybrid identifications as instead outside the nation, but considers how young people's everyday politics of home-making in urban multiculture challenge these efforts to exclude them from national belonging.

Anita Harris

Anita Harris is an Australian Research Council Future Fellow in the School of Political and Social Inquiry, Monash University. Her programme of research includes an international study of young people and social inclusion in multicultural cities, as well as an ARC Discovery Project on civic life and belonging amongst young Australian Muslims. Her research interests are centred on youth identities and cultures; citizenship, participation and multiculturalism, and girls' studies. Her books include Young People and Everyday Multiculturalism (Routledge, in press); Next Wave Cultures: Feminism, Subcultures, Activism (edited, Routledge, 2008); Young Femininity: Girlhood, Power and Social Change(with Sinikka Aapola and Marnina Gonick, Palgrave, 2005); Future Girl: Young Women in the Twenty First Century, (Routledge, 2004); and All About the Girl: Culture, Power and Identity(edited, Routledge, 2004).

Who Benefits from Anti-Islam Discourses?

Dr Jonathan Lyons is the author of The House of Wisdom: How the Arabs Transformed Western Civilization (Bloomsbury Press) and Islam Through Western Eyes: From the Crusades to the War on Terrorism (Columbia University Press). Each of these books unpicks Western prejudices about Islam and demonstrates who benefits from being negative about Islam. These understandings are essential to an informed approach to policies of religious diversity and the treatment of Muslims.

Jonathan says, 'I have spent much of my professional and personal life exploring the shifting boundaries between East and West, first on both sides of the Cold War divide and, for the past two decades, on the cusp between the Islamic and Western worlds. Over time, I have come to see the relationships between these seemingly polar fields as a problem not of geography or politics (or even geo-politics) but of thought, ideas, and knowledge.

I served as a foreign correspondent for the Reuters news agency, with posts in Moscow, during the collapse of the Soviet Union; in Turkey, during the rise of the first elected Islamist government; and in Tehran during the contentious presidency of Mohammad Khatami. I also worked as a senior editor in Reuters Washington bureau, before taking up my last foreign assignment, in Jakarta in 2006, covering radical Islamic movements across Southeast Asia.'

Following a presentation, Dr Lyons will be available for questions and discussions of trends, developments and policy issues in this area.

Dr Lyons is an internationally respected commentator on Islam and the West and currently a Visiting Scholar at Monash University.

Staging a Hospitable Encounter Between Buddhism and Derridean Deconstruction

This paper suggests that a key challenge confronting comparative scholarship on Western thought and Asian wisdom traditions involves the question of hospitality, or more precisely what might be called critical hospitality. The question of critical hospitality is summoned by the sacred truth claim, posited by Buddhism for example, of an unmediated or unconditioned awareness. From a broadly social constructivist perspective committed to challenging absolutising truth claims, this proposition about unmediated awareness represents one such totalising claim which has to be refused, or at least be subject to scrutiny. But does this commitment necessarily require one to reject the possibility of cultivating an awareness of experience that would be unmediated by language or cultural conditioning? Given that the received distinction in modern Western thought between the sacred and secular or religion and philosophy does not exist as such in Buddhism, if we reject wholesale the claim about unmediated awareness do we risk betraying the ethico-political commitment to honouringdifference, and perhaps even reenact symbolic violence? To what extent are we subordinating Asian traditions under the will to knowledge-power of a scholarly paradigm whose own truth claims are conditioned by a Eurocentric cultural and intellectual history? If so, are we really engaging in dialogue? Are we performing an exchange or a takeover? This question becomes crucial: as we seek to maintain fidelity towards the principles of our scholarly vocation how might our interrogations also be hospitable towards sacred claims, which even if incommensurable with our own discourses, nevertheless find reality as the horizon of hope for others in non-Western lifeworlds, many of whom have been subjected to centuries of colonial oppression and the ideological subversion of their traditions by Westerners who have claimed to know better? I will explore a way forward towards greater critical hospitality by reading Buddhist understandings (specifically the bodhisattva ideal of the Mahayana tradition) alongside a Derridean deconstructive ethic of responsibility, both of which I would describe as a pledge of unconditional unconditionality unconditionally.

Edwin Ng

Edwin Ng is completing a PhD in the School of Communication and Creative Arts at Deakin University. His currentresearch explores the relationship between Buddhist understandings and poststructuralist-inspired critical theory so as to interrogate ethico-political debates about religion, spirituality, and the role of faith in academia and micropolitics more generally. He is ambivalent about being a postcolonial 'Western Buddhist' convert, and is curious to explore hospitable encounters between ancient and contemporary wisdom, sacred and scholarly pursuits - in all senses of the word, aprofession of faith.

The European Union's Foreign Policy Towards Iraq

This thesis examines, within the broad area of EU foreign policy formulation and implementation, the nature of interactions between EU institutions, and the coordination between these institutions and EU member states. It seeks to understand how these interactions affect EU foreign policy formulation and implementation. In order to carry out such aims, this thesis uses the Iraq crisis of 2001-2009 as a case study.
The researcher uses the Iraqi crisis of 2001-2009 case study in order to answer the following research questions:

  • What is the level and nature of coordination and interaction between the EU's institutions and key member states throughout the foreign policy formulation and implementation processes?
  • Has the coordination and interaction between the EU's institutions and key member states affected EU's foreign policy performance and effectiveness?
  • Has the coordination and interaction between the EU's foreign policy actors affected the EU's foreign policy towards Iraq during the 2001-2009 period?

Any meaningful exploration of this case study requires the collection of qualitative data. Primary and a range of secondary data are used in this study. Semi-structured interviews with EU officials and experts are the key primary resource. The secondary data used in this study includes meeting records, governmental documents, EU declarations, debates, EU treaties, Council statements, newspaper articles and previous interviews with EU officials.

The multi-level governance approach is a relevant and useful framework for this study. This approach allows the researcher to examine, using multiple themes, the influence of the coordination and interaction between the EU's key actors' on foreign policy in general, and foreign policy towards Iraq in particular. The use of analytical themes allows the researcher to evaluate the EU's foreign policy effectiveness. Such themes also provide coherent frames of reference for the discussion and conclusion of this article. These themes are not measurable, and as such may be seen as qualitative.

Saleem Aljebori

Saleem Aljebori currently is a PhD Candidate at Deakin University - Faculty of Arts and Education- School of Humanities and Social Sciences. He is interesting in European Union Foreign Policy in general and towards Iraq in Particular. He is working under Prf. Fethi Mansouri supervision. Saleem's burn in Iraq and holds degrees in Political Sciences and International Politics from Al-Nahrain University- Iraq (BA in Political Sciences, MA in International Politics).

