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Vancouver


The Vancouver style of referencing was developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). ICMJE produces the guidelines for publication, which are known as the ICMJE Recommendations (formerly known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts). The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) has further developed these citation standards.

This introductory guide to Vancouver style is based on the NLM publication Citing medicine, as well as sample references from the ICMJE Recommendations:

Deakin guide to Vancouver

PDF version
359KB

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-  [updated 2011 Sep 15; cited 2013 Dec 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

U.S. National Library of Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 2003- [updated 2013 Aug 20; cited 2014 Jan 29]. ICMJE recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing and publication of scholarly work in medical journals: sample references; [about 6 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html

You should always check your unit guide or with academic staff (unit chair, lecturer or tutor) to ensure that this is the recommended style for your unit. Note that some units, courses and disciplines use variations of the style described here.


General principles

The Vancouver style consists of:

1. In-text references in the form of numbers in parentheses that follow the relevant section of the text. The same number is used for a work throughout a paper.

2. A numerically ordered reference list at the end of the paper giving full details of each source referred to in text. There is only one reference list entry for each individual work.

How do I format in-text references?

For all sources cited in the body of the paper, provide a reference number in parentheses (round brackets).

... and biomedical authorship continues to have important academic, social, and financial implications. (1) In the past, readers were rarely provided with information about contributions to studies from those listed as authors and in acknowledgments. (2) Some journals now request...

Note that numbers in square brackets and superscript numbers are also acceptable formats used in biomedical journals. It is important to be consistent in the style you adopt and you may need to consult your unit guide or academic staff in your unit to determine the preferred style.

Reference numbers are usually placed outside full stops and commas, but journals vary in their practice. Again, consult your unit guide or academic staff in your unit to determine the preferred style.

The same number is used for a source throughout a paper. This number is determined by the first citation of the source, e.g. if a work is the fourth source cited in a paper, it will be referred to as (4) throughout the paper.

When two or more sources are referred to at the same point in the text, the relevant numbers are separated by commas:

Recognition of the importance of symptom control has been growing. (4, 8, 21)

Three or more consecutive citations are joined by a hyphen:

Many studies have shown that 30 minutes of moderate physical activity per day is good for your wellbeing. (6-8)

You must reference all material you use from sources each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding from someone's work. It is necessary to cite a source each time you:

  • summarise (explain or discuss someone's idea in your own words)
  • paraphrase (closely re-word what someone has said)
  • quote (reproduce an author's exact words).

No quotation marks are required if you are summarising or paraphrasing. Place direct quotes within double quote marks.

Read more about summarising, paraphrasing and quoting.

How do I compile a reference list?

The reference list includes only the works cited in text. It appears at the end of the paper and provides the full bibliographic information of the sources cited. Only one reference list entry should be provided for each work cited. The reference list is ordered numerically.

If an article appears in both print and electronic form, it is important to cite the source type that you have read.

  • Reference list entries are ordered numerically and reference numbers are followed by a full stop.
  • Authors' family names are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stops between initials, e.g. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
  • Commas are used to separate each author's name. Note that 'and' is not used to separate the last two names.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated unless the title is a single word or very short. Read more about the abbreviations of journal titles.

Sample reference list

  1. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, CaplanAL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
  2. Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.
  3. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
  4. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
  5. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A,Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
  6. Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).
  7. Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2012 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/ AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm
  8. Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7; 338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752. PubMed PMID: 19129307: PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2615549.
  9. Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/
  10. O'Connor T. When your heart lets you down. The Age. [Internet] 2013 Dec 2 [cited 2014 Jan 22];Pulse:40. Available from: http://docs.newsbank.com/s/InfoWeb/aggdocs/AUNB/14A6EB518A6E3E08/104B74501DCB01D3?p_multi=ASAB&s_lang=en-US

Citing multiple sources

When citing two or more sources at the same point in the text, the relevant numbers are separated by commas:

Recognition of the importance of symptom control has been growing. (4, 8, 21)

Three or more consecutive citations are joined by a hyphen:

Many studies have shown that 30 minutes of moderate physical activity per day is good for your wellbeing. (6-8)

Repeat citation

The same number is used for a source throughout a paper and only one entry in the reference list should be provided for each work cited. This number is determined by the first citation of the source, e.g. if a work is the fourth source cited in a paper, it will be referred to as (4) throughout the paper and in the reference list.

Secondary source

When citing a work that cites another author you have not read (a secondary source), provide the name of the primary author and secondary author in text, followed by the reference number.

