Prof James Armitage



Professor, Optometry


Faculty of Health


School of Medicine


Geelong Waurn Ponds Campus

+61 3 522 72768


I graduated as an Optometrist in 1996 (University of Melbourne) and spent 2 years researching the aetiology of keratoconus (a disease of the cornea) for my MOptom (1998, University of Melbourne). My PhD studies (University of Melbourne 2003) considered the role that essential fatty acids play in modulating visual function and cardiovascular disease. This body of work contributed to the growing notion that fetal and early postnatal malnutrition can program visual function and cardiovascular function in adult life, irrespective of adult nutrition status. Aspects of the work were published Nature Medicine.

Postdoctoral studies at Kings College London (2003-2005) and the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute (2005-2007) continued this research theme. In December 2006, I was awarded a National Heart Foundation John Shaw Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, being the highest ranked applicant in Australia and moved to Monash University upon being awarded a Monash Fellowship (2007-2012). I joined Deakin University in 2012 as a Senior Lecturer in Visual Function in Optometry, School of Medicine.

Read more on James's profile

Knowledge areas

Developmental Programming of Adult Health and Disease. 

The neurogenic basis of obesity related hypertension

Electrophysiological testing of visual function

Retinal Haemodynamics


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AmblyopiaVR: immersive game-based virtual reality system for the treatment of amblyopia

S Greuter, A Douglass, R Woodcock, G Sampson, L Torre, L Chong, J Armitage, S Backhouse

(2020), pp. 1-5, ACSW '20 : Proceedings of the Australasian Computer Science Week Multiconference, Melbourne, Vic., E1


Is this mine to keep? Three-dimensional printing enables active, personalized learning in anatomy

Simon Backhouse, Darci Taylor, James Armitage

(2019), Vol. 12, pp. 518-528, Anatomical sciences education, Chichester, Eng., C1

journal article

Could adoption of the rural pipeline concept redress Australian optometry workforce issues?

J Kirkman, S Bentley, J Armitage, C Woods

(2019), Vol. 102, pp. 566-570, Clinical and experimental optometry, Chichester, Eng., C1

journal article

Implications of updating digital literacy - a case study in an optometric curriculum

J Coldwell-Neilson, J Armitage, R Wood-Bradley, B Kelly, A Gentle

(2019), Vol. 16, pp. 033-049, Issues in informing science and information technology, Santa Rosa, Calif., C1

journal article

Moderate physical training ameliorates cardiovascular dysfunction induced by high fat diet after cessation of training in adult rats

L Tfolo, W Rinaldi, A Gngora, C Ianoni Matiusso, A Pavanello, A Malta, D De Almeida, T Ribeiro, A Oliveira, M Chimirri Peres, J Armitage, P De Freitas Mathias, K Palma-Rigo

(2019), Vol. 10, Frontiers in physiology, Lausanne, Switzerland, C1

journal article

Mid-to-late gestational changes in inflammatory gene expression in the rat placenta

K Vaswani, M Dekker Nitert, H Chan, F B Almughlliq, H Peiris, R Wood-Bradley, J Armitage, G Rice, M Mitchell

(2018), Vol. 25, pp. 222-229, Reproductive sciences, London, Eng., C1

journal article

Maternal high fat diet induces early cardiac hypertrophy and alters cardiac metabolism in Sprague Dawley rat offspring

K De Jong, S Barrand, R Wood-Bradley, D de Almeida, J Czeczor, G Lopaschuk, J Armitage, S McGee

(2018), Vol. 28, pp. 600-609, Nutrition, metabolism and cardiovascular diseases, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal article

Cross-fostering reduces obesity induced by early exposure to monosodium glutamate in male rats

R Miranda, C da Silva Franco, J de Oliveira, L Barella, L Tfolo, T Ribeiro, A Pavanello, E da Conceio, R Torrezan, J Armitage, P Lisboa, E de Moura, P de Freitas Mathias, E Vieira

(2017), Vol. 55, pp. 101-112, Endocrine, Berlin, Germany, C1

journal article

A high fat diet during adolescence in male rats negatively programs reproductive and metabolic function which is partially ameliorated by exercise