Before coming to Australia in late 2007, Saleem's was one of the permanent staff at Faculty of Law-Karbala University-Iraq. Saleem's was responsible on teaching many subjects such as, Political System, Democracy, Human Rights, National Culture, Constitutional Law and International Organizations. In addition, he was a Head of Political Department in Al- Furat Centre for Strategic and Development Studies. Saleem's publish many articles in Arabic language and also he participated in eight conferences which held in Iraq and more recently presenting a paper in Europe in Crisis: Challenges and Opportunities conference which hosted by Monash University, Australia on 22-23 September 2011.Furthermore, he presenting a paper in Rethinking the grand strategy of the European Union conference which hosted by Loughborough University, UK on 25-26 May 2012.

Democracy without demos, or: Whatever happened to 'We, the People'?

The major task of a theory of democracy is to identify the conditions under which human beings are empowered to design, build and sustain institutions that allow for the expression of both their commonalities and differences and provide the setting for a shared life free of domination. Minimally but importantly, democracy has to do with selecting and authorizing the public officials who, on the basis of this authorization, are empowered legitimately (within political and legal limits) to exercise public authority. How this 'authorization' is instituted is a central characteristic of a system of rule. Arguably, democracy is thus more than a cluster of institutions, practices and processes for organising public accountability of power holders and it is also more than deliberation in the public sphere. In this talk, I reconsider the importance of the idea of 'popular sovereignty' for democratic theory and practice and argue for the continued relevance of understanding democracy as rule of the 'people'.

Roland Axtmann

After his PhD at the London School of Economics, Roland taught at the University of Aberdeen for 16 years. Roland joined the Department in 2005 as a Professor of Politics and International Relations. He held visiting appointments at Heidelberg University (Germany); Karl-Franzens University Graz (Austria); University of California, Los Angeles; and Deakin University, Melbourne. In 2011, he was a visiting professor at the University of Queensland in Brisbane (Australia). Currently, he is a visiting fellow at the Sydney Democracy Initiative at Sydney University.

Multiculturalism and Interculturalism: the new European debate

'Multiculturalism is dead, long live Interculturalism!' Some people think that given the extensive critiques of multiculturalism have rightly finished it off, interculturalism is a suitable successor concept for productively engaging with the diversity that is a social fact in many of the large towns and cities of western Europe. Advocates of a political interculturalism wish to emphasise its positive qualities in terms of encouraging communication, recognising dynamic identities, promoting unity and critiquing illiberal cultural practices. Yet each of these qualities too are important (on occasion foundational) features of multiculturalism. At best, on this reading interculturalism would be a version or revision of multiculturalism not its successor. I explore some other readings of interculturalism to probe further why some might think or pretend otherwise. They may think interculturalism is about lived experience and locality. Or, they may think like their Quebecan counterparts, that interculturalism appropriately recognises the normative claims of a national culture (perhaps within a larger federation). Or, they may think that interculturalism is a much-needed rebranding of multiculturalism. While something can be learnt from each of these, none of them is able to substitute multiculturalism, which accommodates parts of the population that other modes of integration do not and so is indispensable to the integration of post-immigration 'difference' in Europe.

Tariq Modood

Tariq Modood is Professor of Sociology, Politics and Public Policy, and the founding Director of the Centre for the Study of Ethnicity and Citizenship at the University of Bristol, UK. He has led many research projects on ethnic minorities and Muslims in the UK and in Europe and has published extensively on these topics, especially on the theory and politics of multiculturalism. His latest books include Multiculturalism: A Civic Idea (2007), Still Not Easy Being British(2010); and as co-editor Secularism, Religion and Multicultural Citizenship(2009), Global Migration, Ethnicity and Britishness (2011) and European Multiculturalisms (2012). He is a regular contributor to the media and to policy discussions in Britain and was a member of the Commisson on the Future of the Multi-Ethnic Britain (the Parekh Report, 2000). He was awarded an MBE for services to social science and ethnic relations in 2001 and elected to the Academy of Social Sciences in 2004.

Sport, Democracy and War in Classical Athens

This paper addresses the neglected problem of elite sport in classical Athens. Democracy may have opened up politics to every citizen but it had no impact on sporting participation. The city's sportsmen continued to be drawn from the elite. Thus it comes as a surprise that non-elite citizens judged sport to be a very good thing, rewarded victorious sportsmen lavishly and created an unrivalled program of local sporting festivals, on which they spent a staggering sum. They also shielded sportsmen from the public criticism which was otherwise normally directed towards the elite and its conspicuous activities. The work of social scientists suggests that the explanation of this problem lies in the close relationship which non-elite Athenians perceived between sporting contests and their own waging of war. The disturbing conclusion of this paper is that it was the democracy's opening up of war to non-elite citizens which legitimised elite sport.

David Pritchard

Dr David M. Pritchard is Senior Lecturer in the School of History, Philosophy, Religion and Classics at the University of Queensland and a member of the University's Cultural History Project. He has held research fellowships at Macquarie University, the University of Copenhagen and the University of Sydney. He has authored Sport, Democracy and War in Classical Athens (Cambridge University Press: 2013 [in press]), edited War, Democracy and Culture in Classical Athens (Cambridge University Press: 2010) and co-edited Sport and Festival in the Ancient Greek World (Classical Press of Wales: 2003). He is currently finishing  for Oxford University Press a co-authored book on public finance in ancient Athens.

Racism in Europe: Humiliation and Homogenisation

The European unification has been foremost a project of whiteness. Notions of tolerance, multiculturalism and anti racism, somewhat popular in the 1980s, have all but disappeared from political agendas. The turn of the century has been witness to the emergence of what I call entitlement racism: the idea that majority populations have the right to offend and to humiliate the 'Other'.  Expressions of this form of racism vary according to racial, ethnic and religious group attributions and can range from assimilative paternalism to extreme cultural humiliation. The Netherlands is a case in point.

Philomena Essed

Philomena Essed has a PhD from the University of Amsterdam and an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Pretoria. At Antioch University, she is a professor of Critical Race, Gender and Leadership studies in the PhD in Leadership and Change Program. She is also an affiliated researcher at Utrecht University (The Netherlands) Graduate Gender Program.

Her research and teaching transcends national, cultural and disciplinary boundaries.

Well known for introducing the concepts of everyday racism and gendered racism in the Netherlands and internationally, her work has been adopted and applied in a range of countries, including the US, Canada, South Africa, Sweden, Finland, Russia, the UK, Switzerland and Australia.

She has lectured in many countries - from Germany to Brazil; from South-Africa to Canada - and published numerous articles in English and in Dutch, some of which have been translated into French, German, Italian, Swedish and Portuguese.

