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APA 6


This resource explains some of the more common applications of the sixth edition of the APA (American Psychological Association) style of referencing.

Before using this referencing guide, you should always consult your unit guide, which may specify variations on this style. If you are still unsure, please check with your unit chair, lecturer or tutor.

Information in this guide is based on:

  • Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington DC: APA.
  • APA style guide to electronic references. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/
  • APA style blog. (2014). Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/

Deakin guide to APA

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General principles

The following principles of the APA style apply to all print, electronic and multimedia sources.

The APA style of referencing consists of:

  1. in-text citations in the body of the paper that include the author, the date and often a page number
  2. a reference list at the end of the paper giving full bibliographic details of all in-text citations.

This guide to APA referencing provides a number of examples of print, electronic and media sources. If you cannot find how to reference your specific source here, you should feel free to use elements from different parts of this guide to create an appropriate reference. The important thing is to be consistent – and if in doubt, provide more detail rather than less.

In-text citations

APA in-text citations consist of the author's family name and year of publication. In addition, page numbers should be included when quoting directly from a source and you are encouraged to provide page numbers when paraphrasing (rephrasing a short passage). The author, year and page number within parentheses are separated by commas. An in-text citation can go at the beginning, the middle or the end of a sentence.

You can emphasise the author:

Woodward (2010) states that what we buy and how we consume things once we have bought them reveals a great deal about the society we live in.

Or you can emphasise the information:

What we buy and how we consume things once we have bought them reveals a great deal about the society we live in (Woodward, 2010).

There are three ways to cite your sources.

General reference
When you are making a general reference to an idea or information contained in a work, page numbers are not necessary.

Hughes et al. (2012) investigated the relationship between personality and the use of Facebook and Twitter for both information and social purposes.

Paraphrase
When paraphrasing (or rephrasing) information, you are encouraged to provide a page reference, but this is not mandatory.

Hughes et al. (2012, p. 567) suggest that this may be because the information sought from Facebook can be obtained socially, whereas the information sought on Twitter is more cognitively based, for example, of an academic or political nature.

Quote
To quote means to reproduce the exact words from a source. Details of the source and the page number(s) must be provided in text.

Short quotes (fewer than 40 words) should be incorporated into the text within double quotation marks.

Hughes, Rowe, Batey and Lee (2012, p. 563) hypothesised that "the short, quick fire nature of Twitter usage determined by the limit of 140 characters per 'tweet' may appeal to those high in Conscientiousness as they can still partake in social networking without it becoming a temporal distraction".

Longer quotes, known as "block quotes" (40 words or more):

  • start on a new line
  • are indented about 5 spaces from the left-hand margin
  • are double spaced
  • do not have quotation marks.

… while others have supported this view:

We don't do burden in the twenty-first century. We do entitlement. We do expectation and our politicians have learnt to give us what we want. In 2008, US presidential candidate Barack Obama caught the American people's imagination with the phrase 'hope you can believe in'. Kennedy sells sacrifice: Obama sells expectation. (Salt, 2011, p. 19)

The sense of entitlement …

Reference list

The four basic elements of a reference list entry in APA style are:

  • author (who)
  • date of publication (when)
  • title (what)
  • source (where)

These elements are set out as follows:

      Author, Initials. (year). Source.

An important purpose of the reference list is to enable readers to locate your sources. Therefore, details must be correct and complete. Each in-text citation and the related reference list entry should be identical in spelling and year. A work is listed only once in the reference list, regardless of how many times it is cited in text. All citations should be listed in the reference list, with the exception of personal communications.

The reference list should:

  • begin on a new page with a centred heading titled 'References'
  • have entries arranged alphabetically by family name of the first-listed author or name of organisation
  • list works with no author under the first significant word of the title (disregarding 'A' or 'The')
  • use the hanging indent paragraph style for each new reference
  • use double spacing.

The following is an example of an APA reference list. You can find more examples of reference list entries under each source type in this guide.

Reference list

Australian Psychological Society. (2014). Ethical guidelines: Complementing the APS code of ethics (12th ed.). Melbourne: Author.

Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2012). Personality: Classic theories and modern research (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Holder, M. D. (2012). Happiness in children: Measurement, correlates and enhancement of positive subjective well-being. SpringerBriefs in well-being and quality. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4414-1

Hughes, D. J., Rowe, M., Batey, M., & Lee, A. (2012). A tale of two sites: Twitter vs. Facebook and the personality predictors of social media usage. Computers in Human Behaviour, 28, 561–569. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.001

Krieger, T., Zimmermann, J., Huffziger, S., Ubl, B., Diener, C., Kuehner, C., & Grosse Holtforth, M. (2013). Measuring depression with a well-being index: Further evidence for the validity of the WHO well-being index (WHO-5) as a measure of the severity of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 156, 240–244. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.015

Marelich, W. D., & Holt, T. (2006). Salvaging the self and romantic jealousy response. In A.P. Prescott (Ed.), The concept of self in psychology (pp. 167–181). New York: Nova Science.