C Ibez, R Erthal, F Ogo, M Peres, H Vieira, C Conejo, L Tfolo, F Francisco, S Silveira, A Malta, A Pavanello, I Martins, P da Silva, L Saavedra, G Gonalves, V Moreira, V Alves, C Franco, C Previate, R Gomes, R Venci, F Dias, J Armitage, E Zambrano, P Mathias, G Fernandes, K Palma-Rigo

(2017), Vol. 8, pp. 1-12, Frontiers in physiology, Lausanne, Switzerland, C1

journal article

Impact of maternal high fat diet on hypothalamic transcriptome in neonatal Sprague Dawley rats

S Barrand, T Crowley, R Wood-Bradley, K De Jong, J Armitage

(2017), Vol. 12, pp. 1-16, PLoS one, San Francisco, Calif., C1

journal article

Central proopiomelanocortin but not neuropeptide Y mediates sympathoexcitation and hypertension in fat fed conscious rabbits

B Barzel, K Lim, P Davern, S Burke, J Armitage, G Head

(2016), Vol. 34, pp. 464-473, Journal of hypertension, Philadelphia, Pa., C1

journal article

Maternal glucose intolerance reduces offspring nephron endowment and increases glomerular volume in adult offspring

S Hokke, N Arias, J Armitage, V Puelles, K Fong, S Geraci, N Gretz, J Bertram, L Cullen-Mcewen

(2016), Vol. 32, pp. 816-826, Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, Chichester, Eng., C1

journal article

MicroRNA-194 modulates glucose metabolism and its skeletal muscle expression is reduced in diabetes

C Latouche, A Natoli, M Reddy-Luthmoodoo, S Heywood, J Armitage, B Kingwell

(2016), Vol. 11, pp. 1-20, PLoS one, San Francisco, Calif., C1

journal article

Origin of Aberrant Blood Pressure and Sympathetic Regulation in Diet-Induced Obesity

K Lim, B Barzel, S Burke, J Armitage, G Head

(2016), Vol. 68, pp. 491-500, Hypertension, C1

journal article

Maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment in mice

S Hokke, V Puelles, J Armitage, K Fong, J Bertram, L Cullen-McEwen

(2016), Vol. 11, pp. 1-19, PLoS one, San Francisco, Calif., C1

journal article

Chronic intraocular pressure elevation impairs autoregulatory capacity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina

V Wong, J Armitage, Z He, F Hui, A Vingrys, B Bui

(2015), Vol. 35, pp. 125-134, Ophthalmic and physiological optics, London, Eng., C1

journal article

Understanding the role of maternal diet on kidney development; an opportunity to improve cardiovascular and renal health for future generations

R Wood-Bradley, S Barrand, A Giot, J Armitage

(2015), Vol. 7, pp. 1881-1905, Nutrients, Basel, Switzerland, C1-1

journal article

Specific role of dietary fat in modifying cardiovascular and locomotor activity 24-h rhythms

B Barzel, K Lim, S Burke, J Armitage, G Head

(2015), Vol. 32, pp. 668-676, Chronobiology international, Oxford, Eng., C1

journal article

Gestation related gene expression of the endocannabinoid pathway in rat placenta

K Vaswani, H Chan, H Peiris, M Nitert, R Bradley, J Armitage, G Rice, M Mitchell

(2015), Vol. 2015, pp. 1-9, Mediators of inflammation, Cairo, Egypt, C1

journal article

The rat placental renin-angiotensin system - a gestational gene expression study

K Vaswani,, H Chan,, P Verma,, M Dekker Nitert,, H Peiris,, R Wood-Bradley, J Armitage, G Rice,, M Mitchell,

(2015), Vol. 13, pp. 1-10, Reproductive biology and endocrinology, London, Eng., C1

journal article

Exposure to a high-fat diet during development alters leptin and ghrelin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits

L Prior, P Davern, S Burke, K Lim, J Armitage, G Head

(2014), Vol. 63, pp. 338-345, Hypertension, C1

journal article

Three-dimensional numerical simulation of blood flow in mouse aortic arch around atherosclerotic plaques