Her books include Everyday RacismUnderstanding Everyday Racism andDiversity; Gender, Color and Culture. Co-edited Volumes: Race Critical Theories: Refugees and the Transformation of Societies and A Companion to Gender Studies ('outstanding' 2005 CHOICE award). A volume on Dutch Racism is in progress and another volume Clones, Fakes and Posthumans: Cultures of Replication is in press. Her current research focuses on social justice and dignity as experience and practice in leading change.

In addition to her academic work Philomena has been advisor to governmental and non-governmental organizations, nationally and internationally. Since 2004 she is Deputy Member of the Dutch Equal Treatment Commission where she serves as a panel member in hearings and investigations about structural discrimination, including race, gender, religion, age, sexual orientation and disability.

As an expert witness on race, gender and racism in Europe she addressed among others The European Parliament (Brussels, 1984); The United Nations Economic and Social Council (New York, 2001); The House of Representatives of the States-General (The Hague, the Netherlands, 2004) and the United States Helsinki Commission (Capitol Hill, Washington, 2008).

In April 2011 The Queen of the Netherlands honored Philomena with a Knighthood.

Philosophy Seminars

The Naked Self: Some Kierkegaardian Contributions to Analytic Philosophy of Personal Identity

Kierkegaard is a philosopher with striking - and often confronting - things to say about the nature, structure, constitution and importance of selfhood, yet his work has been almost totally absent from contemporary discussions of self and identity. I argue that Kierkegaard's reflexive understanding of memory and anticipation, particularly his discussions of 'contemporaneity' as an experience of phenomenal co-presence with past and future events, offer useful insights for these discussions. However, Kierkegaard's understanding of selfhood also challenges contemporary accounts of the self (both metaphysical and practical) due to its fundamentally normative, eschatologically-oriented nature, and its corresponding dual temporality. Ultimately, Kierkegaard offers an irreducibly first-personal, temporally-emplaced model of selfhood that points beyond some of the current impasses in personal identity theory.

Patrick Stokes is Lecturer in Philosophy at Deakin University. His current research is concerned to bring Kierkegaard into dialogue with contemporary analytic philosophy, as well as to explore the temporal and perspectival aspects of the question of selfhood. He is the author of Kierkegaard's Mirrors: Interest, Self and Moral Vision (Palgrave, 2010) and, with Adam Buben, the co-editor of Kierkegaard and Death (Indiana UP, 2011).

Historicist objections to the centrality of work, and a tentative rejoinder

The place of work in the contemporary theoretical field is a paradoxical one. Many empirical inquiries continue to be based on the assumption that work and employment are key factors in the study of major social phenomena such as inequality (economic, sexual or cultural), or shifts in family structures. This assumption is largely relayed in public discourse and policy discussions. On the other hand, there is widespread consensus in the theoretical arms of the humanities and social sciences that the work paradigm is now obsolete, both on descriptive and normative grounds. Adding to this complexity, substantive new models have emerged, notably the "psychodynamics of work" in France, which challenge this theoretical consensus. This paper places itself within this overall project to reaffirm and redescribe theoretically the centrality of work. I focus in this paper on the historicist assumptions at the heart of the theoretical consensus against the centrality of work. I identify four major reference points for these historicist objections: Marxist, Foucauldian, social-theoretical and anthropological. In a final part, I make some suggestions to indicate the contours of a rejoinder against such powerful objections.

Jean-Philippe Deranty is Associate Professor in Philosophy at Macquarie University. He is the author of Beyond Communication: A Critical Study of Axel Honneth's Social Philosophy (Brill, 2009), and is the editor of a number of volumes including Jacques Ranci¨re: Key Concepts (Acumen, 2010) and, with Alison Ross, Jacques Rancière and the Contemporary Scene (Continuum, 2012). Jean-Philippe is also a member of the editorial board of Critical Horizons.

Time, Philosophy and Chronopathologies

This talk presents in a condensed form some of the core arguments of my recent book, Chronopathologies, but it also borrows the title of John McCumber's recent book, Time and Philosophy, because I present both a diagnosis of the centrality of time to the divided house that I think contemporary philosophy remains, as well as a sort of negative prescription regarding how we might better avoid particular chronopathologies, or time-sicknesses, that are endemic to these philosophical trajectories. To the extent that such sicknesses are at least partly inevitable, this paper consists in a call to be more attentive to this tendency, and to the methodological, metaphilosophical, and ethico-political consequences that follow from them.

Jack Reynolds is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at La Trobe University. He is the author of Merleau-Ponty and Derrida: Intertwining Embodiment and Alterity (Ohio UP, 2004), Understanding Existentialism (McGill-Queens, 2006), Analytic Versus Continental: Arguments on the Methods and Value of Philosophy (Acumen, 2010, with James Chase) and, most recently, Chronopathologies: Time and Politics in Deleuze, Derrida, Analytic Philosophy and Phenomenology (Lexington, 2011).

Reading Hadot via Costa Lima: Philosophy as a Way of Life and "the Control of the Imaginary"

In this paper, I use Brazilian thinker Costa Lima's ideas concerning the "control of the imaginary" in literary theory to reexamine Pierre Hadot's history of philosophy, as involving the progressive loss of the connection between theoretical discourse and existential practices, following the end of the classical-hellenistic period. In Control of the Imaginary, The Dark Side of Reason and elsewhere, Lima advances a sweeping claim that the Western heritage of literary theorising, from the Romans onwards, has been characterised by a series of, political and theoretical, operations of "controlling" the creative imagination operative in the creation and reception of literary fictions; subordinating this creativity, and its capacity to generate alternative "as if" worlds, to accepted notions of truth, verisimilitude, decorum, and morality. In Lima's narrative, Aristotle's Poetics with its notion of mimesis represents a resource to which literary theory should return to theorise what he terms the "criticity" (criticidade) of poetic and literary writings, as means to hold at a distance, and challenge, prevailing epistemic and other norms. In Hadot's account of Western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy's pedagogic and existential concern with forming, as much as informing, students was correlated to the rich variety of distinctly literary forms that ancient texts take: up to the penning of tragedies by a philosopher like Seneca, but including Plato's and Aristotle's dialogues. Indeed, Hadot explicitly argues that in the ancient philosophical paradigm, the "imagination", the literary and the rhetorical, found a place in philosophical discourses - particularly concerning the figure of the sage - which has since been largely lost. Does Hadot's narrative, linking the atrophy of philosophy as a way of life with the diminution of the literary forms of philosophy, speak to or even echo Lima's concerns in the literary field? This paper will address the question, not without noting significant qualifications that need to be appended to such a claim.

