Risk factors for workplace stress

Work Demands

Work EnvironmentUnpleasant or dangerous physical conditions such as crowding, noise, air pollution, or ergonomic problems.
Work EquipmentProblems regarding the reliability, availability, suitability and maintenance or repair of equipment and facilities.
Task DesignLack of variety or short work cycles, fragmented or meaningless work, under-use of skills, high uncertainty.
Task Fitpsychological fit between the employee's interpersonal and emotional competencies, their job skills, and the position they hold
Work Load and Pace  Work overload or underload, lack of control over pacing, high levels of time pressure.
Work ScheduleShift working, inflexible work schedules, unpredictable hours, long or unsocial hours.
Customer-DemandsThe need to hide negative emotions during interactions with clients/customers, unrealistic customer expectations, and/or verbally aggressive clients/customers.


Decision Latitude
and Control               
Low participation in decision making, lack of control over work
FairnessPerception of unfair or unjust treatment (rewards, allocation of work)


Organisational Support       Poor communication, low levels of support for problem-solving and personal development, lack of definition of organisational objectives,
Organisational ValuesLack of family friendly policies, lack of appreciation and recognition
Career DevelopmentCareer stagnation and uncertainty, under-promotion or over-promotion, poor pay, job insecurity, low social value to work


Interpersonal RelationshipsSocial or physical isolation, poor relationships with superiors, interpersonal conflict (including harassment and bullying), lack of social support, encouragement, sponsorship and resources provided by the organisation, line managers and colleagues.
RespectLack of civility and respect, honesty and transparency
Management Culture Lack of working practices and policies to avoid conflict and dealing with unacceptable behaviour, ineffective performance management (surprise, too late, contradictory, poorly managed, inappropriate responses), lack of trust


Job Role                               Role ambiguity and role conflict, uncertain job expectations, lack of authority or standing, too much responsibility, too many "hats to wear."


Organisational Change    Poorly communicated and managed change processes, lack of consultation, lack of opportunity

Work-Life Balance

Home-Work Interface     Conflicting demands of work and home, low support at home, dual career problems.
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