P Assemat, J Armitage, K Siu, K Contreras, A Dart, J Chin-Dusting, K Hourigan

(2014), Vol. 38, pp. 4175-4185, Applied Mathematical Modelling, New York, United States, C1

journal article

Glomerular hypertrophy in subjects with low nephron number: contributions of sex, body size and race

Victor Puelles, Rebecca Douglas-Denton, Monika Zimanyi, James Armitage, Michael Hughson, Peter Kerr, John Bertram

(2014), Vol. 29, pp. 1686-1695, Nephrology dialysis transplantation, Oxford, England, C1

journal article

Maternal overnutrition programs changes in the expression of skeletal muscle genes that are associated with insulin resistance and defects of oxidative phosphorylation in adult male rat offspring.

C Latouche, S Heywood, S Henry, M Ziemann, R Lazarus, A El-Osta, J Armitage, B Kingwell

(2014), Vol. 144, pp. 237-244, The Journal of Nutrition, Bethesda, Md, United States, C1

journal article

Short term fat feeding rapidly increases plasma insulin but does not result in dyslipidaemia

B Barzel, J Weir, P Meikle, S Burke, J Armitage, G Head

(2014), Vol. 5, pp. 2-19, Frontiers in Physiology, Lausanne, Switzerland, C1

journal article

MRI-based glomerular morphology and pathology in whole human kidneys

Scott Beeman, Luise Cullen-McEwen, Victor Puelles, Min Zhang, Teresa Wu, Edwin Baldelomar, John Dowling, Jennifer Charlton, Michael Forbes, Amanda Ng, Qi-zhu Wu, James Armitage, Gary Egan, John Bertram, Kevin Bennett

(2014), Vol. 306, pp. F1381-F1390, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, Bethesda, Md, United States, C1-1

journal article

Haemodynamical stress in mouse aortic arch with atherosclerotic plaques : Preliminary study of plaque progression

P Assemat, K Siu, J Armitage, S Hokke, A Dart, J Chin-Dusting, K Hourigan

(2014), Vol. 10, pp. 98-106, Computational and structural biotechnology journal, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal article

Chronic hypertension increases susceptibility to acute IOP challenge in rats

Zheng He, Algis Vingrys, James Armitage, Christine Nguyen, Bang Bui

(2014), Vol. 55, pp. 7888-7895, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, Rockville, MD, C1

journal article

Electroretinography in streptozotocin diabetic rats following acute intraocular pressure elevation

K Kohzaki, A Vingrys, J Armitage, B Bui

(2013), Vol. 251, pp. 529-535, Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, C1-1

journal article

Altered ureteric branching morphogenesis and nephron endowment in offspring of diabetic and insulin-treated pregnancy

S Hokke, J Armitage, V Puelles, K Short, L Jones, I Smyth, J Bertram, L Cullen-McEwen

(2013), Vol. 8, pp. 1-9, Plos one, San Francisco, Calif., C1-1

journal article

Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has longstanding consequences for the health of her offspring

R Wood-Bradley, S Henry, A Vrselja, V Newman, J Armitage

(2013), Vol. 91, pp. 412-420, Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, C1

journal article

Progression of cardiovascular and endocrine dysfunction in a rabbit model of obesity

G Eppel, J Armitage, N Eikelis, G Head, R Evans

(2013), Vol. 36, pp. 588-595, Hypertension research, London, England, C1-1

journal article

Reduced preprandial dipping accounts for rapid elevation of blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity in rabbits fed a high-fat diet

S Burke, L Prior, E Lukoshkova, K Lim, B Barzel, P Davern, J Armitage, G Head

(2013), Vol. 30, pp. 726-738, Chronobiology International, C1

journal article

The Effect of gestational age on angiogenic gene expression in the rat placenta

K Vaswani, M Hum, H Chan, J Ryan, R Wood-Bradley, M Nitert, M Mitchell, J Armitage, G Rice

(2013), Vol. 8, PLoS ONE, C1

journal article

Maternal high-fat diet alters expression of pathways of growth, blood supply and arachidonic acid in rat placenta

N Dekker, K Vaswani, M Hum, H Chan, R Wood-Bradley, S Henry, J Armitage, M Mitchell, G Rice