Midford, R. (2005). Australia and alcohol: Living down the legend. Addiction, 100(7), 891–896. Retrieved from http://www.addictionjournal.org

Nader, C. (2009, June 19). Mental health issues soar among children. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Australian dietary guidelines. Canberra: Author.

Noel, H., Denny, S., Farrant, B., Rossen, F., Teevale, T., Clark, T., … Fortune, S. (2013). Clustering of adolescent health concerns: A latent class analysis of school students in New Zealand. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49, 935–941, doi:10.1111/jpc.12397

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995a). Temperament and attention to positive and negative trait information. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 135–147. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirec.com/science/journal/01918869

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995b).Temperament and response processing: Facilitatory and inhibitory consequences of positive and negative motivational states. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 59–84. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00926566

Savage, J. (2004). Researching emotion: The need for coherence between focus, theory and methodology. Nursing Inquiry, 11, 25–34. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291440-1800

Silavera, D. H., Lavack, A. M., & Kropp, F. (2008). Impulse buying: The role of affect, social influence, and subjective wellbeing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25, 23–33.

Two authors

In-text citation

  • Cite the family names of both authors.
  • Use 'and' when the authors' names are part of the sentence, and an ampersand (&) when the authors' names are in parentheses.

Friedman and Schustack (2012) note that personality has been used for many years to predict how people will act and react and also what their interests are likely to be.

or

Personality has been used for many years to predict how people will act and react and also what their interests are likely to be (Friedman & Schustack, 2012).

Reference list

Friedman, H. S., & Schustack, M. W. (2012). Personality: Classic theories and modern research (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Three to five authors

In-text citation

  • Use 'and' when the authors' names are part of the sentence, and an ampersand (&) when the authors' names are in parentheses.
  • Cite all authors the first time, then in subsequent citations of the work use the family name of the first-listed author plus "et al.".

Vasta, Miller and Ellis (2004) explain that Western European cultures tend to draw a clear distinction between the self and others, viewing the self as independent and autonomous. However, in many other cultures, among them East Asian and Native American societies, the self and others are seen as interdependent or interconnected (Vasta et al., 2004).

Reference list

Vasta, R., Miller, S. A., & Ellis, S. (2004). Child psychology (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Six or more authors

In-text citation

Cite only the family name of the first-listed author plus 'et al.' in all citations, including the first citation.

Krieger et al. (2013) observe that …

Reference list

For works with up to seven authors, provide the family names and initials of all authors.

Krieger, T., Zimmermann, J., Huffziger, S., Ubl, B., Diener, C., Kuehner, C., & Grosse Holtforth, M. (2013). Measuring depression with a well-being index: Further evidence for the validity of the WHO well-being index (WHO-5) as a measure of the severity of depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 156, 240–244. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.015

For works with eight authors or more, provide the names of the first six listed authors followed by three ellipsis points, and then the final author's family name and initials.

Noel, H., Denny, S., Farrant, B., Rossen, F., Teevale, T., Clark, T., … Fortune, S. (2013). Clustering of adolescent health concerns: A latent class analysis of school students in New Zealand. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49, 935–941, doi:10.1111/jpc.12397

Group author

In-text citation
Sometimes the author is an organisation, government agency, association or corporate body. If the name of a group is long and the abbreviation is familiar to readers, cite the full name and provide the abbreviation in brackets in the first instance. Then use the abbreviation in subsequent references.

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2013) provides practical and realistic recommendations for healthy eating…

Most Australians eat only about half the recommended quantity of fruit, although they drink excessive amounts of fruit juice (NHMRC, 2013).

If the abbreviation is not well known, use the full name of the organisation each time.

Reference list

  • Works are entered in the reference list alphabetically by name of authoring organisation.
  • The word 'Author' is used in the publisher position when the author is also the publisher.

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Australian dietary guidelines. Canberra: Author.

No author

In-text citation
If no author is designated, cite the title of the work and the year in text.  If the title is long, use the first few words of the title only. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter or webpage. Use italics and no quotation marks for the title of a periodical, book, brochure or report.  

… (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010).

If the author's name is given as anonymous, use "Anonymous" in text as the author's name.

… (Anonymous, 1997).

Reference list
Works with no author are entered in the reference list under title.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington DC: APA.

Works in which the author's name is given as anonymous are listed in the reference list under "Anonymous".

Anonymous. (1997). The art of non-doing. Los Angeles: Starlight.

No date

In-text citation
If no year of publication is provided for a source, use 'n.d.' (meaning 'no date') in parentheses after the author's name.

In a detailed analysis, Jones (n.d.) argues ...