Matthew Sharpe is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at Deakin University. His ongoing research interests include political philosophy, psychoanalysis, critical theory, epistemology, and conservative and reactionary political thought. He is the author of Slavoj Zizek: A Little Piece of the Real (Ashgate, 2005), the co-author with Geoff Boucher of ZiZek and Politics (Edinburgh UP, 2010) and The Times Will Suit Them: Postmodern Conservatism in Australia (Allen & Unwin 2008), and the co-author with Jo Faulkner of Understanding Psychoanalysis (Acumen 2008).

The mind as an idea in Spinoza's Short Treatise

Spinoza's account of the mind in the Short Treatise differs significantly from that in the Ethics. One claim that remains constant, however, is that the mind is an idea (more specifically: an idea of the body). After considering the significance of this counter-intuitive claim, I examine Spinoza's argument for it in the Short Treatise. This examination suggests that Spinoza's grounds for accepting the mind-as-idea view must extend beyond those he explicitly offers. I conclude with a proposal about what Spinoza's actual grounds were, and give some reasons for thinking that the view is more plausible than it first appears.

Colin Marshall is Gerry Higgins Lecturer in the History of Philosophy at the University of Melbourne. He is the author of a number articles on Spinoza and Kant in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Philosopher's Imprint and the British Journal for the History of Philosophy.

For a Philosophy of the Market: The case of Elie Ayache

While censorious moral proclamations and weighty political discourse are readily at hand these days in response to any fluctuation in the global market, we for the most part remain without any intrinsic and philosophical account of the market. Given the market's ubiquity and influence, this seems more than just a minor lacuna in the philosophical demand to adequately think reality.

One striking exception to this state of affairs, though, is the work of Elie Ayache. In his 2010 work The Blank Swan, and drawing on a range of philosophers including Deleuze, Badiou, Meillassoux and Bergson, Ayache argues that the market is a newly formed and ontologically distinct space, what he calls the "privileged medium of contingency." For Ayache, market trading, and more specifically the trading of financial instruments called derivatives, are revelatory of the nature of the market as such.

My goal in this paper will be to discuss four points: 1) Ayache's (Bergsonian) critique of the notion of possibility and his reassessment of the role of predictive modelling in our understanding of the market; 2) the correlative reconceptualisation of the concept of the market as the medium of derivatives (what Ayache comes to call contingent claims); 3) the (Deleuzean) consequences of Ayache's account of the market; and 4) the potential demise of the market at the hands of automated algorithmic trading (or the replacement of the trader with the mathematician).

Elie Ayache will follow the paper with a response.

Jon Roffe is a Mackenzie Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Melbourne. He is the author of Badiou's Deleuze(Acumen 2011) and the forthcoming book of aphorisms Muttering for the Sake of Stars. The founding convenor of the Melbourne School of Continental Philosophy (, he is also an editor of Parrhesia: A Journal of Critical Philosophy ( and the co-editor of a number of books on recent and contemporary French philosophy.

Elie Ayache graduated from Ecole Polytechnique in 1987, traded options in open outcry markets until 1995, co-founded ITO 33, a derivative pricing technology firm, in 1998 and published The Blank Swan: The End of Probability in 2010.

For those interested in Ayache's work, the following pieces may be of interest:

* Interview on The Blank Swan (
* The End of Probability (

Those with a background in finance may also like to consult:

* Actuarial Value vs Financial Price (
* Can anyone solve the smile problem? (

Conformity to Law in Kant's 3rd Critique

Immanuel Kant is often held to have created the very epitome of a juridical philosophy, in which reason is established as a tribunal and the problem of judgement is concomitantly preeminent. This situation would be exemplified by the very title of the 3rd CritiqueCritique of Judgement. My position is very different from this. It is precisely because Kant seeks to find a space that is not determined by the law that he so strenuously attends to it, and in the 3rd Critique he discerns a new kind of judgement that is at once utterly in conformity to law and yet nonetheless exceeds it.

Justin Clemens is Lecturer in English at the University of Melbourne. He is also the author of The Romanticism of Contemporary Theory (Ashgate, 2003) and, with D. Pettman, of Avoiding the Subject (Amsterdam UP, 2004). He is also the co-editor of: Alain Badiou: Key Concepts (Acumen, 2010, with Adam Bartlett), The Praxis of Alain Badiou (, 2006, with Adam Bartlett and Paul Ashton), and Alain Badiou, Infinite Thought: Truth and the Return of Philosophy(Continuum, 2003, with Oliver Feltham).

The 'Origins' of European Fascism. Memory and Violence in Michael Haneke's The White Ribbon

The cultural theory approach to national collective trauma has emphasized cinema's possibilities of problematizing narrativity and the representation of historical violence. In addition, what needs to be recognized is the non-linear temporal aspect of traumatic memory. Michael Haneke's 2008 film The White Ribbon offers rich material for the study of mnemonic representations of historic violence: it tells a story of violent attacks and assaults that interrupt cyclical life of a village in Northern Germany in 1913/1914. The narrator frames the story of violence as a study of the origins of fascism as the alleged perpetrators are young children, who rebel against the disciplinary powers of patriarchal authority. Coming into maturity during World War I, they will become the generation of Nazism's followers.

In contrast to psycho-historical readings of The White Ribbon as a study of the causal relationship between authoritarian formation of the subject and susceptibility to fascism's redemptive illusions, I propose an 'anti-psychological' interpretation of the film. This reading situates The White Ribbon vis-à-vis the questions of Haneke's aesthetic and formal choices; the 'ethics of spectatorship'; and the temporal aspects of a recollective historical narrative. The argument is that the film is a metaphorical construction of, on the one hand, the nexus between memory and the cinematic image, and, on the other hand, the mnemonic and affective dimensions of European history of violence. Rather than narrate fascist violence as a concluded episode in Europe's history, Haneke enacts it in such ways in The White Ribbon that fascism appears integral to the question of ethics of spectatorship and to the cinematic engagement with another's suffering. Haneke constructs a connection between the European approach to its fascist history and the on-going politics of exclusion and marginalization insofar as it expresses the fascist desire for the unified self. The importance of The White Ribbon lies thereby in its critical commentary on Europe's contemporary self-understanding as being 'after' (and 'sanitized' of) past violence.

Magdalena Zolkos is a Senior Research Fellow in Political Theory at the School of Humanities and Communication Arts at the University of Western Sydney. Magdalena has research interests in memory studies, literary trauma theory, continental philosophy, and radical democratic theory. She is the author of Reconciling Community and Subjective Life: Trauma Narrative as Political Theorizing (Continuum 2010), and editor of On Jean Amery: Philosophy of Catastrophe(Lexington 2011).

