Profile image of Wanty Widjaja

A/Prof. Wanty Widjaja

STAFF PROFILE

Position

Associate Head Of School (International Partnerships)

Faculty

Faculty of Arts and Education

Department

School of Education

Campus

Melbourne Burwood Campus

Qualifications

Graduate Certificate of Higher Education, Deakin University, 2013
Doctor of Philosophy (Education), University of Melbourne, 2008
Master of Education, Boston University, 2002

Career highlights

Associate Professor Wanty Widjaja is the Associate Head of School International and Engagement of the School of Education. Wanty's research focuses on understanding complexity of classroom practices and examining ways to support teacher professional learning and student mathematical reasoning. Two recent and notable Category 1 and 2 grant successes are Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Project Primary teachers adaptive expertise in interdisciplinary maths and science (2021-2024) and Secondary Mathematics and Science initiative for out-of-field teachers funded by Victorian Department of Education and Training (2020-current). In 2023, Wanty led a successful Australia Awards Fellowship 'Vietnam-Australia partnership for digital transformation in higher education' funded by Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Prior to joining Deakin in 2012, Wanty worked as a mathematics teacher educator in Indonesia and Singapore. She has continued to strengthen research partnerships with researchers from the Netherlands, Singapore, Taiwan, Malaysia, and Indonesia on Lesson Study, design-based research, teacher professional learning, and STEM education.

Research interests

Mathematical modelling, Educational design research, Professional noticing, Design of contextualised tasks, Realistic Mathematics Mathematics, Lesson Study, Video-based research methodology.

Affiliations

Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA)

The Mathematical Association of Victoria (MAV)
Indonesian Mathematical Society (IndoMS)

Units taught

ESM303 Primary Mathematics Lesson Study

EPM742 Fostering Primary Children's Mathematical Development 

ESM 210/211 Children and Mathematics: Developing Mathematics Concepts 

ESM 310 Teacher and Mathematics: Creating an inquiry-based classroom

ETM 709 Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics 7-10: Number 

Knowledge areas

Mathematics education, International education

Expertise

Mathematics Education, Design-based research methodology, lesson study
  • Education

Conferences

Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasian (2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2019)

South East Asean-Design Research (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2021, 2024)

The World Associations of Lesson Studies (WALS) Conference (2014, 2018, 2019, 2020)

Mathematics Association of Victoria  (2012, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2017, 2018)

East Asian Research Conference on Mathematics Education (2010, 2013)

Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers (2013, 2017)

Professional activities

Associate Head of School International and Engagement (2021-present)

Course Director of the Bachelor of Education (Primary) (2017-2020)

Bachelor of Education Selection Committee (2012)

Faculty of Arts and Education Human Ethics Advisory Research Group (2014-2018)

Canada Coordinator, Global Experience Program (2013-2014)

World Association of Lesson Study Council Member (2024-present)

Editorial Board, Prime Number (2012-2015)

Editorial Board, JIMS-B journal (2012-present)

Editorial Board, MTED (2020-2021)

Research groups

World Association of Lesson and Learning Studies (WALS)

Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA)

Indonesian Mathematical Society (IndoMS)

Awards

2023 Faculty of Arts and Education Student and Alumni Engagement Award, Deakin University

2017 School of Education Teaching Award, Deakin University

Projects

  • Winarti, D. W, Widjaja, W., & Razi, F. (2023). Promoting spatial reasoning of early childhood educators to support numeracy learning. Faculty of UIII and Deakin University joint research (2023, $4,000)
  • Widjaja, W., Loong, E., Hubber, P., Arranda, G. with Tytler, R. (mentor) and Sarkim (EI). Promoting interdisciplinary secondary mathematics and science teaching through real-world tasks: A cross-national study in Australia and Indonesia. REDI RDG Project (2016, $19,819)
  • Widjaja, W. Xu, L., Li, J. Jobling, W. with Vale, C. (mentor)
    Enhancing primary school teachers’ professional noticing through artefact-stimulated recall. CREFI RDG Project (2015, $15,000).
  • Vale, C., Bragg, L., Herbert, S., Loong, E., Widjaja, W. Primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions and understanding of mathematical reasoning. (2013-2014, $12,000).
  • Groves, S., Doig, B., Vale, C., Widjaja, W. Implementing structured problem solving through lesson study. Faculty near missed ARC funding, Deakin University. (2013, $13,000).
  • Groves, S., Doig, B., Vale, C., Widjaja, W., Implementing structured problem solving through lesson study. CREFI RDG  Deakin University. (2012, $19,700).