Reference list

Jones, P. (n.d.). The hanging hypothesis. New York: Metzger & Son.

Multiple authors of a single work

When citing more than one source at the same point in the text, list the sources alphabetically in the same order in which they would appear in the reference list and separate each with a semicolon within the same parentheses.

There have been several studies on the links between personality and Facebook use (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010; Ross et al., 2009; Ryan & Xenos, 2011).

Note that the authors' names can also be placed in the narrative.

Amichai-Hamburger and Vinitzky (2010), Ross et al. (2009) and Ryan and Xenos (2011) studied the links between personality and Facebook use.

Repeat citations in the same paragraph

In any one paragraph, if you cite an author or authors more than once in the narrative (i.e. the author's name does not appear in parentheses), then include the family name(s) and year the first time. In subsequent citations in the narrative in the same paragraph, cite the family name(s) only, provided studies cannot be confused.

Hughes et al. (2012) observe that Facebook and Twitter appear to be used for different purposes by different users. They found that people who seek and spread information on Facebook do not use Twitter in the same way and vice versa. Hughes et al. suggest that this may be because …

When the name of the author(s) and year are in parentheses in any one paragraph, the year is included in subsequent citations.

Facebook and Twitter appear to be used for different purposes by different users (Hughes et al., 2012). The researchers found that people who seek and spread information on Facebook do not use Twitter in the same way and vice versa. Hughes et al. (2012) suggest that this may be because …

Secondary source

In-text citation
Sometimes you read one author (secondary) who cites another (primary). In the example that follows, you have read Savage who refers to a publication by Lupton, but you have not read Lupton yourself. Use the phrase "as cited in".

Lupton (as cited in Savage, 2004) distinguishes between "emotional labour" and "emotional work".

Reference list
Reference only the source that you have read (secondary source).

Savage, J. (2004). Researching emotion: The need for coherence between focus, theory and methodology. Nursing Inquiry, 11, 25-34. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291440-1800

Multiple publications by the same author in the same year

In-text citation
If an author (or authors listed in the same order) have published two or more works in the same year, use the lower case letters "a", "b", "c" … after the year to distinguish between the works. Letters are assigned according to the alphabetical order of the title.

Reed and Derryberry (1995b) examined …

According to Reed and Derryberry (1995a) …

Reference list

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995a). Temperament and attention to positive and negative trait information. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 135–147.Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01918869

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995b).Temperament and response processing: Facilitatory and inhibitory consequences of positive and negative motivational states. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 59–84. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00926566


Books

Books: general principles

In-text citation

Gardner (1983) developed a radically different and pluralistic view of mind, proposing seven intelligences.

or

Intelligence is not a single, monolithic ability that can be measured only by IQ tests (Gardner, 1983).

See General Principles above for information on how to cite multiple authors.

Reference list

  • In some cases, the editor is provided in the author position followed by (Ed.).
  • Capitalise only the first letter of the first word of a book title (as well as any proper nouns, acronyms or intialisms). The first letter of the subtitle, if any, is also capitalised.
  • See General Principles for how to cite multiple authors.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. City: Publisher.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

In some cases an organisation is the author. The word 'Author' is used in the publisher position when the author is also the publisher.

Australian Psychological Society. (2014). Ethical guidelines: Complementing the APS code of ethics (12th ed.). Melbourne: Author.

For books where no author is provided, the entry begins with the title of the book.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

For works other than a first edition, indicate the edition number after the title, using the abbreviations as follows: Second edition = (2nd ed.), Third edition = (3rd ed.), Fourth edition = (4th ed.), Revised edition = (Rev. ed.).

Author, Initials. (year). Title of book (edition, if not first). City: Publisher.

Burton, L. J. (2010). An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology (3rd ed.). Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons.

Chapter in an edited book

In-text citation
An edited book is one that consists of chapters written by different authors. If citing from a particular chapter in an edited book, only cite the authors of that chapter in text.

Marelich and Holt's (2006) study confirmed previous research that people's jealous reactions in relationship threatening situations can be attributed to the need to maintain their sense of self.

Reference list
Provide the reference list entry under the name of the chapter authors.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of chapter. In Initials. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). City: Publisher.

Marelich, W. D., & Holt, T. (2006). Salvaging the self and romantic jealousy response. In A. P. Prescott (Ed.), The concept of self in psychology (pp. 167–181). New York: Nova Science.

e-book

In-text citation

If psychotherapists do not consider the age of the client and take developmental theory into account they may mistakenly diagnose pathology where there is none (Adler-Tapia, 2012).

If an e-book is not paginated, you can cite chapters, section headings or paragraph numbers in text.

(Kavishe, 1993, Chapter 8, "Public works for food security", para. 2).