Care and selfhood in Heidegger's Being and Time

For Heidegger the philosophical tradition, culminating in Hegel, had interpreted all that was meaningful, or based its metaphysical interpretation of being, through an expanded notion of the self. Heidegger tries to displace this notion from its privileged position by undermining the representation of the subject as a unified and transparent self-relation. It is argued here that Heidegger's examination of conscience is the central site of his challenge to self-determining subjectivity. In conscience he corrects the metaphysical subject by presenting a model of selfhood that is irreconcilably divided.

Simon Lumsden is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of New South Wales. His research is primarily concerned with German Idealism, Poststructuralism and the relation between these traditions. He has published widely in these areas. He is currently completing a manuscript concerned with the development of self-consciousness in German Idealism and the critique of the subject in Heidegger and Poststructuralism.

Thinking time and change via Deleuze

This paper offers a close reading of Gilles Deleuze's approach to thinking time in relation to the notions of difference and repetition. If we seek to come to a rigorous thought of what enables change, or what the mechanisms for change might be, Deleuze's scholarship in Bergsonism and Difference and Repetition makes an important contribution to this project. This paper will unpack in a clear and accessible way some of the crucial terms and movements of this stage in his undertaking, as well as linking these to questions of artistic production and ascetic registers.

Antonia Pont is a Melbourne-based poet and theorist. She is Lecturer in Text (Literary Studies and Professional and Creative Writing) at Deakin University, teaching in writing, literature and philosophy. Her research is mostly preoccupied with time, ontologies, thinking change and the 'evental', loss constellations and aporia in the Derridean lineage, the invention, inaccurate autobiographies, praxis, and the question of ontology as ethical undertaking.

Why Technology is not an 'Extension of the Body'

The thesis that (human) technology constitutes an 'extension of the human body' and this body's sensory and motor capacities has been surprisingly long-lived. First comprehensively developed by Ernst Kapp, almost every famous philosopher discussing technological phenomena has at some stage expressed views that align in one sense or another with the extension thesis. Arguably, the extension thesis also anticipates more recent 'extended mind' style arguments; at least those that are built upon notions of parity between internal (biological) and external cognitive resources. In this paper I take a scrutinizing look at the extension thesis and identify some of its major shortcomings. My critique of the extension thesis will be developed along two lines.First, drawing mainly on the work of anthropologist Leroi-Gourhan, I show that the extension thesis is limiting when it comes to account for the peculiar dynamics characterizing the long-term development of human technological practice. This is mainly because the cultural evolution of human technology is generally characterized by the tendency of an increasing liberation of technology from the model of the human body, and along with it, by the increasing uncoupling of technological from bodily forms of activity. Second, building upon the work of Cassirer, I illustrate that the extension thesis also obscures a proper understanding of the symbolic dimensions and symbolic efficacy of technology. I will finish with some more general remarks concerning some of the opportunities and problems afforded by the historically changing relations between the human agent, its body, and human technologies.

Peter Woelert is a Research Fellow at the Melbourne Graduate School of Education at the University of Melbourne, with a background in sociology (MA, University of Frankfurt, Germany) and philosophy (PhD, University of New South Wales). His research primarily focuses on the embodied, cultural and technological dimensions of cognitive activity, usually combining perspectives from distributed cognition approaches and phenomenology. More recently, Peter has become increasingly interested in the behavioural effects and cognitive dimensions of formalizing modes of governance. Recent papers include "Idealization and external symbolic storage: The epistemic and technical dimensions of theoretic cognition" and "Human cognition, space, and the sedimentation of meaning" (both published in Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences).

Sex, Temperance and Virtue

According to Raja Halwani, "The virtue of temperance and the vice of intemperance are the virtue and the vice when it comes to sex and sexual activity because they hit at the core of the issues of sex, namely sexual desire itself." The purpose of my paper is to elaborate on this claim, critique parts of it, and offer a fuller account of the virtues that pertain to sex. I begin by criticising Halwani's conception of virtue ethics and accuse him of wrongly importing considerations from moral theory. I then explore his neo-Aristotelian account of temperance, arguing that it fails to capture what is distinctive about sexuality so as to raise specifically virtue-ethical concerns as opposed to moral ones. Halwani's dependence on the notion of moral wrongness in relation to sexuality cannot be supported in an Aristotelian framework. I then invoke Michel Foucault to argue that the sphere of sexuality is marked by distinctive ethical constraints that tie in with Aristotle's concept of eudaimonia and that the virtue of temperance should therefore be conceived differently.

Stan van Hooft is Professor of philosophy at Deakin University. His is the author of numerous works, including, most recently, Hope (Acumen, 2011) and Cosmopolitanism: A Philosophy for Global Ethics (Acumen, 2009), which was shortlisted for the Australian Museum Eureka prize for research in ethics in 2010. Professor van Hooft's current research centres on Global Ethics and Political Philosophy, the concept of caring in contemporary moral theory and the role of hope in politics and religion.

Bonhoeffer: Kierkegaard's 'single individual' in a 'state of exception

Throughout the 1930s, Bonhoeffer protested the influence of National Socialism on the German church. He also preached pacifism, and established an illegal seminary to train the leaders of the Confessing church to resist the authorities using the Sermon on the Mount. Yet, the same Bonhoeffer became involved in conspiracy only a couple of years after the closure of the seminary, thereby abandoning the pacifism he found in the Sermon on the Mount. He became a double agent in the Abwehr and was killed for this after the failure of the July 20th plot, when papers were found implicating Bonhoeffer as a conspirator. For many Bonhoeffer scholars and admirers, Bonhoeffer's decision to turn away from pacifism to conspiracy remains intelligible in the context of Christ's self-sacrifice and the suffering church-community.

I'm going to take as a given that Bonhoeffer's Christology does indeed provide the continuing thread between pacifism and conspiracy. Christ is the unifying figure in Bonhoeffer's action, both as a pacifist and as a conspirator. However, I argue that Bonhoeffer's involvement in conspiracy cannot be understood primarily in the context of self-sacrifice and the suffering Christian church-community. I will do this in three parts. First, I will argue that the relationship of Bonhoeffer's Christ to the disciple is not mediated through community, but is more direct in a way that is closer to Kierkegaard's Abraham in Fear and Trembling. Second, through an analysis of Bonhoeffer's concept of 'the extraordinary' in his pacifist text Discipleship, and the concept of the 'extraordinary situation' in the conspirator text Ethics, I show that Christ as the unifying figure  may lead to a deity who commands peace in the Sermon on the Mount but remains free to command killing in an 'extraordinary situation'. Third, through a comparison with Karl Barth's 'extreme case', Grenzsituation, and Schmitt's 'state of exception', Ausnahmezustand, it will become clear that Bonhoeffer's disciple in the extraordinary situation 'suspends' the normal state of affairs, in a way that disturbingly mirrors Schmitt's argument for dictatorship and the right of the sovereign to suspend the law in a state of exception. I suggest Bonhoeffer's political involvement from pacifism to conspiracy may be seen as an example of the 'single individual' that enacts a suspension of ethics in a Schmittian sense.

