- For one to six authors, list all authors.
- If there are more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by "et al."
- Authors' family names are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stops between initials, e.g. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
- Commas are used to separate each author's name. Note that 'and' is not used to separate the last two names.
- Titles of journal articles should use minimal capitalisation, that is, only the first word is capitalised except for words that would normally be capitalised such as proper nouns, acronyms and initialisms.
- Journal titles are usually abbreviated unless they consist of a single word or are very short. There are conventions on how specific titles are abbreviated. See links below for more information.
Other publication details
- Months are abbreviated to the first three letters.
- There are no spaces between the date, volume, issue and page numbers. The date is followed by a semicolon, the volume number, the issue number in brackets, a colon and the page range.
- When providing the page range, do not repeat unnecessary numbers unless followed by a letter, e.g. 284-7 not 284-287, but 331A-333A is correct.
- For online articles provide URL and DOI, if available. Do not add a full stop after a URL or DOI.
If a database's unique identifier is provided, it can be added at the end of the reference list entry.
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid organ transplantation in HIV infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.
If a journal article is available in both print and electronic formats, cite the format that you have read.
Here is an example of an article accessed in print:
Author Initials, Author Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. year month day;volume(issue):page range.
Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.
For journal articles accessed online also include the:
- medium as [Internet].
- date cited.
- page number range. If the article is not paginated, give an indication of the length of the article in square brackets. This can be provided as print pages, screens or paragraphs e.g. [about 1 p.], [about 5 screens], [8 paragraphs].
- URL and DOI, if available.
Author Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal [Internet]. year month day [cited year month day];volume(issue):page range [or estimate]. Available from: URL DOI
Bertino E, Milani S, Fabris C, De Curtis M. Neonatal anthropometric charts: what they are, what they are not. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Ed) [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 9];92(1):F7-10. Available from: http://fn.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/92/1/F7
"Forthcoming" journal articles refer to articles that have been accepted for publication but are not yet published.
- Include the date, volume and issue number of journal, if known.
- Include that the article is "forthcoming" and in which year.
Ilja Boor PK, Groot KD, Mejaski-Bosnjak V, Brenner C, van der Knaap MS, Scheper GC, et al. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts: an update and extended mutation analysis of MLC1. Hum Mutat. Forthcoming 2006.