Publications

Filter by

2024

Designing a video-stimulated questionnaire about teachers' adaptive expertise in interdisciplinary mathematics and science teaching

Colleen Vale, Gahyoung Kim, Wanty Widjaja, Joseph Ferguson, Amanda Berry, Jan van Driel, Lihua Xu, Lam Pham

(2024), Vol. 20, pp. 1-12, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, C1

journal article
2023

What can online lesson study offer?: Findings from an Australian-Japanese collaboration

S Groves, S Groves, T Fujii, T Fujii, W Widjaja, W Widjaja, K Hino, K Hino, N Matsuda, N Matsuda, F Ames, F Ames

(2023), pp. 51-67, Teacher Professional Learning through Lesson Study in Virtual and Hybrid Environments: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions, London, Eng., B1

book chapter

Enhancing Junior High School Students' Reasoning of Linear Equations Using GeoGebra Software

Yerizon, Arnellis, Fridgo Tasman, Wanty Widjaja

(2023), Vol. 17, pp. 16-32, International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, Kassel, Germany, C1

journal article
2022

Learning Analytics to Support Dissimilar Learners in Mathematics: A Scientific and Exploratory Research Mapping

Zara Ersozlu, Wanty Widjaja, Damian Blake

(2022), Vol. 6, pp. 142-160, Educating Gifted, Talented, Creative and Dissimilar Learners: Imagining the Future, Leiden, The Netherlands, B1

book chapter

Tensions between theory and practice: A mathematics education perspective.

Jill Brown, Carly Sawatzki, Wanty Widjaja

(2022), Vol. 3, pp. 286-307, Methodological Approaches to STEM Education Research, Newcastle upon Tyne, Eng., B1

book chapter

Applying a scoping review methodology to investigate adaptive expertise: Insights and challenges for research in STEM education

Lihua Xu, Chan Kennedy, Amanda Berry, Joe Ferguson, Gahyoung Kim, Jan van Driel, Colleen Vale, Wanty Widjaja

(2022), Vol. 3, pp. 350-368, Methodological Approaches to STEM Education Research - Volume 3, Newcastle upon Tyne, Eng., B1

book chapter

Noticing student thinking under pressure in primary mathematics and science lessons

D Jazby, W Widjaja, L Xu, J van Driel

(2022), pp. 1-22, International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, Berlin, Germany, C1

journal article

Assessment of an interdisciplinary project in science and mathematics: Opportunities and challenges

Peter Hubber, Wanty Widjaja, George Aranda

(2022), Vol. 68, pp. 13-25, Teaching Science: The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association, Deakin West, A.C.T., C1

journal article
2021

Theory and practice relations in design-based research: Designing professional learning with teachers teaching mathematics and science out-of-field

Russell Tytler, linda Hobbs, Jill Brown, Peta White, Coral Campbell, John Cripps Clark, Seamus Delaney, Sandra Herbert, Amanda Peters, Carly Sawatzki, Wanty Widjaja

(2021), pp. 40-65, Methodological Approaches to STEM Education Research : Volume 2, Cambridge, Eng., B1

book chapter

A sociocultural framing of multimodal learning analytics: Potential for formative assessment in primary mathematics

Lihua Xu, Joseph Ferguson, Wanty Widjaja, Wei Luo, Lei Bao, Jianxin Li

(2021), Vol. 2, pp. 220-242, Methodological approaches to STEM education research, Cambridge, Eng., B1

book chapter

Linking comparing and contrasting, generalising and justifying: a case study of primary students' levels of justifying