(2013), Vol. 2, pp. 1-7, Journal of nutrition science, Cambridge, Eng., C1-1

journal article

Estimating nephron number in the developing kidney using the physical disector/fractionator combination

L Cullen-Mcewen, L Cullen-Mcewen, J Armitage, J Armitage, J Nyengaard, J Nyengaard, J Bertram, J Bertram

(2012), Vol. 886, pp. 109-119, Methods in Molecular Biology, B1-1

book chapter

Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation

Z He, C Nguyen, J Armitage, A Vingrys, B Bui

(2012), Vol. 7, PLoS ONE, C1-1

journal article

White adipocytes: More than just fat depots

S Henry, J Bensley, R Wood-Bradley, L Cullen-Mcewen, J Bertram, J Armitage

(2012), Vol. 44, pp. 435-440, International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, C1-1

journal article

Developmental origins of obesity-related hypertension

S Henry, B Barzel, R Wood-Bradley, S Burke, G Head, J Armitage

(2012), Vol. 39, pp. 799-806, Clinical and experimental pharmacology and physiology, Richmond, Vic., C1-1

journal article

X-ray velocimetry within the ex vivo carotid artery

R Jamison, K Siu, S Dubsky, J Armitage, A Fouras

(2012), Vol. 19, pp. 1050-1055, Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, C1-1

journal article

Reversal of vascular macrophage accumulation and hypertension by a CCR2 antagonist in deoxycorticosterone/salt-treated mice

C Chan, J Moore, K Budzyn, E Guida, H Diep, A Vinh, E Jones, R Widdop, J Armitage, S Sakkal, S Ricardo, C Sobey, G Drummond

(2012), Vol. 60, pp. 1207-1212, Hypertension, C1-1

journal article

Functional Imaging to Understand Biomechanics: A Critical Tool for the Study of Biology, Pathology and the Development of Pharmacological Solutions

R Jamison, J Armitage, J Carberry, M Kitchen, S Hooper, A Fouras

(2012), Vol. 13, pp. 2128-2140, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, C1-1

journal article

Rapid onset of renal sympathetic nerve activation in rabbits fed a high-fat diet

J Armitage, S Burke, L Prior, B Barzel, N Eikelis, K Lim, G Head

(2012), Vol. 60, pp. 163-171, Hypertension, Philadelphia, Pa., C1-1

journal article

Comparison of blood pressure and sympathetic activity of rabbits in their home cage and the laboratory environment

K Lim, S Burke, J Armitage, G Head

(2012), Vol. 97, pp. 1263-1271, Experimental physiology, West Sussex, England, C1-1

journal article

Effect of red blood cell stiffness on flow profiles in microchannels

K Wong, O Akulshin, J Armitage, A Fouras, G Sheard

(2012), Proceedings of the 18th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, AFMC 2012, E1-1


Experimental models of maternal obesity and high-fat diet during pregnancy and programmed obesity in the offspring

L Prior, G Head, J Armitage

(2011), pp. 241-259, Obesity before birth: maternam and prenatal influences on the offspring, Berlin, Germany, B1-1

book chapter

Estimating individual glomerular volume in the human kidney: clinical perspectives

V Puelles, M Zimanyi, T Samuel, M Hughson, R Douglas-Denton, J Bertram, J Armitage

(2011), Vol. 27, pp. 1880-1888, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Oxford, Eng., C1-1

journal article

IUGR in the absence of postnatal 'catch-up' growth leads to improved whole body insulin sensitivity in rat offspring

K Lim, J Armitage, A Stefanidis, B Oldfield, M Black

(2011), Vol. 70, pp. 339-344, Pediatric research, New York, N.Y., C1-1

journal article

A design-based method for estimating glomerular number in the developing kidney

L Cullen-McEwen, J Armitage, J Nyengaard, K Moritz, J Bertram

(2011), Vol. 300, pp. 1448-1453, Renal physiology, Sheffield, Eng., C1-1

journal article

The role of blood pressure in glaucoma

Z He, A Vingrys, J Armitage, B Bui

(2011), Vol. 94, pp. 133-149, Clinical and experimental optometry, London, Eng., C1-1

journal article

Sodium appetite in adult rats following ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in early development

