- Australian Guide to Legal Citation. Read Deakin's guide to AGLC.
- American Psychological Association. Read Deakin's guide to APA.
- A section at the end of a paper, report, article or book that contains additional information, such as figures, tables, charts, graphs, statistics or transcripts.
- A list of sources at the end of a paper that includes works cited in the text, as well as works that have contributed to the preparation of the paper. A bibliography differs from reference list, which includes only those works cited in text. AGLC and Oxford sometimes requires a bibliography.
- In some referencing styles, this is a long quote that is set apart from the main text in an indented paragraph. In Harvard a block quote is more than about 30 words, whereas in APA a block quote is more than 40 words.
- A reference to a source in the body of paper. A citation may relate to a quote, paraphrase, summary or to a general reference to a source. A citation may take the form of a footnote, endnote, reference number or in-text citation.
- To refer to a source in the body of a paper. See also Citation.
- Acting with another person with the intention to deceive. When submitting your own work, it is unacceptable to (1) have someone else write any part of an assignment for you or (2) hand in a work, or part of a work, of someone else who has studied the subject previously, even with their permission. This is a serious academic offence that carries penalties. Read more about plagiarism and collusion.
- The legal right of an author/owner of a work to control the reproduction of that work.
- An electronic or online collection of resources, such as peer-reviewed full-text journal articles, images, videos or other data. Deakin students have access to over 400 databases via the Library catalogue. See also this tutorial on using databases effectively.
- Digital literacy is one of the eight Deakin University Graduate Learning Outcomes, and is defined as using technologies to find, use and disseminate information. Learn more in Deakin's digital literacy tutorials.
DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
- A unique identifier that is available for most online journal articles and e-books. A number of referencing styles require details of the DOI. DOIs are also available for some print sources.
DRO (Deakin Research Online)
- Deakin's research repository, which describes and preserves the research output produced by Deakin University researchers, staff and higher degree research students. Visit DRO via the Library website.
- A reference management software program available for free to Deakin students.
- Similar to footnotes, an endnote system of citation uses a superscript number in text that refers to a numbered note at the end of a section/chapter/work with the bibliographic details of the source. Sometimes used in the Oxford style of referencing. Endnotes are also used for including additional information.
- Latin abbreviation of 'et alii' which means 'and others'. Used in some referencing styles to indicate multiple authors without listing all of the authors' names.
- A footnote system of citation uses a superscript number in text that refers to a numbered note at the bottom (foot) of a page with the bibliographic details of the source. Used in the Oxford and AGLC styles of referencing. Footnotes are also used for including additional information.
- Latin abbreviation of 'ibidem' which means 'in the same place'. Used in footnote referencing systems, such as Oxford and AGLC, to indicate repeat citations.
- The acknowledgement of a source in the body of a paper. In the APA and Harvard styles, the family name of the author(s), the year of publication and sometimes the page number are provided.
- To put a short piece of text into your own words. See also Summarising, paraphrasing and quoting.
- Round brackets. Used in in-text referencing styles such as Harvard and APA.
- A work that is published at regular intervals, such as journals, magazines and newspapers.
- Used in AGLC citations to refer readers to specific clauses, pages or sections of a work.
- The use of someone else's work (including words, graphs, tables, images, ideas) without proper acknowledgement. This is a serious academic offence that carries penalties. Read more about plagiarism and collusion.
- To reproduce the exact words of a source. See your required style or unit guide for specific details on how to incorporate quotes in your assignments. See also Block quote, and Summarising, paraphrasing and quoting.
- A list sources at the end of a paper that includes all of the works cited in that paper. The Harvard and APA styles require a reference list of sources arranged alphabetically by the family names of authors. In the Vancouver and Numbered Citation styles, sources in the reference list are arranged numerically in the order that they are first cited in the text. A reference list differs from a bibliography, which includes not only those works cited in text but also works that have contributed to the preparation of a paper.
When you need to cite an author who is citing another author, include the family names of both authors in the in-text citation or footnote. The author you have read is the secondary source, while the author they are citing is the primary source.
Here is an example using the Harvard style. Donato is the primary source. Cotterall and Cohen is the secondary source:
Donato (cited in Cotterall & Cohen 2003, p. 158) explains the concept of scaffolding, which supports learners as they extend their competence and skills.
In this example, only Cotterall and Cohen would be included in the reference list, as this is the source that you have read.
Cotterall, S & Cohen, R 2003, 'Scaffolding for second language writers: producing an academic essay', ELT Journal, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 158–66.
Note: the IEEE style does not permit citing secondary sources; Chicago style recommends reading and citing primary sources where possible.
See your specific referencing style guide for further details.
- Short quotes are enclosed in single or double quote marks depending on the referencing style. In Harvard a short quote is less than about 30 words, whereas in APA it is less than 40 words.
- To shorten a text by selecting the main points, and leaving out the detail and rephrasing it in one's own words. See also Summarising, paraphrasing and quoting.
- A software program that supports the detection of plagiarism and collusion by identifying similarities in wording between assignment submissions and the program's database of material.
- Read more about Turnitin.
- Practise using Turnitin in UniStart.
URL (Uniform Resource Locater)
- A website or webpage address. Required for most referencing styles when citing online sources.
- Noun. This term can refer any creation (such as text, image, video, software, website) produced by an individual or group. Publications such as books, journal articles or websites are works, as are student assignments, presentations and unpublished conference papers. All works referred to in a paper should be properly acknowledged in the appropriate referencing style.