W Widjaja, C Vale, S Herbert, E Loong, L Bragg

(2021), Vol. 33, pp. 321-343, Mathematics Education Research Journal, C1

journal article

Designing and delivering an online lesson study unit in mathematics to pre-service primary teachers: opportunities and challenges

W Widjaja, S Groves, Z Ersozlu

(2021), Vol. 10, pp. 230-242, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, C1

journal article

COUNTEREXAMPLES: CHALLENGES FACED by ELEMENTARY STUDENTS WHEN TESTING A CONJECTURE about the RELATIONSHIP between PERIMETER and AREA

W Widjaja, C Vale

(2021), Vol. 12, pp. 487-506, Journal on Mathematics Education, Palembang, Indonesia., C1

journal article
2020

Negotiating dual roles in teacher collaboration through lesson study: lead teachers' perspective

Wanty Widjaja, Colleen Vale

(2020), pp. 556-563, ICMI 2020 : Teachers of Mathematics Working and Learning in Collaborative Groups, Lisbon, Portugal, E1

conference
2019

Examining primary school teachers' professional noticing through a video-based methodology

Wanty Widjaja, L Xu, Wendy Jobling

(2019), pp. 66-82, Video-based research in education: cross-disciplinary perspectives, Abingdon, Eng., B1

book chapter

Theorizing professional learning through lesson study using the interconnected model of professional growth

Wanty Widjaja, Colleen Vale, Susie Groves, Brian Doig

(2019), pp. 103-133, Theory and practice of lesson study in mathematics, Cham, Switzerland, B1

book chapter

Potential and Challenges in Integrating Science and Mathematics in the Classroom Through Real-World Problems: A Case of Implementing an Interdisciplinary Approach to STEM

Wanty Widjaja, Peter Hubber, George Aranda

(2019), pp. 157-171, Asia-Pacific STEM Teaching Practices From Theoretical Frameworks to Practices, Berlin, Germany, B1

book chapter

Anticipating students' reasoning and planning prompts in structured problem-solving lessons

C Vale, W Widjaja, B Doig, S Groves

(2019), Vol. 31, pp. 1-25, Mathematics education research journal, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, C1

journal article

Seeing through the eyes of the teacher? Investigating primary school teachers' professional noticing through a video-based research methodology

Lihua Xu, Wanty Widjaja, Joseph Ferguson

(2019), Vol. 42, pp. 470-484, International journal of research & method in education, London, Eng., C1

journal article

A comparison of values of progress conveyed in mathematics textbook in Malaysia and Australia

Mohd Dollah, Wanty Widjaja, Mohd Zabit, Tirzah Omar

(2019), Vol. 9, pp. 179-188, International Journal of Asian Social Science, Karachi, Pakistan, C1

journal article

Teacher Noticing of Primary Students' Mathematical Reasoning in a Problem-solving Task

Dan Jazby, Wanty Widjaja

(2019), pp. 380-387, Mathematics Education Research: Impacting Practice, Perth, WA, E1

conference
2018

Examining primary school teachers' professional noticing through a video-based methodology

Wanty Widjaja, Lihua Xu, Wendy Jobling

(2018), pp. 66-82, Video-based Research in Education, B1

book chapter

Developing a rubric for assessing mathematical reasoning: a design-based research study in primary classrooms

Y Loong, C Vale, W Widjaja, E Herbert, L Bragg, Aylie Davidson

(2018), pp. 503-510, Making waves, opening spaces : Proceedings of the 41st annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Auckland, N.Z., E1

conference

Comparing the inculcation of the value of rationalism from the Australia and Malaysia mathematics textbooks

Mohd Dollah, W Widjaja

(2018), Vol. 9, pp. 261-268, ICEMST 2018 : Proceedings of the International Conference on Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, Marmaris, Turkey, E1

conference
2017

Teachers' professional growth through engagement with lesson study

W Widjaja, C Vale, S Groves, B Doig

(2017), Vol. 20, pp. 357-383, Journal of mathematics teacher education, Berlin, Germany, C1

journal article

Mapping Variation in Children's Mathematical Reasoning: The Case of 'What Else Belongs?'

