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Referencing glossary

AGLC
Australian Guide to Legal Citation. Read Deakin's guide to AGLC.

APA
American Psychological Association. Read Deakin's guide to APA.

Appendix
An appendix is a section at the end of a paper, report, article or book that contains additional information, such as figures, tables, charts, graphs, statistics or transcripts.

Bibliography
A list sources at the end of a paper that includes works cited in the text, as well as works that have contributed to the preparation of the paper. AGLC requires a bibliography and Oxford sometimes requires one. A bibliography differs from reference list, which includes only those works cited in text.

Block quote
In some referencing styles, this is a long quote that is set apart from the main text in an indented paragraph. In Harvard a block quote is more than 30 words and in APA a block quote is more than 40 words.

Citation
A reference to a source in the body of paper. A citation may relate to a quote, paraphrase, summary or general reference to a source. A citation may take the form of a footnote, endnote, reference number or in-text citation.

Cite
To refer to a source in the body of a paper. See also Citation.

Collusion
Acting with another person with the intention to deceive. When submitting your own work, it is unacceptable to (1) have someone else write any part of an assignment for you or (2) hand in a work, or part of a work, of someone else who has studied the subject previously, even with their permission. This is a serious academic offence that carries penalties. Read more about plagiarism and collusion.

Copyright
The legal right of the author/owner of a work to control the reproduction of that work.

Database
An electronic or online collection of resources, such as peer reviewed full-text journal articles, images or videos. Deakin students have access to over 400 databases via the Library catalogue. See also this tutorial on using databases effectively.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
A unique identifier that is available for most online journal articles and e-books. A number of referencing styles require details of the DOI. DOIs are also available for some print sources.

DRO (Deakin Research Online)
Deakin's research repository, which describes and preserves the research output produced by Deakin University researchers, staff and higher degree research students. Visit DRO via the Library website.

EndNote
A reference management software program available for free to Deakin students.

Endnote
Similarly to footnotes, an endnote system of citation uses a superscript number in text that refers to a numbered note at the end of the section/chapter/work with the bibliographic details of the source. Sometimes used in the Oxford style of referencing. Endnotes are also used for including additional information.

et al.
Latin abbreviation of "et alii" which means "and others". Used in some referencing styles to indicate multiple authors without listing all of the authors' names.

Footnote
A footnote system of citation uses a superscript number in text that refers to a numbered note at the bottom of a page with the bibliographic details of the source. Used in the Oxford and AGLC styles of referencing. Footnotes are also used for including additional information.

Ibid
Latin abbreviation of "ibidem" which means "in the same place". Used in footnote referencing systems, such as Oxford and AGLC, to indicate repeat citations.

In-text citation
The acknowledgement of a source in the body of a paper. In the APA and Harvard styles, the family name of the author, the year of publication and sometimes the page number are provided.

Maximal capitalisation
In the title of a work, the first letter of each significant word is capitalised (along with proper nouns, initialisms and acronyms). See your required style for more details.

Minimal capitalisation
In the title of a work, only the first letter of the first word is capitalised (along with proper nouns, initialisms and acronyms). Sometimes the first letter of the first word of the subtitle is also capitalised. See your required style for more details.

Paraphrase
To put a short piece of text into your own words. See also Summarising, paraphrasing and quoting.

Parentheses
Round brackets. Used in in-text referencing styles such as Harvard and APA.

Periodical
A work that is published at regular intervals, such as journals, magazines and newspapers.

Pinpoint reference
Used in AGLC citations to refer readers to specific clauses, pages or sections of a work.

Plagiarism
The use of someone else's work (including words, graphs, tables, images, ideas) without proper acknowledgement. This is a serious academic offence that carries penalties. Read more about plagiarism and collusion.

Quote
To reproduce the exact words of a source. See your required style or unit guide for specific details on how to incorporate quotes in your assignments. See also Block quotes, and Summarising, paraphrasing and quoting.

Reference list
A list sources at the end of a paper that includes all the works cited in a paper. The Harvard and APA styles require a reference list of sources arranged alphabetically by the family names of authors. In the Vancouver and Numbered Citation styles, sources in the reference list are arranged numerically in the order that they are first cited in the text. A reference list differs from a bibliography, which includes not only those works cited in text but also works that have contributed to the preparation of the paper.

Secondary source
When you cite a work that have you not read directly but which has been cited in another work, you are citing a secondary source. The original source is often acknowledged in text, but only the bibliographic details of the source you have actually read (the secondary source) should be provided. See your required referencing style for more details.

Short quote
Short quotes are enclosed in single or double quote marks depending on the referencing style. In Harvard a short quote is less than 30 words and in APA it is less than 40 words.

Summarise
To shorten a text by selecting the main points and leaving out the detail and rephrasing it in one's own words. See also Summarising, paraphrasing and quoting.

Turnitin
A software program that supports the detection of plagiarism and collusion by identifying similarities in wording between assignment submissions and the program's database of material. Read more about Turnitin.

URL (Uniform Resource Locater)
The full website address, which is required for most referencing styles when citing online sources.

Work
Noun. This term can refer any creation (such as text, image, video, software, website)  produced by an individual or group. Publications such as books, journal articles or websites are works, as are student assignments, presentations and unpublished conference papers. All works referred to in a paper should be properly acknowledged in the appropriate referencing style.
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