Reference list

  • For e-books that have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), include the DOI in the reference list entry. If no DOI is available, then the URL or homepage URL of the publisher should be given.
  • Use the DOI format that appears in the source you are citing:
    doi:xx.xxxx/xxxx  OR  http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx
  • The phrase "Retrieved from" precedes a URL, but is not used with a DOI.
  • Do not add a full stop after a DOI or URL.
  • Date of retrieval is not required.
  • Database name is not required.

No DOI available (citing the URL):

Author, Initials. (year). Title of e-book. Retrieved from homepage URL of publisher

Adler-Tapia, R. (2012). Child psychotherapy: Integrating developmental theory into clinical practice. Retrieved from http://www.springerpub.com

DOI available:

Author, Initials. (year). Title of e-book. doi

Weatherall, A., Watson, B. M., & Gallois, C. (Eds). (2008). Language, discourse and social psychology. doi: 10.1057/9780230206168

e-reader version:

Author, Initials. (year). Title of e-book [e-reader version]. doi

Schiralidi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe digital version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

From online library or database (e.g. Google Books, ebrary, EBSCOhost):

Author, Initials. (year). Title of e-book. Retrieved from homepage URL

Harris, P. (2008). Designing and reporting experiments in psychology. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com/

If the book is part of a series, the series title is indicated after the book title, using minimal capitalisation and no italics.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of e-book. Title of series. doi

Holder, M. D. (2012). Happiness in children: Measurement, correlates and enhancement of positive subjective well-being. SpringerBriefs in well-being and quality. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4414-1

Dictionary or encyclopedia

In general, citing Wikipedia entries is not recommended. Read more about using appropriate online sources. Note that in some units, citing dictionaries is not acceptable. Consult your unit guide for details.

In-text citation
Where the author is identified for entries in print or online encyclopedias or other reference works, provide the author and year as for other authored sources.

Low and Jin (2012) comment that urging someone to do their best does not appear to be as effective as involving the person in setting specific and relatively difficult goals …

Where the author is not identified, provide the title of the entry in the book.

Field theory is defined as "a systematic approach describing behaviour in terms of patterns of dynamic interrelationships between individuals and the psychological, social and physical situation in which they exist" ("Field theory", 2007, p. 375).

Reference list

Online encyclopedia with author identified:

Author, Initials. (year). Title of entry. In Initial. Editor (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (edition if not the first, vol. no., pp. xx-xx). doi or Retrieved from URL

Low, R., & Jin P. (2012). Achievement motivation and learning. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 47–51). doi:10.1007/078-1-4419-1428-6

Print dictionary with no author identified:

Title of entry. (year). In Initial. Editor (Ed.), Title of dictionary (edition if not the first, vol. no., p. x). City: Publisher.

Field theory. (2007). In G. R. VandenBos (Ed.), APA dictionary of psychology (p. 375). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Periodicals

Periodicals: general principles

Guidelines for reference list entries for both print and online articles in periodicals:

  • See General Principles above for information on how to reference multiple authors.
  • Capitalise only the first letter of the first word in the title of an article (as well as the subtitle). Proper nouns, initialisms and acronyms are also capitalised.
  • Capitalise the first letter of every main word in the periodical title.
  • Format the periodical title and the issue number in italics.
  • Indicate the issue number only if each issue of a periodical is paginated separately, i.e. each issue begins on page 1. Provide the issue number in parentheses.
  • Page numbers do not require "p." or "pp."

DOIs and URLs

  • For print or online articles that have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), include the DOI in the reference list entry.
  • If no DOI is available for online articles, then the URL or homepage URL of the publisher should be given.
  • If an article is only available via a database, provide the URL of the database.
  • Use the DOI format that appears in the source you are citing:
    doi: xx.xxxx/xxxx   OR  http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx
  • The phrase "Retrieved from" precedes a URL, but is not used with a DOI.
  • Do not add a full stop after a DOI or URL.
  • Date of retrieval is not required.
  • Database name is not required.

Print journal article

In-text citation

Borton, Markowitz and Dietrich (2005) note that …

Reference list

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Baker, B. C., Buckenmaier, C., Narine, N., Compeggie, M. E., Brand, G. J., & Mongan, P. D. (2007). Battlefield anesthesia: Advances in patient care and pain management. Anesthesiology Clinics, 25(1), 131–134.

Borton, J. L. S., Markowitz, L. J., & Dietrich, J. (2005). Effects of suppressing negative self-referent thoughts on mood and self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 172–190.

Online journal article

  • For journal articles that have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), include the DOI in the reference list entry.
  • If no DOI is available, then the URL or homepage URL of the publisher should be given.
  • If the article is only available via a database, provide the URL of the database.
  • Use the DOI format that appears in the source you are citing:
    doi: xx.xxxx/xxxx  OR  http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx
  • The phrase "Retrieved from" precedes a URL, but is not used with a DOI.
  • Do not add a full stop after a DOI or URL.
  • Date of retrieval is not required.
  • Database name is not required.

