Attribution

Attribution and citation

Attribution and citation

Creators have 'moral rights' under the Copyright Act. This includes the right to be correctly attributed as the creator of their work.

When you refer to or use someone else's publications or data in your research or teaching you should attribute the creator by providing a citation that includes information about the creator and source.

Citation enables:

  • attribution of the creator
  • tracking of the impact of research
  • others to find the publication or data
  • verification of data and research findings.

Citing publications

Citing publications

When you refer to or use someone else's publications your research or teaching attribute the creator by providing a citation that includes information about the creator and source.

Information to include in the citation

  • Author/creator
  • Title (if any) of the particular part or piece used
  • Title of the source work (whatever that work may be: book, film, website, etc.)
  • Date
  • Publication/production and or copyright holder details as are evident with the work

How to format the citation

You can use the referencing style used in your discipline or field of research. The study skills website provides guidelines on referencing styles.

Examples

Television program

Australian story 2012, television program, ABC 1, Sydney, 8 October.

DVD

A beautiful mind 2001, motion picture, Dreamworks, Los Angeles.

Citing data

Citing data

When you refer to or use someone else's data in your research or teaching attribute the creator by providing a citation that includes information about the creator and source.

Information to include in the citation

  • Creator(s) of the dataset
  • Year of publication
  • Title
  • Version (where there are several versions)
  • Publisher - the organisation/repository hosting the data
  • Resource type, e.g. database, dataset, computational model
  • Identifier (where available include a unique identifier for the data, e.g. doi)
  • Location (where available include a persistent URL from which the dataset can be accessed)

How to format the citation

You can format the data citation in accordance with:

  • the suggestions provided by the data repository
  • the referencing style used in your discipline
  • the referencing style required by a publisher.

The study skills website provides guidelines on referencing styles.

Examples

Keith, M. (2011). Parkes observations for project P675 semester 2009APRS. v1. CSIRO. [Data Collection]. 102.100.100/6859 http://hdl.handle.net/102.100.100/6859?index=1

Speldewinde, C., Gent, M., & Kilpatrick, S. (2012). Programs to raise tertiary education aspiration, 2011-2012 data. Deakin Research Online. [dataset]. http://hdl.handle.net/10536/DRO/DU:30044679

More information

More information about data citation and examples are available from:

Attribution and Creative Commons licensed works

Attribution and Creative Commons licensed works

All Creative Commons licences require that you attribute the creator of the work.

Attributing a Creative Commons licensed work is similar to citing other works but you should also state which Creative Commons licence it is available under and link to the licence.

Information to include in the attribution

If the creator specifies how to attribute their material, follow their instructions.

Generally, you should include:

  • title of the work and a link to the original work
  • creator's name and where available a link to the creator's profile page
  • type of licence the work is available under and a link to the licence
  • copyright notice (if any)
  • changes made to the source work (if any- not all Creative Commons licences allow this).

How to format the attribution

  • You can vary the format depending on the type of content you are re-using and the medium in which you are re-using it.
    E.g. If re-using online you can hyperlink the title of the work to the original work but if re-using in print you have to put the URL of the original work as text.
  • You can also adapt the format to match the referencing style of your discipline, e.g. Vancouver or APA.
  • You can use the Creative Commons licence buttons to indicate the type of licence the work is available under.

Examples

Images

Re-using online

Image: Mountain Laurel by Jason Hollinger available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence.

Image: Mountain Laurel by Jason Hollinger creative commons attribution licence button

Re-using in print

Image: Mountain Laurel <http://www.flickr.com/photos/7147684@N03/1292338417/> by Jason Hollinger <http://www.flickr.com/people/7147684@N03/> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en>

Image: Mountain Laurel by Jason Hollinger creative commons attribution licence button http://www.flickr.com/photos/7147684@N03/1292338417/

Podcasts

Podcast: Redirecting Fleet Street: 3: Tweets, Beaks and Hacks: Regulation and the Law in the Age of New Media Journalism by Mark Stephens. Available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) licence.

Adapted to APA style

Stephens, M. (Presenter). (2012, June 6). Redirecting Fleet street: 3: Tweets, beaks and hacks: Regulation and the law in the age of new media journalism [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/redirecting-fleet-street-3-tweets-beaks-and-hacks-regulation-and-law-age-new-media-audio. Available under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) licence.

Streaming videos

Video: Creative Commons Kiwi by Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand with support from InternetNZ, available under a Creative Commons Attribution licence.

Adapted to APA style

Creative Commons Aotearoa New Zealand. [plccanz]. (2011, July 4). Creative commons kiwi [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeTlXtEOplA. Available under a Creative Commons Attribution licence.

Where to put the attribution

Different media may have different conventions about where to place attributions. Some suggestions are listed below:

Type of medium Where to put the attribution information
Books, journals, magazines, reports
  • next to the Creative Commons licensed work OR
  • as a footer along the bottom of the page in which the work appears on OR
  • in the back of the publication include a list of all of the Creative Commons licensed works in the order in which they appear in the publication
Photos and images
  • next to the photograph OR
  • close by (e.g. on the edge or bottom of the page)
Slideshows
  • next to the Creative Commons work OR
  • as a footer along the bottom of the slide that the work appears on OR
  • include a credits slide at the end of the show that lists all the materials used and their attribution details
Film
  • with the work when it appears on screen during the film OR
  • in the credits, just as you would see with music in a commercial film
Podcasts
  • Mention the name of the artist and that it is under a CC licence during the podcast, like a radio announcement, and provide full attribution on your website, next to where the podcast is available.

Table adapted from table in Attributing Creative Commons Materials by Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation in partnership with Creative Commons
Australia
, available under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia licence.

Tips

Open Attribute browser add-on

Install the Open Attribute browser add-on to easily create attributions for Creative Commons licensed content.

  • When you are on webpages with Creative Commons licensed content, for example a Flickr photo, you can activate the tool and it will generate the attribution in plain text or HTML.
  • You can copy the attribution and paste it into your document when you reuse the CC licensed content.

Creative Commons licence buttons

You can use the Creative Commons licence buttons to indicate the type of licence the work is available under.

More information

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