Finally, I will draw attention to the intellectual source of Bonhoeffer's 'extraordinary situation' and Schmitt 'state of exception': the Danish philosopher Kierkegaard and his concept of the 'teleological suspension of the ethical' in Fear and Trembling. Through the engagement with both Kierkegaard and Schmitt, I want to show Bonhoeffer's involvement in conspiracy is problematic for anyone who wants to interpret his involvement in conspiracy as intelligible in the context of Christ's self-sacrifice and the suffering church-community.

Petra Brown is a PhD candidate at Deakin University.

A taste of ashes: vengefulness and impossible reciprocity in Beauvoir

Written just after the liberation of France and during the trials of collaborators, Beauvoir's little-discussed essay 'An Eye for an Eye' (1946) describes the worst of crimes as those that reduce the human being to a thing. She suggests that we can only truly understand reactions of outrage to these crimes, such as vengefulness, in these extreme situations when we feel them in their 'true concreteness'. I argue that the essay works to undermine her own refusal to sign the petition for clemency for Robert Brasillach, an anti-Semitic writer tried, convicted and executed for treason. Beauvoir sets out to understand why what she sees as the need for revenge and a restored reciprocity in the light of these crimes usually cannot be satisfied. Both private revenge and state punishment fail to bring about the perpetrator's recognition of what they have done, their own ambiguous existence or an acknowledgement of the perspective of the victim. Here Beauvoir parallels this impossible reciprocity with that of love. I show how her position shifts in The Second Sex (1949) and argue that we must distinguish these emotional reactions of outrage from reciprocal loving relations. Furthermore, I demonstrate that Beauvoir's support for capital punishment in this case is in tension with her developed existential account and her own account of vengefulness in the essay.

Marguerite La Caze is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Queensland. Her research interests include European philosophy, feminist philosophy, moral psychology and aesthetics. She is the author of Wonder and Generosity: Their Role in Ethics and Politics, (forthcoming with SUNY), and The Analytic Imaginary (Cornell UP, 2002). Marguerite is the current Chair of the Australasian Society for Continental Philosophy.

In Popper's Midrash: Is Karl Popper a Jewish philosopher?

This paper seeks to rewrite our understanding of Popper through an exploration of his thought in relation to twentieth century Jewish philosophers particularly Leibowtiz, Levinas and Wittgenstein. As most Popper scholars have written about Popper from an Anglo- analytic or philosophy of science perspective, this paper seeks to reposition Popper within, yet not limited to the 'continental' tradition. This paper builds upon existing scholarship on Popper's formative Viennese environment and its Jewish context by Malachi Hacohen (2000), the Kantian basis for Popper's philosophy (Naraniecki 2010), as well as new perspectives by Michael Fagenblat on the on the way Kantianism has helped to reframe fundamental features of Jewish thought such as an opposition to idolatry and theodicy. This paper argues that the central Kantian and Midrashic aspects that Flagenblat associates with the thought of Levinas and Leibowitz can also help to explain key characteristics of Popper's philosophy.

Alex Naraniecki is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Centre for Citizenship and Globalisation. His current research project is entitled 'New Foundations for Multiculturalism' and he is currently working on various publications and research projects focusing on the development of multiculturalism in Australia as well as the role of recognition and dialogue in promoting intercultural relations. Alex is also involved in collaborative research projects within the Migration and Intercultural Relations Research Cluster.

Expressive Agency in Deleuze's Logic of Sense

It is common to differentiate between two kinds of events: actions and mere occurrences. Whereas the latter are events which are passively undergone, the former are things that are actively done. Actions, it is typically held, are the intentional doings of some agent. In The Logic of Sense, however, Deleuze appears to collapse the distinction between actions and mere occurrences, holding that events of both kinds are ultimately only ever impassive happenings. He asserts an ontological distinction between the corporeal realm of causes (including psychological causes) and the realm of events, holding that events exist only as the 'expressible' of propositions. In relation to the category of action, this gives rise to the counter-intuitive thought that what I appear to actively do does not really depend on my prior willing or conscious intention to do it; it rather depends on the open-ended expression of the 'sense' of what I do. And insofar as my apparent action does not coincide with my conscious intention or volition, it appears to me as something for which I am not ultimately responsible.

At the same time, however, Deleuze does not jettison the idea of 'willing the event' in The Logic Sense. Nor does he dismiss the ideas of agency and personal responsibility for what happens. 'Willing the event', however, does not consist in directly willing some particular action. It rather consists in expressively engaging with the pure 'sense-event' in which all events are determined.

In order to make sense of this position, this paper will offer an outline of a conception of 'expressive' agency that Deleuze appears to be working with in The Logic of Sense. This account involves four claims. The first claim is that while the intentional agent can no longer be thought to be behind her actions in the traditional sense, she is certainly 'out there' inher actions such as these are made sense of by others. The second claim is that while the actions of agents are multiply interpretable by others, these others are themselves 'out there' in their multiply interpretable actions. The third claim is that an action will count as the action of a particular agent insofar as both this agent and other agents are able to recognize him in that action. The final claim is that these multiple interpretations and recognitive processes take place in a shared expressive medium - call it 'language' - which is not fixed but always being produced. Taking these four claims together, we will see that an action will come to count as mine, not because I directly will it and subsequently achieve what I intended to do; but because both I and others expressively produce the conditions in which we are able to recognize a particular action as expressing something about me as an agent.

Dr Sean Bowden is an Alfred Deakin Postdoctoral Research Fellow at Deakin University, Australia. He is the author of The Priority of Events: Deleuze's Logic of Sense (Edinburgh University Press, 2011), and the co-editor of Badiou and Philosophy (EUP, 2012).

The Art of Time

Erin Manning holds a University Research Chair in Relational Art and Philosophy in the Faculty of Fine Arts at Concordia University (Montreal, Canada). She is also the director of the Sense Lab, a laboratory that explores the intersections between art practice and philosophy through the matrix of the sensing body in movement. She is the author of Always More Than One: Individuation's Dance (Duke UP, forthcoming), Relationscapes: Movement, Art, Philosophy (MIT Press, 2009), and Politics of Touch: Sense, Movement, Sovereignty (Minnesota UP, 2007). From August 6-17, Erin has an exhibition at Deakin University's Phoenix Gallery, entitled Weather Patterns.

