Centre for Energy, the Environment, and Natural Disasters

The Centre for Energy, the Environment, and Natural Disasters will place Deakin Business School at the forefront of contemporary debates on energy, the environment, and natural disasters.

The centre seeks to build upon the existing research and industry strengths in the Business School and substantially expand them.

Global development

Energy and the environment play a crucial role in global development.

The European Commission for Global Development has announced that one of the key components for global development post 2015 is to improve global and domestic regulatory and policy frameworks for oceans, water, soil, energy production, air, pollution and wildlife.

Similarly, the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, reiterated the call by the General Assembly of the United Nations for what it described as a global agenda of change.

Our focus

The CEEND's focus is upon the following:

  • accelerating the creation of long-term environmental strategies for achieving sustainable development
  • improving and facilitating domestic and global strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • improving economical and social development in the use and exploitation of resources and environmental management among developing and developed countries
  • implementing aspirational regulatory and policy goals for local and international communities to improve energy, resource and environmental management.

These goals have been recognised by the Chief Scientist of Australia, which listed supporting the development of reliable, low-cost, sustainable energy supplies and enhancing the long term viability of Australia's resources industries as one of its core strategic research priorities.

CEEND will provide opportunities for research and engagement in these crucially important areas of domestic and global concern. It will seek to liaise with industry, government and academia.



  • 'The Agri South Africa Constitutional Court decision' (2014) 33 Australian Resources and Energy Law Journal 230-249 (PJ Badenhorst and NJJ Olivier).
  • 'Alienation or disposal of a 'controlling interest' in a prospecting company - Mogale Alloys (Pty) Ltd v Nuco Chrome Boputhatswana (Pty) Ltd 2011 (6) SA 96 (GSJ)' 2012 De Jure 388-404 (PJ Badenhorst and JJ Du Plessis).
  • 'Conflict resolution between owners of land and holders of rights to minerals: a lopsided triangle?' 2011 Journal of South African Law 326-341 ((PJ Badenhorst).
  • Conversion of jointly-held old order mining rights: an all and nothing ruling? Minister of Mineral Resources of the RSA v Sishen Iron Ore (394/12) [2013] ZASCA 50 (28 March 2013) 2014 (77) Journal of Contemporary Roman Dutch law 145-155 (PJ Badenhorst and NJJ Olivier).
  • 'Conversion of 'old order mining rights': Sleeping at the MPRDA's wheel of (mis)fortune? - Sishen Iron Ore Company (Pty) Ltd v Minister of Mineral Resources (unreported decision) Case no 28980/10 (NGD)' 2013 (76) Journal of Contemporary Roman Dutch law 269-284 (PJ Badenhorst and NJJ Olivier).
  • 'Expropriations by virtue of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act: Are there some more trees in the forest? Agri South Africa and Van Rooyen v Minister of Minerals and Energy 2009 Journal of South African Law 600-608 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Expropriation of old order mineral rights in South Africa: The Constitutional Court has its say (twice)' 2014 Property Law Review 53-58 (PJ Badenhorst)
  • 'Expropriation of 'Unused Old Order Rights' by the MPRDA: You had nothing! Minister of Minerals and Energy v Agri SA (CALS amicus curiae)' 2013 Journal of Contemporary Roman Dutch law 472 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Expropriation of 'unused old order rights' by the MPRDA: you have lost it! Agri SA v Minister of Minerals and Energy2012 Journal of Contemporary Roman Dutch law 329-343 (PJ Badenhorst and NJJ Olivier).
  • 'The final judgment' 2012 Journal of South African Law 106-129 (PJ Badenhorst, NJJ Olivier and C Williams).
  • 'Host communities and competing applications for prospecting rights in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002' 2011 De Jure 126-148 (PJ Badenhorst and NJJ Olivier)
  • 'Large-scale Expropriation of Mineral Rights in South Africa: The Agri South Africa fiasco' (2012) Australian Resources and Energy Law Journal 205-220 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Large scale Expropriation of Mineral Rights in South Africa: The Agri South Africa saga' (2011) Australian Resources and Energy Law Journal 261-272 (PJ Badenhorst).