C Vale, W Widjaja, S Herbert, L Bragg, E Loong

(2017), Vol. 15, pp. 873-894, International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, C1

journal article

Utilizing lesson study in improving year 12 students' learning and performance in mathematics

J Chong, S Han, N Abdullah, M Chong, W Widjaja, M Shahrill

(2017), Vol. 2017, pp. 24-31, Mathematics education trends and research, Mannheim, Germany, C1

journal article

Children's mathematical reasoning: opportunities for developing understanding and creative thinking

C Vale, L Bragg, W Widjaja, Herbert, Loong

(2017), Vol. 22, pp. 3-8, Australian primary mathematics classroom, Adelaide, SA, C1

journal article

Linking pre-service teachers' questioning and students' strategies in solving contextual problems: A case study in Indonesia and the Netherlands

R Johar, S Patahuddin, W Widjaja

(2017), Vol. 14, pp. 101-128, Mathematics Enthusiast, C1

journal article

Tracking change in primary teachers' understanding of mathematical reasoning through demonstration lessons

E Loong, C Vale, S Herbert, L Bragg, W Widjaja

(2017), Vol. 19.1, pp. 5-29, Mathematics teacher education and development, Bruce, A.C.T., C1

journal article
2016

Gender issues in elementary mathematics teaching materials: a comparative study between China and Australia

Y Wu, W Widjaja, J Li

(2016), pp. 149-160, Multidisciplinary research perspectives in education : shared experiences from Australia and China, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, B1

book chapter

Critical factors in the adaptation and implementation of Japanese Lesson Study in the Australian context

S Groves, B Doig, C Vale, W Widjaja

(2016), Vol. 48, pp. 501-512, ZDM - Mathematics Education, C1

journal article

Primary teachers notice the impact of language on children's mathematical reasoning

L Bragg, S Herbert, E Loong, C Vale, W Widjaja

(2016), Vol. 28, pp. 523-544, Mathematics Education Research Journal, C1

journal article

Professional learning in mathematical reasoning: reflections of a primary teacher

E Herbert, C Vale, L Bragg, E Loong, W Widjaja

(2016), pp. 277-284, MERGA 2016: Proceedings of the 39th Conference for Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia: Opening Up Mathematics Education Research, Adelaide, S. Aust., E1

conference
2015

The use of videos and classroom artefacts in professional development of teachers and teacher educators in Indonesia

W Widjaja, M Dolk

(2015), Vol. 10, pp. 199-222, Cases of Mathematics Professional Development in East Asian Countries: Using Video to Support Grounded Analysis, B1

book chapter

Developing teacher competencies through videos for facilitation of mathematical modelling in Singapore Primary Schools

K Ng, W Widjaja, C Chan, C Seto

(2015), pp. 15-38, Cases of Mathematics Professional Development in East Asian Countries: Using Video to Support Grounded Analysis, B1

book chapter

Developing Teacher Competencies Through Videos for Facilitation of Mathematical Modelling in Singapore Primary Schools

Kit Ng, Wanty Widjaja, Chun Chan, Cynthia Seto

(2015), Vol. 10, pp. 15-38, Cases of Mathematics Professional Development in East Asian Countries, Singapore, B1-1

book chapter

Promoting reasoning through the magic V task

L Bragg, W Widjaja, Loong, C Vale, E Herbert

(2015), Vol. 20, pp. 10-14, Australian primary mathematics classroom, Adelaide, S.Aust., C1

journal article

A framework for primary teachers' perceptions of mathematical reasoning

E Herbert, C Vale, L Bragg, Loong, W Widjaja

(2015), Vol. 74, pp. 26-37, International journal of educational research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, C1

journal article

Transitioning for growth. Successful transition strategies from primary to secondary school.