Mishriki discusses Banja's work on… (18)

In the reference list provide details of the source you have read. So in this example, the bibliographic details for Mishriki (the primary source you have read) would be provided in reference 18 in the reference list.

Group author

For works that list an organisation, corporation or agency as the author, provide the name of the group in the author position.

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.

Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001.

No author

If a person or organisation cannot be identified as the author but there are editors, revisers or translators named in the publication, begin the reference with the names of the editors/revisers/translators followed by their role.

Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

If no author, authoring organisation, editor, reviser or translator is given, begin the reference with the title of the book.

21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/

No date

If no date is provided, enter [date unknown] in place of the date.

If no date is provided, but can be reliably estimated, place the estimated year with a question mark in square brackets.

No page numbers

If no page numbers are provided, which is often the case with online sources, you may provide the total number of paragraphs, or estimated number of printed pages or screens. Provide in square brackets before the URL, e.g. [3 paragraphs], [about 3p.], [about 4 screens].

Number of paragraphs (webpage)

Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007. Energy therapies; [cited 2007 Feb 21]; [3 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/cimer/dIndex.cfm?pn=7B632E4A-56B2-11D5-812100508B603A14

Estimated number of printed pages (online newspaper article)

Carey B. Psychiatrists revise the book of human troubles. New York Times [Internet]. 2008 Dec 17 [cited 2008 Dec 19];Health:[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/18/health/18psych.html?_r=1&em

Estimated number of screens (online newspaper article)

Grady D. Jump in doctor visits and deaths in flu season. New York Times [Internet]. 2008 Apr 18 [cited 2008 Dec 19];Research:[about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/18/health/research/18flu.html?scp=7&sq=flu%20season&st=cse

Abbreviations of journal titles

Journal titles are usually abbreviated unless they consist of a single word or are very short. There are conventions on how specific titles are abbreviated. See links below for more information.


Books

Books – general principles

Authors

  • For one to six authors, list all authors.
  • If there are more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by "et al."
  • Authors' family names are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stops between initials, e.g. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
  • Commas are used to separate each author's name. Note that "and" is not used to separate the last two names.
  • If there are no author names provided, but an editor/reviser/translator's name is provided, begin the entry with the name of the editor/reviser/translator followed by their role, e.g. Court FG, editor.
  • If relevant, in addition to authors, place the names of editors, revisers, translators or illustrators after the title of the book, followed by their role.

Titles

  • Titles of books and book chapters should use minimal capitalisation, that is, only the first word is capitalised except for words that would normally be capitalised, such as proper nouns, acronyms and initialisms.

Other publication details

  • Include the edition number for all editions other than the first.
  • A relatively unknown city/place of publication is followed by an abbreviation of the state or country in parentheses, e.g. White Plains (NY).
  • Provide the year of publication or copyright e.g. c2005.
  • For e-books, provide the medium as [Internet], the date cited, and the URL or DOI. Do not add an additional full stop after the URL or DOI.

Print book

For works with one to six authors, provide the names of all of the authors.

Author Initials, Author Initials. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

For works with more than six authors, provide the names of the first six authors followed by "et al."

Author Initials, Author Initials, ... Author Initials, et al. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995.

e-book

When citing an e-book, include the details as for a print book and in addition provide: 

  • date last updated
  • date cited
  • URL or DOI.

Author Initials. Title of book [Internet]. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: URL DOI

Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [Internet]. Version 5.1.0. London: The Cochrane Collaboration; 2011 [updated 2011 Mar; cited 2014 Feb 03]. Available from: http://handbook.cochrane.org/

Schiraldi GR. Post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. Available from: http://books.mcgraw-hill.com/getbook.php?isbn=0071393722&template=#toc  DOI: 10.1036/0737302658

Chapter in a book

When citing a chapter in a book with a single author or single set of authors, include the details as for a book source, and in addition:

  • provide the chapter number, title and page range at the end of the citation
  • do not repeat digits unnecessarily in the page range,  e.g. 124–7 not 124–127
  • place a "p." before the page range of the chapter (Note that the "p." is not used for page numbers of periodicals).

Author Initials. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Chapter number, Chapter title; page range.

Marc AF, Speroff L. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p. 1103-33.

When citing a chapter in an e-book, add:

  • medium as [Internet]
  • date last updated
  • date cited
  • URL and DOI, if available.