In-text citation

Hughes et al. (2012) investigated the relationship between personality and the use of Facebook and Twitter for both information and social purposes.

According to Reed and Derryberry (1995), …

Reference list

DOI provided:

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi

Hughes, D. J., Rowe, M., Batey, M., & Lee, A. (2012). A tale of two sites: Twitter vs. Facebook and the personality predictors of social media usage. Computers in Human Behaviour, 28, 561–569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.001

DOI not available:

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Retrieved from URL

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995). Temperament and attention to positive and negative trait information. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 135–147. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01918869

Advance online publication

Advance online publication can refer to a work that has not yet been assigned a volume, issue or page numbers. It can also refer to a work that has been peer reviewed but not yet copyedited or formatted for final production.

In-text citation

Trezise et al. (2014) studied working memory in adolescent males …

Reference list

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal. Advance online publication. doi

Trezise, K. L., Gray, K. M., Taffe, J., & Sheppard, D. M. (2014). Working memory in adolescent males with Down syndrome and males with autism and intellectual disability: Implications for the classroom. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability. Advance online publication. doi:10.3109/13668250.2013.874550

Print newspaper article

In-text citation

While it is widely accepted that children living in poverty are at risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems, U.S. research shows that young people from privileged backgrounds are increasingly displaying such tendencies (Luthar, 2013).

Reference list

Author, Initials. (year, month, day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, p. x.

Luthar, S. (2013, December 7). Poor little rich kids. The Sunday Age, p. 21.

If the article appears in a section of the newspaper that is independently paginated, provide the title of the section after the title of the newspaper.

Edgar, R. (2014, May 10). Double vision. The Age, Spectrum, p. 18.

Online newspaper article

In-text citation

Nader (2009) highlights the increasing incidence of mental health issues among children.

Reference list

  • Provide the full date.
  • Provide the homepage URL of the newspaper (or database URL if only available from a database).

Author, Initial. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL of newspaper

Nader, C. (2009, June 19). Mental health issues soar among children. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au

Review in a periodical

In-text citation

Though Shafak's memoir draws on the struggles of women for creative expression in male-dominated cultures, she largely characterises her own depression as an internal conflict (Juchau, 2014).

Reference list

Provide the following information followed by the relevant details for that particular source.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title of article. [Review of the book Title of book by Initials. Author] Title of periodical

Juchau, M. (2014, January 18). The maternal and a mystery [Review of the book Black milk: On motherhood and writing by E. Shafak, Trans. H. Zapsu]. The Age, Life & Style, p. 27.

If the reviewed item is a film, DVD or other media, include the year of release and the medium type.

McKenna, M. (2014, February). ASIO surveillance in 'Persons of interest' [Review of the TV mini-series Persons of interest, 2013]. The Monthly, (97). Retrieved from http://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2014/february/1391173200/mark-mckenna/asio-surveillance-persons-interest


Web, audiovisual

Note that referencing styles for online sources often vary at different institutions, faculties and schools, as standards are still evolving. Always consult your unit guide first to determine your required style. Read more about using online sources.

Webpage or web document

In-text citation
Websites and web documents should be cited according to the name of the author, which is often a group or an organisation.

The Australian Psychological Society (2014) provides nine strategies for communicating better about issues of violence, peace and social justice.

If no author is provided for a webpage or web document, cite by title.

Cite page numbers where provided. Where no page numbers are provided, cite the chapter number, section heading or paragraph number.

The Australian Psychological Society (2014, "Why is it so difficult", para. 3) suggests ...

Reference list

Author, Initials. (year). Title of webpage or web document. Retrieved from URL

Australian Psychological Society. (2014). Communicating about violence, peace and social justice. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/tip_sheets/
communicating/

Blog

In-text citation

Rutledge (2013) comments that balance is important in the use of…

Reference list
Provide the title of the blog post, not the title of the blog. Cite the author(s) of the blog post (be aware that this is not always the owner of blog).

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL

Rutledge, P. (2013, October 21). The healthy use of social media: think goals [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://mprcenter.org/blog/2013/10/the-healthy-use-of-social-media-think-goals/

Social media

In all cases you need to consider whether social media sources are appropriate and acceptable to include in your assignment. If you are uncertain, check your unit guide or with your unit chair or lecturer.

Social networking accounts can either be open to the public or restricted to nominated readers or participants. Posts that are public should be cited in text and in the reference list. Posts from a private Facebook page, blog, email or wiki are treated as personal communication. The following examples deal with public social media posts only.

In-text citation
Include the author and year of the post.

Michael Carr-Gregg (2014) compared anxiety to a rocking chair: "It gives you something to do, but it doesn't get you very far".

Reference list
Only public social media accounts should be included in the reference list. The author's real name is provided first, followed by the username/screen name in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, provide without brackets.