G Auld, G Williams, Y Loong, W Widjaja, G Levy, M Tan

(2015), Melbourne, Vic., A6-1

research report/technical paper

Tracking the professional learning of primary teachers' mathematical reasoning

Y Loong, C Vale, S Herbert, L Bragg, W Widjaja

(2015), Vol. 1, pp. 183-183, Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education., Hobart, Tas., E1-1

conference
2014

The use of video recording in professional development of teachers and teacher educators in Indonesia

W Widjaja, M Dolk

(2014), pp. 1-200, The use of grounded mages in mathematics teachers’ professional development, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, B1

book chapter

Year 3/4 children's forms of justification

W Widjaja

(2014), pp. 694-697, MERGA 2014 : Curriculum in focus: research guided practice : Proceedings of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia 2014 annual conference, Sydney, N. S. W., E1

conference
2013

Building awareness of mathematical modelling at teacher education: a case study in Indonesia

W Widjaja

(2013), pp. 583-593, Teaching mathematical modelling : connecting to research and practice, international perspectives on the teaching and learning of mathematical modelling, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, B1

book chapter

Implementing Japanese lesson study: an example of teacher-researcher collaboration

S Groves, B Doig, W Widjaja, D Garner, K Palmer

(2013), Vol. 69, pp. 10-17, Australian mathematics teacher, Adelaide, S. Aust., C1

journal article

Creating teacher learning communities of inquiry through lesson study

W Widjaja

(2013), pp. 723-726, MERGA 2013 : Mathematics education: yesterday, today and tomorrow : Proceedings of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia 2013 conference, Melbourne, Vic., E1

conference

Fostering teacher competencies in incorporating mathematical modelling in Singapore primary mathematics classrooms

K Ng, C Chan, W Widjaja, C Seto

(2013), pp. 219-228, EARCOME 6 : Innovations and Exemplary Practices in Mathematics Education : Proceedings of the 6th East Asian Regional Conference on Mathematics Education 2013, Phuket, Thailand, E1

conference
2012

Exercising sociomathematical norms in classroom discourse about data representation : insights from one case study of a grade 6 lesson in Indonesia

W Widjaja

(2012), Vol. 13, pp. 21-38, Mathematics educator, Singapore, C1

journal article

Assessment of primary 5 students' mathematical modelling competencies

C Chan, K Ng, W Widjaja, C Seto

(2012), Vol. 35, pp. 146-178, Journal of science and mathematics education in Southeast Asia, Penang, Malaysia, C1-1

journal article

Mathematical modelling for Singapore primary classrooms : from a teacher's lens

C Seto, M Thomas, K Ng, C Chan, W Widjaja

(2012), pp. 672-679, MERGA 2012 : The 35th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Nanyang, Singapore, E1

conference
2011

Locating negative decimals on the number line : insights into the thinking of pre-service primary teachers

W Widjaja, K Stacey, V Steinle

(2011), Vol. 30, pp. 80-91, Journal of mathematical behavior, Oxford, England, C1-1

journal article

Exemplifying a model-eliciting task for primary school pupils

C Chan, W Widjaja, K Ng

(2011), Vol. 1, pp. 65-74, Southeast Asian mathematics education journal, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, C1-1

journal article

Towards mathematical literacy in the 21st century : perspectives from Indonesia

W Widjaja

(2011), Vol. 1, pp. 75-84, Southeast Asian mathematics education journal, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, C1-1

journal article
2010

Examining teachers' role in relation to their beliefs and expectations about students'thinking in design research

M Dolk, W Widjaja, E Zonneveld, A Fauzan

(2010), pp. 175-187, A decade of PMRI in Indonesia, Utrecht, Netherlands, B1-1

book chapter

The role of contexts and teacher's questioning to enhance students' thinking

W Widjaja, M Dolk, A Fauzan

(2010), Vol. 33, pp. 168-186, Journal of science and mathematics education in Southeast Asia, Penang, Malaysia, C1-1

journal article

Modelling the cooling of coffee : insights from a preliminary study in Indonesia

W Widjaja

(2010), pp. 626-633, MERGA 2010 : Shaping the future of mathematics education : Proceedings of the 33rd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, Fremantle, W. A., E1-1

conference
2009

Growth of pre-service teachers' knowledge and teaching ideas about decimals and fractions : The case of Vivi