  • 'The Make-up of Transitional Rights to Minerals: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Blue ...?' 2011 South African Law Journal 763-784 ((PJ Badenhorst).
  • Member of a research project on 'Mineral law in Africa', of the Faculty of Law, University of Cape Town (since 2103).
  • 'Mining and Minerals' Law of South Africa volume 18 (2nd edition) Butterworths (2007)(with Hanri Mostert and M Dendy).
  • Mineral and Petroleum Law of South Africa: Commentary and Statutes Jutas (2004) (with 10 annual revision services)(PJ Badenhorst and Hanri Mostert).
  • 'Minerals' in Hanri Mostert and Anne Pope The Principles of the Law of Property in South Africa Oxford University Press (2010) (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Onteiening van onbenutte ou-orde regte: Het iets niets geword?' Agri South Africa v Minister of Minerals and Energy (2013 (4) SA 1 (CC) 2014 Journal of Contemporary Roman Dutch law 313-333 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Ownership of minerals in situ in South Africa: Australian darning to the rescue?' 2010 South African Law Journal 646-672 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Paying the Piper (in praesentia) - Xstrata South Africa (Pty) Ltd v SFF Association (2012 (5) SA 60 (SCA))' 2013 Obiter 322 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Paying the Piper (in absentia) - SFF Association v Xstrata 2011 JDR 0407 (GSJ)' 2012 Obiter 436-447 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Public Resource Ownership and Community Engagement in a Modern Energy Landscape' (2017) Pace Environmental Law Review 34 379 (Samantha Hepburn).
  • 'Publicly owned minerals: Let the truth be spoken - Cadia Holdings Pty Ltd v State of New South Wales [2010] HCA 27' 2012 De Jure 605-623 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • Review of a Refusal to Grant a Prospecting right Global Pact Trading 207 (Pty) Ltd v Minister of Minerals and Energy 2008 Obiter 113-123 (PJ Badenhorst and Marita Carnelley).
  • 'Right of access to land for mining purposes: on terra firma at last? - Joubert v Maranda Mining Company (Pty) Ltd' 2010 Journal of Contemporary Roman-Dutch law 318-328 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • Silberberg and Schoeman's The Law of Property 5th edition Butterworths (2006)(PJ Badenhorst, Juanita Pienaar and Hanri Mostert).
  • 'Status of tailings dumps: Let's go working in the past?' 2010 Stellenbosch Law Review 116-130 (PJ Badenhorst and CN Van Heerden).
  • 'A Tale of two Expropriations: Newcrestia and Agrizania' 2014 De Jure 258-282 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Towards a theory on publically-owned minerals in Victoria' (2014) 22 Australian Property Law Journal 157-186 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Transitional prospecting rights: A moratorial escort across the bridge? De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd v Regional Manager, Mineral Regulation Free State Region:Department of Minerals and Energy' 2011 2 Obiter 463-472 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Security of mineral tenure in South Africa: Carrot or stick?' 2014 (32.1) Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law 5-40 (PJ Badenhorst).
  • 'Security of mineral tenure in South Africa: Carrot or stick?' paper delivered at the Centre for Resources, Energy and Environmental law at the Melbourne School of Law on 10 September 2013.
  • 'Towards and old school theory on (new) rights to minerals' in Carnelley, Hoctor and Mukbheibir (Eds) De Jure Gentium et Civili Festscrift in honour of Eltjo Schrage (2014) 119-143 (PJ Badenhorst).

Events and Media

Financial Issues for Adani?

Professor Samantha Hepburn discussed the financial risks of Adani on Radio National Drive on December 7, 2017, after the project was refused a loan by Chinese banks.

Would a federal government ban on foreign funding for political parties impact environment groups and charities?

Professor Samantha Hepburn's article, Green groups and charities could be collateral damage in government's foreign donation ban, appeared in the Conversation on December 6, 2017.

What does Adani's Carmichael mine mean for Queensland if it goes ahead?

Professor Samantha Hepburn's article, Infographic: here's exactly what Adani's Carmichael mine means for Queensland, appeared in the Conversation on November 22, 2017.