Facebook:

Author, Initials [screen name]. (year, month day). Up to first 40 words of post/update [Facebook post/update]. Retrieved from URL

de Botton, A. [Alain de Botton]. (2014, April 13). To be human nowadays means we almost certainly have an envy problem ... We don't envy everyone, we do so only when we think something they have is within our reach [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/alaindebotton

Twitter:

Author, Initials [screen name]. (year, month day). Text of twitter post [Twitter post]. Retrieved from URL

Carr-Gregg, M. [MCG58]. (2014, April 25). Anxiety's like a rocking chair. It gives you something to do, but it doesn't get you very far [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/MCG58/status/459932487863369728

Streaming video, YouTube

Online videos may be available from a number of different sources on the web and in different formats – downloadable video files, streaming videos, or video podcasts. Cite the source that you have accessed.

In-text citation
You may cite a producer, writer, presenter or speaker. Their role may be specified in text and it must be specified in the reference list entry.

Cain (2010) argues that introverts should be encouraged and celebrated.

… (Beyond Blue, 2013).

Reference list

  • You may cite a variety of roles, e.g. producer, writer, presenter, speaker. This may depend on who you are citing and the publication information available. It is important to ensure that the source is easily retrievable by your reader.
  • In the case of YouTube and other user-publisher video platforms, always provide information about the person who has uploaded the video.
  • Your source may be available in more than one place. Cite the source that you have accessed.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Video file], [Video podcast].
  • If the video is from a URL that is highly likely to change over time, you may provide the homepage URL rather than the full URL.

YouTube:

The "producer" of a YouTube (or similar platform) video is the person who has uploaded the video. Provide their real name and then the screen name/username in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, provide this without brackets.

  • Indicate the medium as [Video file].

Producer, Initials. [screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Beyond Blue [beyondblueofficial]. (2013). I am anxiety [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/user/beyondblueofficial

TED [TalkDocumentary's channel]. (2013, September 10). Susan Cain: The power of introverts: TED talks: documentary, lecture, talks [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0KYU2j0TM4

Streaming video from database via Deakin Library:

  • Provide the homepage URL of database (not the full URL).

VEA. (2011). Anxiety disorder [Video file]. Retrieved from http://vlearn.vea.com.au

Film, DVD, video

In-text citation

A beautiful mind (Howard & Grazer, 2001) depicts …

Reference list

  • Provide the name of the producer and director.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Motion picture], [DVD], [Video]. Only cite the source that you have accessed.

Producer, Initials. (Producer), & Director, Initials. (Director). (year). Title of film [medium]. Country of origin: Studio.

Howard, R., & Grazer, B. (Producers), & Howard, R. (Director). 2001. A beautiful mind [DVD]. United States: Imagine Entertainment.

For films accessed online:

  • provide the medium as [Video file]
  • instead of the country of origin and studio name, provide the homepage URL of the distributor.

Producer, Initials. (Producer), & Director, Initials. (Director). (year). Title of film [Video file]. Retrieved from homepage URL

Howard, R., & Grazer, B. (Producers), & Howard, R. (Director). 2001. A beautiful mind [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/

  • See also Streaming video, YouTube above.

Television

In-text citation
Provide the title of the film in text in italics and provide writer, director and/or producer in the citation.

Thompson & Michelmore (2014) provide a comprehensive account of the Manus riot …

Reference list

  • Provide the names of the writer, director or producer. For current affairs series, provide the names of the reporter and producer.
  • If not accessed online, provide the city of production and name of TV studio instead of the URL.
  • You do not need to provide the full URL.

Single TV episode:

Writer/Reporter, Initials. (Writer/Reporter) & Director/Producer, Initials. (Director/Producer). (year). Title of episode. [Television series episode]. In Initials. Producer (Executive producer). Title of series. Retrieved from URL

Thompson, G. (Reporter), & Michelmore K. (Producer). (2014, April 29). The Manus solution [Television series episode]. In S. Spencer (Executive producer), Four corners. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/

Entire TV series:

Producer/Creator, Initials. (Producer/Creator). (years aired). Title of series [Television series]. Retrieved from URL

Bernstein, M., & Gilligan, V. (Producers). (2008–2013). Breaking bad [Television series]. Retrieved from http://www.tv.com/

  • See also Streaming video, YouTube above.

Audio recording from album

  • Provide the copyright year, not the year of the recording.
  • Indicate the medium that you have accessed, e.g. [CD], [MP3], [Record], [Cassette].
  • If appropriate, indicate the recording artist after the title of the recording.

Songwriter/Composer, Initials.  (copyright year). Title of recording [Recorded by Initials. Artist]. On Title of album [medium]. City: Record label.

Iglesias, A. (2002). Cucurrucucu paloma [Recorded by C. Veloso]. On Talk to her original soundtrack [CD]. Sherman Oaks, USA: Milan Music.