W Widjaja, K Stacey

(2009), pp. 587-595, MERGA 32 : Crossing divides : mathematics education research group of Australasia : Proceedings of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia Conference 2009, Wellington, N. Z., E1-1

conference
2008

Misconceptions about density of decimals : insights from Indonesian pre-service teachers' work

W Widjaja, K Stacey, V Steinle

(2008), Vol. 31, pp. 117-131, Journal for science and mathematics education in Southeast Asia, Penang, Malaysia, C1-1

journal article

Understanding decimal numbers : a foundation for correct calculations

R Pierce, V Steinle, K Stacey, W Widjaja

(2008), Vol. 5, pp. 1-15, International journal of nursing education scholarship, Berlin, Germany, C1-1

journal article
2006

Promoting pre-service teachers' understanding of decimal notation and its teaching

W Widjaja, K Stacey

(2006), pp. 385-392, Proceedings of the 30th conference of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education, Prague, Czech Republic, E1-1

conference
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Implementing the Pancasila Student Profile Strengthening Project to Cultivate Students' Character at SDN Jombatan 6 Jombang

Irma Fatmawati, Emy Rahma Pratiwi, Wanty Widjaja

(), Vol. 4, pp. 306-313, IJPSE Indonesian Journal of Primary Science Education, C1-1

journal article

Funded Projects at Deakin

Australian Competitive Grants

Primary teachers adaptive expertise in interdisciplinary maths and science

Prof Amanda Berry, Prof Colleen Vale, Prof Jan Van Driel, A/Prof Wanty Widjaja, Dr Lihua Xu

ARC - Discovery Projects

  • 2023: $34,671
  • 2022: $34,333
  • 2021: $30,641

Other Public Sector Funding

Transition: Improved Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes (Successful strategies)

A/Prof Glenn Auld, Dr Esther Loong, A/Prof Wanty Widjaja, Dr Gaye Williams

DETVic Tender - Department of Education and Training Victoria

  • 2015: $59,670

Secondary Mathematics and Science initiative for out-of-field teachers.

Prof Russell Tytler, A/Prof Jill Brown, A/Prof Peta White, Prof Linda Hobbs, A/Prof Julianne Lynch, Dr Jo Raphael, Dr Carly Sawatzki, A/Prof Wanty Widjaja, Dr Seamus Delaney, Dr John Cripps Clark, Prof Damian Blake

DETVic Grant - Research - Department of Education and Training Victoria

  • 2023: $693,244
  • 2022: $1,305,002
  • 2021: $1,984,010
  • 2020: $764,034

Vietnam-Australia partnerships for digital transformation in higher education

A/Prof Wanty Widjaja, Prof Ly Tran, Dr Huyen Bui, A/Prof Bonnie Yim, Dr Bardo Fraunholz

Australia Awards Fellowships

  • 2023: $310,175

Industry and Other Funding

Assessing Reasoning

Dr Sandra Herbert, A/Prof Colleen Vale, Dr Leicha Bragg, A/Prof Wanty Widjaja, Dr Esther Loong

Australia Academy of Science

  • 2018: $36,625
  • 2017: $85,460

PMSS Cohort 5 Research Project 2020

Prof Russell Tytler, A/Prof Peta White, A/Prof Wanty Widjaja

Edpartnerships International Pty Ltd

  • 2020: $35,946

Supervisions

Principal Supervisor
2018

. Meiliasari

Thesis entitled: Developing Pre-service Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge Through Lesson Study

Doctor of Philosophy (Education), School of Education

2017

Yang Wu

Thesis entitled: Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics and Math-Gender Stereotypes: Gender and Year Levels

Master of Education (Research), School of Education

Associate Supervisor
2023

Frances Burton

Thesis entitled: The Mathematics Visible in Pre-school Settings

Doctor of Philosophy (Education), School of Education

Elizabeth Adu

Thesis entitled: Improving Children's Addition and Subtraction Understanding Through Conceptual Instructional Methods

Doctor of Philosophy (Education), School of Education

2018

Sibeso Likando

Thesis entitled: The implementation of lesson study in mathematics: The case of Zambia

Doctor of Philosophy (Education), School of Education