Divided minds, selves, egos and internal objects

Partitive conceptions of mind have a long history in philosophy. Various types have been advanced to resolve certain troublesome aspects of self-experience and irrationality in belief and action. Some of these conceptions propose, radically (and roughly), that the mind (self, ego) splits into parts (sub-systems, component selves, subsidiary egos), that have perspectives and aims which are not shared with other parts, and function as independent centres of agency. Plato's tripartite division of mind is of this kind, as is (I believe) Freud's structural theory. W. R. D. Fairbairn's elegant account of the 'basic endopsychic situation' involving 'a multiplicity of egos' linked to specific internal objects is emphatically of this kind; indeed, Fairbairn allows that internal objects, though not ego structures, may also acquire a 'dynamic independence', which seems to mean, at least, that they too are independent centres of agency.

Many philosophers, and some psychoanalysts, reject these partitive conceptions, for a variety of reasons; amongst them: that they are incoherent; that they fail to provide identity conditions for subsidiary parts or internal objects; that they are in conflict with the conception of a substantial unified self inherent in common-sense psychology and therefore sever the fundamental links between such psychology and psychoanalytic understanding; that they are unnecessary to answer to the clinical material. I will examine some of these objections against the backdrop of Fairbairn's conception of endopsychic structure and attempt to develop a partitive conception of the self which is in many ways faithful to Fairbairn's picture while preserving sufficient elements of a notion of the mind as a unity to answer some of the salient objections.

Dr Pataki is honorary senior fellow at the University of Melbourne and honorary fellow of Deakin University. He studied philosophy at the University of Melbourne and psychoanalysis at University College, London University. He has been a lecturer in philosophy at RMIT, University of Tasmania and University of Melbourne. He co-edited, with Michael Levine,Racism in Mind (Cornell 2004) and is the author of Against Religion (Scribe, 2007) as well as of several articles and book chapters on the philosophy of mind, and numerous popular pieces and reviews.

Eclipse of Practical Reason

Contemporary expressions of doubt about the possibility of a substantive employment of practical reason generally seek historical support from Hume. Defenders of substantive conceptions of practical rationality, by contrast, tend to draw inspiration from Aristotle, Aquinas or Kant. My focus in this paper is upon developments in the period between 1600 and 1650 for theories of practical rationality. My claim is that an examination of this period, which is perhaps associated most readily with the rise of a mechanistic philosophy of nature, is not only crucial for understanding the motivations for scepticism about practical reason later expressed with particular force by Hume, it also can also clarify the conditions that would need to be met for a successful defence of a substantive account. Such an analysis - or at least so I argue - also demonstrates that an approach to practical reason that adopts suitably modified Thomistic assumptions is better able to meet the relevant conditions than one deriving inspiration from Kant. The structure of the paper is as follows. In section one I sketch the distinction between substantive and procedural conceptions of practical rationality, using the Thomistic and Humean accounts as ideal-types of such theories. This provides the background for an analysis of developments in the first half of the seventeenth century, which is the central focus of section 2. Section 3 closes with some reflections on the lessons of the period between 1600 and 1650 for contemporary debates on the possibility of developing a substantive account of practical reason.

George Duke lectures in philosophy in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at Deakin University. His research interests include the philosophy of language, the history of analytical philosophy and political philosophy. He has published on Michael Dummett's theory of abstract objects, theories of abstract singular terms and the conceptual presuppositions of analytical philosophy.

Messianic sovereignty: reading Nietzsche with Benjamin

Early in the second essay of On the Genealogy of Morals Nietzsche introduces the figure of the "sovereign individual," bearer of the "right to make promises" and the "extraordinary privilege of responsibility." He then promises to reveal the history of human development which culminates in the emergence of a consciousness which is ripe for such responsibility. However, by the end of the essay the "sovereign individual" has disappeared. Instead, Nietzsche dramatically invokes a "redeeming man of great love and contempt" who "must come one day," and then declares that at this point, he must fall silent.

In seeking the origins of responsibility we are thus led to discover a messianic expectation or promise. What does this mean for Nietzsche's approach to sovereignty and responsibility? Is the sovereign individual a moral figure, or is his sovereign practice of responsibility better understood in political or religious terms? This paper will draw upon Walter Benjamin's deployment of a similar nesting of secular and religious thought to explore these questions. To read Nietzsche with Benjamin will lead to an interpretation of the "sovereign individual" as an allegorical figure of messianic politics, rather than an image of modern moral achievement or aspiration.Justine McGill is a lecturer in philosophy, currently teaching at La Trobe University. She is the co-editor, with sociologist Craig Brown, of an interdisciplinary collection on

Violence in France and Australia: Disorder in the postcolonial welfare state

(Sydney University Press, 2010). She has research interests in Nietzsche studies, continental philosophy, early modern thought, film theory, feminist philosophy and Asian philosophy, particularly Buddhist thought. She is also interested in bringing analytic, continental and Asian philosophical perspectives into dialogue (for example, in exploring philosophy of mind and consciousness). She is currently working on a book about the concept of responsibility in modernity.

Nietzsche's Politics of the Event

This paper offers an analysis of Nietzsche's politics of the event (Ereignis). In Nietzsche's published works as well as in the Nachlass, one can distinguish between several different uses of the term Ereignis (event). On my hypothesis, Nietzsche's conception of the event is inseparable from his conception of the great human being. Therefore an analysis of the former must come hand in hand with an analysis of the latter. I argue that Nietzsche provides a politics of the event and that this politics denotes the task of cultivating great human beings. On my account, one can distinguish between two different politics of the event in Nietzsche. On the one hand, there is what Nietzsche refers to as small politics ("kleine Politik") understood as a politics of the state or of moral and religious institutions which seek to produce conditions which favor the emergence of great human beings. At the heart of this politics stands the belief that the rise of great human beings is inherently contingent and hence requires the task of transforming contingency into necessity, of turning the occurrence of great human beings into a necessity. We are here dealing with an active politics of liberation which seeks to change the course of history giving it a new direction and a new aim. On the other hand, we can distinguish in Nietzsche a great politics ("grosse Politik") of the event which is not inscribed into the program of a particular political or moral institution. Rather it is a politics beyond politics and morality where the aim is not to change the course of time but rather to affirm the eternity of the moment. At the center of this politics stands Nietzsche's conception of amor fati. We are here dealing with a passive-receptive politics situated beyond the historical course of time. From its perspective, the great human being is a reflection of the eternal value and worth of the whole of life beyond human measure. From the perspective of this politics, the challenge is not to turn the contingent into the necessary but rather to attain knowledge of necessity for only the latter can truly free up in the human being life's potential for culture. Small politics is a human, perhaps all too human practice which inscribes the event in the historical becoming of humanity, whereas great politics is a politics of life which inscribes the event in the eternal return of the same. In what follows, I wish to show the different elements and entanglements of these two politics of the event in three recurrent figures in Nietzsche's philosophy: the historical agent, the genius and the philosopher in both his early and late work.