If accessed online, provide the appropriate medium type, and replace the city and record label with the homepage URL of the distributor.

Iglesias, A. (2002). Cucurrucucu paloma [Recorded by C. Veloso]. On Talk to her original soundtrack [MP3]. Retrieved from https://itunes.apple.com/

  • See also Audio online, podcast below.

Audio online, podcast

Audio files may be available from a number of different online sources. Only cite the source that you have accessed.

  • If citing a transcript and not the recording itself, see Transcript.

In-text citation
You may cite a producer, writer, presenter or speaker. Their role may be specified in text and must be specified in the reference list entry.

 Cummins (2010) argues that ...

Reference list

  • You may cite a variety of roles, e.g. producer, writer, presenter, speaker. This may depend on who you are citing and the publication information available. It is important to ensure that the source is easily retrievable by your reader.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Audio podcast].

Author, Initials. (Producer/Writer/Speaker). (year, month day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL

Malcom L. (Presenter). (2014, January 5). The music in your brain [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/the-music-in-your-brain/5132382  

Providing the homepage URL:

If the podcast is from a URL that is highly likely to change over time, it is best to provide just the homepage URL rather than the full URL.

Cummins, R. (Writer & presenter), & Deakin University (Producer). (2012, September 17). Happiness and wellbeing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com


Other sources

Brochure, pamphlet

In-text citation

The American Psychological Association (2001) provides suggestions for helping a daughter deal with the challenges of adolescence.

Reference list

Online brochure:

Author, Initials. (year). Title [Brochure]. Retrieved from URL

American Psychological Association. (2001). Staying connected: A guide for parents on raising an adolescent daughter [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/brochures/staying-connected.pdf

Print brochure:

Author, Initials. (year). Title [Brochure]. City: Publisher.

Quit Victoria (2011). Quit because you can [Brochure]. Carlton South, Vic: Author.

Conference paper

In-text citation

Cronji and Dandy (2012) conclude that …

Reference list

Paper from published proceedings (print)

Author, Initials. (year, day month). Title of paper. In Initials. Editor (Ed), Title of publication: Proceedings of Title of conference (page numbers). City: Publisher.

Parsons, O. A., Pryzwansky, W. B., Weinstein, D. J., & Wiens, A. N. (1995). Taxonomy for psychology. In J. N. Reich, H. Sands, & A. N. Wiens (Eds.), Education and training beyond the doctoral degree: Proceedings of the American Psychological Association National Conference on Postdoctoral Education and Training in Psychology (pp. 45–50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Abstract of conference paper (retrieved online):

Author, Initials. (year, day month). Title of paper. Paper presented at the name of conference, City. Abstract retrieved from URL

Cronji, I., & Dandy, J. (2012, September). Anglo-Australian attitudes toward refugees: Integrated threat theory, in-group identification, and the exploration of stereotypes. Paper presented at the 47th Annual Conference of the Australian Psychological Society, Perth, WA. Abstract retrieved from https://www.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/Combined-Abstracts-of-2012-Australian-Psychology-Conferences.pdf

Course materials

If citing articles or chapters that have been reproduced in course materials, cite the original source where you have been provided with the full bibliographic details.

CloudDeakin
Some units advise that it is not acceptable to cite from course materials. Cite only if you have been given permission to do so. Note that course materials available only on CloudDeakin and not available to the general public should be cited as personal communication in text. Do not provide an entry in the reference list.

Lectures and lecture notes
Some units advise that it is not acceptable to cite from lectures or accompanying notes provided by the lecturer. Cite only if you have been given permission to do so. Cite lectures in text as you would other personal communication. Do not provide an entry in the reference list.

…(Lecturer, Course code and title, Deakin University, lecture, 8 March 2014).

…(Lecturer, Course code and title, Deakin University, PowerPoint slides, 8 March 2014).

Government publication

In-text citation

The Australian Government Department of Human Services (2011) has outlined their direction and priorities for workforce diversity and inclusion.   

If the name of a department or agency is long and the abbreviation is familiar to readers, cite the full name and provide the abbreviation in brackets in the first instance. Use the abbreviation in subsequent references.

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2013) provides practical and realistic recommendations for healthy eating…

Most Australians eat only about half the recommended quantity of fruit, although they drink excessive amounts of fruit juice (NHMRC, 2013).

Reference list

  • If a report number is available, place after the title.

Online document:

Author, Initials. (year). Title. (Report no., if available). Retrieved from URL

Australian Government Department of Human Services. (2011). Workplace diversity and inclusion strategy 2011–15. Retrieved from http://www.humanservices.gov.au/spw/corporate/publications-and-resources/resources/workplace-diversity-inclusion-strategy.pdf

Print document:

If the publisher is the same as the author, list as "Author".