Author. Title of book [Internet]. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Chapter number, Chapter title; [updated year month day; cited year month day]; page range. Available from: URL DOI

National Academy of Sciences (US), Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Clinical Trial Registries. Developing a national registry of pharmacologic and biologic clinical trials: workshop report [Internet]. Washington: National Academies Press (US); 2006. Chapter 5, Implementation issues; [cited 2013 Nov 3]; p. 35-42. Available from: http://newton.nap.edu/books/030910078X/html/35.html

Chapter in an edited book

For a chapter in an edited book (a book with chapters written by different authors), provide the details as for a book source and in addition:

  • place the title of the chapter after the author(s), followed by the word 'In' and a colon, then the editor's name and then the book title
  • do not repeat digits unnecessarily in the page range, e.g. 124–7 not 124–127
  • place a "p." before the page range of the chapter. (Note that the "p." is not used for page numbers of periodicals).

Author Initials. Title of chapter. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year. page range.

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

When citing a chapter in an edited e-book, add:

  • medium as [Internet]
  • date last updated
  • date cited
  • URL and DOI, if available.

Author Initials. Title of chapter. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of book [Internet]. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year. [updated year month day; cited year month day]; page range.  Available from: URL DOI

Halpen-Felsher BL, Morrell HE. Preventing and reducing tobacco use. In: Berlan ED, Bravender T, editors. Adolescent medicine today: a guide to caring for the adolescent patient [Internet]. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2012. [cited 2012 Nov 3]; p. 307-18. Available from: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/9789814324496_0018

Dictionary or encyclopedia entry

Author Initials. Title of dictionary/encyclopedia. edition. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of entry; page range.

Turkington C, Tzeel A. The encyclopedia of children's health and wellness. New York: Facts on File, Inc.; c2004. Papilloma virus, human (HPV); p. 381-3.

If a dictionary or encyclopedia entry has no named author, begin the reference with the title of the publication.

Title of dictionary/encyclopedia. edition. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of entry; page range.

Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 30th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; c2003. Encephalomalacia; p. 609.

For online dictionaries or encyclopedias, also include:

  • medium as [Internet]
  • date last updated
  • date cited
  • estimated length of entry if not paginated
  • URL.

Title of dictionary/encyclopedia [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of entry; [updated/reviewed year month day; cited year month day]; [estimated length]. Available from: URL

MedlinePlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); c1997-2014. Diabetes type 1; [updated 2014 Jan 10; reviewed 2013 Oct 18; cited 2014 Jan 29]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/diabetestype1.html

Different editions

Include the edition number after the book title for all editions except the first edition.

Author, Initials. Title of book. edition. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Fritz MA, Speroff L. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005.


Periodicals

Journal article – general principles

Authors

  • For one to six authors, list all authors.
  • If there are more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by "et al."
  • Authors' family names are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stops between initials, e.g. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
  • Commas are used to separate each author's name. Note that 'and' is not used to separate the last two names.

Titles

  • Titles of journal articles should use minimal capitalisation, that is, only the first word is capitalised except for words that would normally be capitalised such as proper nouns, acronyms and initialisms.
  • Journal titles should be abbreviated. See section above on abbreviations of journal titles.

Other publication details

  • Months are abbreviated to the first three letters.
  • There are no spaces between the date, volume, issue and page numbers. The date is followed by a semicolon, the volume number, the issue number in brackets, a colon and the page range.
  • When providing the page range, do not repeat unnecessary numbers unless followed by a letter, e.g. 284-7 not 284-287, but 331A-333A is correct.
  • For online articles provide URL and DOI, if available. Do not add a full stop after a URL or DOI.

If a database's unique identifier is provided, it can be added at the end of the reference list entry.

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid organ transplantation in HIV infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.

Journal article – print

For journal articles with up to six authors, provide the names of all of the authors.

Author Initials, Author Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. year month day;volume(issue):page range.

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.

Many medical journals use continuous pagination through the issues that make up a volume. Page numbers are sufficient to indicate the location of articles in such volumes, so the month and issue number may be omitted.

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.


For articles that have more than six authors, provide the names of the first six authors followed by "et al."

Author Initials, Author Initials, ... Author Initials, et al. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. year month day;volume(issue):page range.

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002 May 10;935(1-2):40-6.

Journal article – online

If a journal article is available in both print and electronic formats, cite the source that you have read.

For journal articles accessed online also include:

  • medium as [Internet].
  • date cited.
  • page number range. If the article is not paginated, give an indication of the length of the article in square brackets. This can be provided as print pages, screens or paragraphs e.g. [about 1 p.], [about 5 screens], [8 paragraphs].
  • URL and DOI, if available.

