Conference paper published in proceedings
Author Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of publication. Proceedings of Title of Conference; date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication. page range.
Horrobin DF, Lampinskas P. The commercial development of food plants used as medicines. In: Prendergast HD, Etkin NL, Harris DR, Houghton PJ, editors. Plants for food and medicine. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Society for Economic Botany and the International Society for Ethnopharmacology; 1996 Jul 1-6; London. Kew (UK): Royal Botanic Gardens; 1998. p. 75-81.
Conference proceedings published online
Author Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of publication [Internet]. Proceedings of Title of Conference; date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; [cited day month year]. page range [or estimate]. Available from: URL DOI
Goldschmidt L. Telehealth strategies and information technology transform patient care within the US Department of Veteran Affairs. In: He J, Liu X, Krupinski EA, Xu G, editors. Health Information Science [Internet]. Proceedings of the First International Conference, HIS 2012; 2012 April 8-10; Beijing. Heidelberg: Springer; [cited 2014 Jan 31]. 198 p. Available from: DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-29361-0
Unpublished conference paper
Author Initials. Title of paper. Paper presented at: Title of conference; year month day; Place of conference.
Bernhardt A, Weiss C, Breuer J, Kumpf M, Sieverding L. The clinical relevance of an elevated lactate level after surgery for congenital heart disease. Paper presented at: Myocardial cell damage and myocardial protection. 3rd International Symposium on the Pathophysiology of Cardiopulmonary Bypass; 2000 Dec 16; Aachen, Germany.
DVD, tapes, slides
For hardcopy audiovisual material, such as DVDs, CD-ROMs, audiotapes, videocassettes, slides or films, provide:
- medium in square brackets
- place of publication and the publisher
- year of copyright.
Author Initials. Title [medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; year.
Anderson, SC, Poulsen, KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. 2nd version. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2002.
John Sabella & Associates Incorporated. Onboard first aid: immediate actions [DVD]. South Tom's River (NJ): Shipboard Video Express; c2005.
Heizer WD, Semrad CE, Sweeting JG. Clinical nutrition I [slides]. Bethesda (MD): American Gastroenterological Association; c2000.
Figure, table, appendix
When citing a figure, table or appendix from a source, include:
- a descriptor e.g. Table/Figure/Appendix
- the number
- the title
- the page number, if the source is paginated.
House MG, Choti MA. Palliative therapy for pancreatic/biliary cancer. Surg Clin N Am. 2005 Apr;85(2):359-71. Appendix 1, Principles guiding care at the end of life; p. 389-90.
Where there is no number or title, place the descriptor Table/Figure/Appendix and a descriptive title in square brackets.
Roth S, Semjonow A, Waldner M, Hertle L. Risk of bowel dysfunction with diarrhea after continent urinary diversion with ileal and ileocecal segments. J Urol. 1995 Nov;154(5):1696-9. [Figure, Resection of long ileal or ileocecal segments disturbs enterohepatic bile acid circulation]; p. 1697.
For web sources, place the relevant details after the date of publication, followed by the date cited, the page number and the URL.
Collins SR, Kriss JL, Davis K, Doty MM, Holmgren AL. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and financial well-being of American families [Internet]. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep. Figure ES-1, Individual market is not an affordable option for many people; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. viii. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Collins_squeezedrisinghltcarecosts_953.pdf
For news articles:
- all major words are capitalised in news publication titles (but not article titles)
- the name of newspaper section can be included, if applicable.
For news articles in print, provide:
- the first page number of the article
- the column number (col.), if applicable.
Author Initials. Title of article. Title of Newspaper. year month day;Section:first page (column number).
Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).
For online news articles, include the:
- medium as [Internet]
- date last updated, if applicable
- date cited
- estimated length of the article in terms of print pages, screens, or paragraphs (if no pagination)
Author Initials. Title of article. Title of Newspaper [Internet]. year month day [cited year month day];Section:first page [or estimate]. Available from: URL
O'Connor T. When your heart lets you down. The Age. [Internet] 2013 Dec 2 [cited 2014 Jan 22];Pulse:40. Available from: http://docs.newsbank.com/s/InfoWeb/aggdocs/AUNB/14A6EB518A6E3E08/104B74501DCB01D3?p_multi=ASAB&s_lang=en-US
Carey B. Psychiatrists revise the book of human troubles. New York Times [Internet]. 2008 Dec 17 [cited 2013 Dec 19];Health:[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/18/health/18psych.html?_r=1&em
Personal communications include letters, emails, private social media posts, personal interviews and telephone conversations. It is always important to get the permission of the person concerned before referring to them in an assignment. No entry in the reference list is required. Provide all relevant information in text. Written permission should always be obtained from the person being cited. Such information can also be included in an acknowledgements section.
In an interview on 8 October 2013, J Robinson, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, confirmed ...
Dr A Smith (email, 8 January 2014) indicated ...
Author Initials. Title of thesis [thesis type]. Place: University; year. Available from: URL/database/collection
Cohen E. Patient participation in symptom management in an acute oncology setting [PhD thesis]. Geelong: Deakin University; 2012. Available from: http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30048429