Professor Lemm is Head of the School of Humanities, UNSW. She is the author of Nietzsche's Animal Philosophy: Culture, Politics and the Animality of the Human Being (Fordham, 2009), and has edited books on Foucault and Hegel. Her research focuses on the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, contemporary political thought, biopolitics, the question of theanimal, philosophy of culture and cultures of memory, and theories of justice and the gift.

Power, Government and Strategy: Foucault's Reconsideration of Power after 1976

Foucault's lectures in 1976 open with the statement of an intellectual crisis. They proceed to a series of questions about the nature of power and the ways that he has conceived of it up to this point: what is power? How is it exercised? Is it ultimately a relation of force? Only some of these questions are answered in the course of these lectures. His answer to the overriding question, what is power?, is not forthcoming until after the discovery of governmentality in his 1978 lectures. It is not fully developed until after his lectures on liberal and neoliberal governmentality in 1979.This talk aims to retrace his answers to the questions in the light of the published lectures and to examine the consequences of these answers for his analysis of neoliberal governmentality.

Paul Patton is Professor of Philosophy at the University of New South Wales and Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities. He has published extensively on contemporary European philosophy and political philosophy. He is the author of, among other works, Deleuzian Concepts: Philosophy, Colinization, Politics (Stanford University Press, 2010) and Deleuze and the Political (Routledge, 2000).

Parody and Truth in Nietzsche's Genealogy

In view of its apparently scholarly form the Genealogy of Morality is often viewed as a succinct, relatively systematic, and hence canonical exposition of Nietzsche's mature views on morality. However, the status of this work's claims appears to be challenged by Nietzsche's views on the nature and value of truth, particularly through the self-cancellation of the ascetic ideal with which the work dramatically closes. In this paper I reconstruct a framework for interpreting theGenealogy's project and argue that Nietzsche's overarching intention was to parody a scholarly work. I then explore whether the intention to parody undermines the work's apparent historical, psychological and metaethical claims, and whether it results in incoherence (intentional or otherwise). I attempt to show how successful negotiation of these difficulties allows the Genealogy to be seen as exemplifying Nietzsche's idea of 'Gay Science' and - in supposed contrast to Wagner - blending cheerfulness and profundity.

Andrew Inkpin has first degrees in theoretical physics from the University of York, and in philosophy, art history and psychology from the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena. His graduate studies in philosophy were at University College London, where he completed an MPhil and PhD. His main research interests are in modern European philosophy, especially phenomenology (in particular Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty), Wittgenstein and Nietzsche.

Art as the "Plenipotentiary of Impulse": A Reconstruction of Adorno's Aesthetic Theory in Light of His Reading of Freud

Geoff Boucher is a Senior Lecturer in the Psychoanalytic Studies Programme and in Literary Studies at Deakin University. He is the author of several books on critical theory, including The Charmed Circle of Ideology (2008) and Zizek and Politics (2010). His books on Understanding Marxism and Adorno Reframed are appearing in 2012. He works on contemporary culture from a perspective influenced by Lacanian psychoanalysis, publishing in the fields of continental philosophy and psychoanalytic studies.

General Ethics and the Theory of Responsive Cohesion

In this talk I will outline the nature of ethics and discuss its expansion from interhuman ethics to environmental ethics to what I have referred to as General Ethics. By General Ethics I mean the development of a single, integrated approach to ethics that encompasses the realms of interhuman ethics, the ethics of the natural environment, and the ethics of the human-constructed, or built, environment. I will outline my own approach to General Ethics, which I refer to as thetheory of responsive cohesion. This approach is both different from and more expansive than others on offer because it sees the basis of value as lying in a particular form of organization or structure that things can assume as opposed to particular kinds of higher-order powers or capacities that some things have, such as autobiographical self-awareness, rationality, sentience, being alive, or the capacity to maintain some kind of holistic integrity (all of which themselves represent a subset of the total class of responsively cohesive structures). A range of significant ethical implications follows from this approach.

Warwick Fox is Emeritus Professor at the University of Central Lancashire. He has published widely in environmental philosophy in particular and, more recently, on the extension of this work into what he has referred to as General Ethics. He is represented in leading anthologies and encyclopedias in the area, has served on the editorial advisory boards of some of the leading journals in the area (including Environmental EthicsOrganization and Environment, andEnvironmental Values), and his books include Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing New Foundations for Environmentalism (State University of New York Press, 1995, and Green Books, UK, 1995), Ethics and the Built Environment (ed., Routledge, 2000), and A Theory of General Ethics: Human Relationships, Nature, and the Built Environment (The MIT Press, 2006).

What was Philosophical about Natural Philosophy?

Historians are agreed upon that fact that 'science' is a relatively recent conception and that 'natural philosophy' was, roughly speaking, the pre-nineteenth century equivalent.  However, there remains room for discussion about the exact identity of this early enterprise.  In this paper I survey some common claims about the category 'natural philosophy', and propose that we understand this activity better if think less about disciplines, doctrines, and methods, and a more about the way in which particular intellectual activities shape the person, mould behaviour and mental habits, and render the mind susceptible to the reception of particular truths.  Natural philosophy, I will suggest, can be regarded as a means of intellectual and moral formation, in other words, as contributing in important ways to the classical philosophical goal of the good life.Professor Peter Harrison is Director of the Centre for the History of European Discourses at the University of Queensland. Prior to taking up this position, he was for a number of years the Idreos Professor of Science and Religion at the University of Oxford. At Oxford he was a member of the Faculties of Theology and History, a Fellow of Harris Manchester College, and Director of the Ian Ramsey Centre where he continues to hold a Senior Research Fellowship. He has been a Visiting Fellow at Oxford, Yale, and Princeton, is a founding member of the International Society for Science and Religion, and a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities. In 2011 he delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh. His five books include, most recently,

Wrestling with Nature: From Omens to Science

(Chicago, 2011) andThe Cambridge Companion to Science and Religion

 (Cambridge, 2010). He has published over 60 articles or book chapters. He is currently editing his Gifford Lectures under the working title of 'Science, Religion and Modernity' and is also working on a project concerned with conceptions of progress in history and the historical sciences.
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