Author, Initials. (year). Title. (Report no., if available). City: Publisher.

Victorian Government Department of Health and Community Services. Primary Care Division. (1994). Victorian families. Melbourne: Author.

  • See also Media release.

Media release (press release)

In-text citation

The Australian Psychological Society (2014) suggests that a holistic approach to bipolar disorder would focus on the creativity, lateral thinking and openness to new ideas that characterise many of those with bipolar disorder.

Reference list

Author, Initials. (year, day month). Title [Press release]. Retrieved from URL

Australian Psychological Society. (2014, 30 March). Reducing stigma a key to improving life for people with bipolar disorder [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org.au/Content.aspx?ID=5731

Personal communication

In-text citation
Personal communications can include letters, emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations, private Facebook messages, university lectures or other course materials not available to the public. It is important to get the permission of the person referred to in your assignment and it could be appropriate to indicate the role of the person.

J. Robinson (personal communication, May 11, 2010) indicated ...

or

... (L. Frazer, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, interview, June 4, 2009).

Reference list
Personal communications are not included in the reference list.

Report

In-text citation

Sydney Water (2013) states…

Reference List
Format corporate, government, research or technical reports as you would books or web documents, with the addition of a report number (if available). A description of the report may also be given if the report's title does not adequately describe the document.

The following format can be used for print and online reports.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). City: Publisher.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from URL

Research report (online):

Rutledge, S., Cohen-Vogel, L., & Osborne-Lampkin, L. (2012). Identifying the characteristics of effective high schools: Report from year one of the national center on scaling up effective schools. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED538011.pdf

Commission on Social Determinants of Health. (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241563703_eng.pdf

Research report (print):

Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct. (2004). AMREP research report. Melbourne: Author.

Company annual report (online):

Sydney Water. (2013). Sydney Water annual report 2013 (Report No. SW 103 10/13). Retrieved from http://www.sydneywater.com.au/web/groups/publicwebcontent/documents/document/zgrf/mdu1/~edisp/dd_055996.pdf

Company annual report (print):

National Association of Social Workers. (2012). 2011–2012 annual report. Washington, DC: Author.

Company profile (from database):

Datamonitor. (2010). Datamonitor: Rio Tinto [company profile]. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/business-source-complete

Unpublished company report:

  • Always seek permission from the author before citing unpublished documents.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of work. Description, Organisation, City.

Babel Invention Metrics. (2005). Focus group feedback. Unpublished internal marketing report, BIM, London.

  • See also Government publication

Table, figure, appendix

When referring to a part of a work, such as a table, chart, figure or an appendix, provide details of the part in text in addition to the author name, year and page number.

In-text citation

Eunson (2008, Table 10.3, p. 324) sets out eight reframing strategies that can be used by individuals or groups to resolve issues, create new perspectives and eliminate counterproductive language.

Reference list
Reference the source where the table, chart, figure or appendix is located and cite accordingly.

Eunson, B. (2008). Communicating in the 21st century (2nd ed.). Milton, Qld: John Wiley and Sons.

Thesis

In-text citation

Sigler (2014) demonstrates …

Reference list

Commercial database:

Author, Initials. (year). Title of thesis (Masters/Doctoral thesis/dissertation). Available from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. if available)

Sigler, C. (2014). Any sorrow can be borne if you put it in a story: Grieving and the reconstruction of meaning in contemporary memoir (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (UMI Number: 3613489)

Institutional database:

Author, Initials. (year). Title of thesis (Masters/Doctoral thesis/dissertation). Retrieved from URL of database

Macvean, E. B. (2010). Converting potential organ donors: A situational analysis of Australian physicians (Doctoral thesis). Retrieved from http://dro.deakin.edu.au/

Transcript

In-text citation

… (Seega, 2014).

Reference list
Use this format for transcripts of audio or video files (podcasts, interviews, speeches). Note that files that are not retrievable by the general public (e.g. interviews and speeches that have not been published or are published on private or closed-group channels) should be cited as personal communication.

  • You may begin the citation with the details of a producer, interviewee or speech giver.
  • Provide the medium, e.g. [Interview transcript], [Podcast transcript].

Seega, B. (Producer). (2014, May 5). Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis [Podcast transcript]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-psychosis/5430430

For interviews, begin the citation with the interviewee's name and provide the interviewer's name after the title.

Interviewee, Initials. (year, month day). Title of work (Initials. Interviewer, interviewer) [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from URL

McWilliams, N. (2013, November 7). A psychodynamic understanding of personality structure (D. Van Nuys, interviewer) [Interview transcript]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/376.pdf

Translated work

In-text citation

Piaget (1932) observed that children …

Reference list

Author, Initials. (year). Title of work (Initials. Translator, Trans.). City: Publisher.

Piaget, J. (1932). The moral judgement of the child (M. Gabain, Trans.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Trubner.

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