R Weisinger, J Armitage, N Chen, D Begg, M Mathai, A Jayasooriya, A Sinclair, H Weisinger

(2010), Vol. 55, pp. 393-397, Appetite, C1

journal article

Exposure to a high-fat diet alters leptin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits

L Prior, N Eikelis, J Armitage, P Davern, S Burke, J Montani, B Barzel, G Head

(2010), Vol. 55, pp. 862-868, Hypertension, Philadelphia, Pa., C1-1

journal article

Altered responsiveness of the kidney to activation of the renal nerves in fat-fed rabbits

S Michaels, G Eppel, S Burke, G Head, J Armitage, J Carrol, S Malpas, R Evans

(2009), Vol. 296, pp. 1889-1896, Renal physiology, Sheffield, Eng., C1-1

journal article

Maternal dietary supplementation with saturated, but not monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, leads to tissue-specific inhibition of offspring Na+,K+-ATPase

J Armitage, S Gupta, C Woods, R Jensen, A Samuelsson, W Fuller, M Shattock, L Poston, P Taylor

(2008), Vol. 586, pp. 5013-5022, Journal of physiology, London, Eng., C1-1

journal article

Developmental origins of obesity and the metabolic syndrome : the role of maternal obesity

J Armitage, L Poston, P Taylor

(2008), Vol. 36, pp. 73-84, Obesity and metabolism, Zurich, Switzerland, C1-1

journal article

Omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acid imbalance early in life leads to persistent reductions in DHA levels in glycerophospholipids in rat hypothalamus even after long-term omega 3 fatty acid repletion

D Li, H Weisinger, R Weisinger, M Mathai, J Armitage, A Vingrys, A Sinclair

(2006), Vol. 74, pp. 391-399, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, C1

journal article

Increased blood pressure later in life may be associated with perinatal n-3 fatty acid deficiency

J Armitage, A Pearce, A Sinclair, A Vingrys, R Weisinger, H Weisinger

(2003), Vol. 38, pp. 459-464, Lipids, C1-1

journal article

Retinal sensitivity loss in third-generation n-3 PUFA-deficient rats

H Weisinger, J Armitage, B Jeffrey, D Mitchell, T Moriguchi, A Sinclair, R Weisinger, N Salem

(2002), Vol. 37, pp. 759-765, Lipids, C1-1

journal article

The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in body fluid and energy homeostasis

Richard Weisinger, James Armitage, Peta Burns, Andrew Sinclair, Algis Vingrys, Harrison Weisinger

(2001), pp. 377-401, Fatty Acids, B1-1

book chapter

The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in retinal function

A Vingrys, J Armitage, H Weisinger, B Bui, A Sinclair, R Weisinger

(2001), pp. 193-217, Fatty acids: physiological and behavioral functions, Totowa, N.J., B1-1

book chapter

Funded Projects at Deakin

Australian Competitive Grants

Understanding the contribution of sympathetic overactivity to maternally programmed obesity related hypertension

Prof James Armitage, Dr Pamela Davern, Prof Geoffrey Head

NHMRC Project Grant

  • 2015: $99,308
  • 2014: $18,126
  • 2013: $110,272

Age-related impairment of autoregulation: a modifiable risk factor for glaucoma

Dr Bang Bui, Prof James Armitage, Dr Andreas Fouras, Prof Algis Vingrys

NHMRC Project Grant

  • 2015: $15,385
  • 2014: $8,665
  • 2013: $7,680

Birth weight, adult weight and podocyte depletion

Prof John Bertram, Prof Wendy Hoy, Prof James Armitage, A/Prof Mary Jane Black

NHMRC Project Grant

  • 2015: $7,500
  • 2014: $2,500

Industry and Other Funding

Evaluation of the efficacy of simulation training for the acquisition and maintenance of clinical proficiency in Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscopy

Prof James Armitage, Dr Kwang Meng Cham, Dr Maria Markoulli, Ms Alex Jaworski

  • 2018: $3,318

Evaluation of Intense Pulsed Light Therapy for the management of Dry Eye Disease.

Prof James Armitage

  • 2019: $15,000


No completed student supervisions to report