BHP supports Australian environment groups

Professor Samantha Hepburn's article, Why has BHP distanced itself from legal threat to environment groups? appeared in the Conversation.

Australia's Experts Weigh In On Turnbull's National Energy Guarantee

Professor Samantha Hepburn was one of the leading experts invited by Gizmodo to respond to the launch of the Turnbull Government’s National Energy Guarantee.

The Government's New Gas Deal

Professor Samantha Hepburn's article, The government's new gas deal will ease the squeeze, but dodges the price issue, appeared in the Conversation.

All Energy Conference Australia 2017

Professor Samantha Hepburn, CEEND member, presented at the closing debate for the All Energy Conference Australia 2017 held 11-12 October, 2017 at the Melbourne Convention Centre.

Professor Hepburn was on the panel with:
- Dr John Söderbaum FTSE, Co-Chair of ATSE's Energy Forum and Director of Science and Technology at ACIL Allen Consulting
- Paul Burke, Fellow, Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University
- Robert Pritchard, Executive Director, Energy Policy Institute of Australia

The title of Professor Hepburn's presentation was Australia's Energy Future (PPT, 343KB). The presentation was extremely well received.

Power Supply Crisis

Professor Samantha Hepburn and Ebony Bennett from Australia Institute discussed the power supply crisis on the Leon Byner program on Radio 5AA.

The Japan-Australia Dialogue on Energy Policy and Regulation

In September 2017 Professor Samantha Hepburn attended the Japan-Australia Dialogue on Energy Policy and Regulation. The workshop was a fantastic opportunity to hear from the Ministry of Environment in Japan regarding the shift to renewable energy production in Japan and the increased focus upon coal fired electricity rather than nuclear. Australian academics and commentators discussed the transitioning environment in Australia. Professor Hepburn discussed the importance of cooperative federalism between federal and state governments in policy and regulation towards renewable energy development. The papers including that presented by Professor Hepburn, can be found here.

Electricity Prices

Listen to Professor Samantha Hepburn's interview with Leon Byner on Radio 5AA, as they discuss electricity and gas prices.

New Solar Thermal Power Plant in SA

Collated by the Australian Science Media Centre, several experts including Deakin University's Professor Samantha Hepburn discuss the latest reports that Port Augusta will become home to a $650 million, 150-megawatt solar thermal power plant, which could be ready and operational by 2020.

Climate Change and the Law

Professor Samantha Hepburn took part in a public panel on Climate Change and the Law, on 29 August 2017 hosted by the RMIT Centre for Urban Research Climate Change and Resilience Group. She discussed different ways in which we might reconceive existing legal mechanisms and approaches when dealing with climate change and referred in particular to the conclusions of the Full Federal Court in the Adani decision handed down on 25th August 2017.

Her presentation is available here.

Finkel Report Independent Review

Professor Samantha Hepburn provided expert comment on the Finkel Report Independent Review into the Future Security of the National Electricity Market in July 2017.

Australian Energy Week 2017 Conference

Professor Sam Hepburn was an invited speaker at the Australian Energy Week 2017 Conference energy policy forum on 23 June.

The Economics Of The Adani Coal Mine

Professor Samantha Hepburn discusses the economics of the Adani Coal Mine with Jennie Lenman on Radio Adelaide.

Listen to The Economics of the Adani Coal Mine

Professor Samantha Hepburn’s article, The Economics Of Adani's Coal Mine Simply Do Not Make Sense, appeared in the Huffington Post.

Meeting Regulatory Challenges in a Transitioning Energy Sector

On Tuesday 16 May, the Centre presented an event hosted by Corrs Chambers Westgarth. Michelle Groves, Chief Executive Officer, Office of the Australian Energy Regulator, examined the regulatory and policy environment relevant to transitioning energy sector, the rationales underlying energy regulation, the hallmarks of good regulation, the existing framework for renewables and the conventional grid, and what the future might look like in terms of a shift towards intelligent resilient grids.

SA Energy Crisis

Professor Samantha Hepburn discusses the energy crisis in South Australia and the need for a new regulatory framework with the integration of renewable energy on 5aa Radio, Adelaide.

Our Team