Author Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal [Internet]. year month day [cited year month day];volume(issue):page range [or estimate]. Available from: URL DOI

Bertino E, Milani S, Fabris C, De Curtis M. Neonatal anthropometric charts: what they are, what they are not. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Ed) [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 9];92(1):F7-10. Available from: http://fn.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/92/1/F7

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs  [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2012 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/ AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm

Journal article – forthcoming

"Forthcoming" journal articles refer to articles that have been accepted for publication but are not yet published. (Previously the term "in press" was used.)

Include the date, volume and issue number of journal, if known.

Ilja Boor PK, Groot KD, Mejaski-Bosnjak V, Brenner C, van der Knaap MS, Scheper GC, et al. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts: an update and extended mutation analysis of MLC1. Hum Mutat. Forthcoming 2006.

Newspaper article – print

For newspaper articles:

  • only the first word of newspaper article titles are capitalised as well as words that would normally be capitalised, such as proper nouns, acronyms and initialisms.
  • all major words are capitalised in newspaper titles. Titles are never abbreviated.
  • provide the name of newspaper section, if applicable.
  • only the first page number of the article is cited.
  • provide the column number (col.), if applicable. 

Author Initials. Title of article. Title of Newspaper. year month day;Section:first page (column number).

Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

Newspaper article – online

In addition to information provided for print newspaper articles, include:

  • medium as [Internet]
  • date last updated, if applicable
  • date cited
  • estimated length of the article in terms of print pages, screens, or paragraphs (if no pagination)
  • URL.

Author Initials. Title of article. Title of Newspaper [Internet]. year month day [cited year month day];Section:first page [or estimate]. Available from: URL

O'Connor T. When your heart lets you down. The Age. [Internet] 2013 Dec 2 [cited 2014 Jan 22];Pulse:40. Available from: http://docs.newsbank.com/s/InfoWeb/aggdocs/AUNB/14A6EB518A6E3E08/104B74501DCB01D3?p_multi=ASAB&s_lang=en-US

Carey B. Psychiatrists revise the book of human troubles. New York Times [Internet]. 2008 Dec 17 [cited 2013 Dec 19];Health:[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/18/health/18psych.html?_r=1&em


Web, audiovisual

Website

For websites and webpages provide:

  • author, if available
  • medium as [Internet]
  • name of the website/webpage
  • publisher and place of publication, if known
  • copyright date
  • date last updated/revised
  • date cited
  • URL. No additional full stop after URL.

Website with author:

Author Initials. Title of website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of copyright [revised/updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: URL

D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/

Huckstep RL, Sherry E. WorldOrtho [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; c1997 [updated 2007 Mar 23; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.worldortho.com/

Website with no identified author:

Title of website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of copyright [revised/updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: URL

Mesothelioma.com: the web's most trusted source on mesothelioma [Internet]. New York: Early, Ludwick, Sweeney & Strauss; c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.mesothelioma.com/

Webpage with author:

Author Initials. Title of website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of copyright. Title of webpage. year month day of webpage [revised/updated year month day; cited year month day]; [estimated length]. Available from: URL

Rollins A. Australian Medical Association [Internet]. Canberra: AMA; c1995-2012. Give Indigenous kids a better start in life: AMA. 2013 Feb 17 [cited 2014 Jan 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://ama.com.au/ausmed/give-indigenous-kids-better-start-life-ama

Webpage with no identified author:

Title of website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of copyright. Title of webpage. year month day of webpage [revised/updated year month day; cited year month day]; [estimated length]. Available from: URL

AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007. AMA launches exclusive partnership with the ReachMD Channel for medical professionals; 2007 Mar 26 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/17469.html

Wiki

Wikis have multiple authors and their content may change frequently. Use your discretion when citing wikis: for example, we do not recommend citing Wikipedia. Read this guide on using electronic sources.

For wikis provide:

  • medium as [Internet] if 'wiki' is in the title, or as [wiki on the Internet] if 'wiki' is not in the title
  • title of the wiki
  • publisher and place of publication, if known
  • date the wiki began or [date unknown] if not known
  • date of last revision/update
  • date cited
  • URL. No additional full stop after URL.

Title of wiki [Internet or wiki on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. beginning date -  [revised year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: URL

National Cancer Prevention Policy [wiki on the Internet]. Sydney: Cancer Council of Australia. [date unknown] [revised 2011 Jul 22; cited 2014 Jan 31]. Available from: http://wiki.cancer.org.au/prevention/National_Cancer_Prevention_Policy/

Blog

For a blog provide:

  • author of the post and/or blog
  • medium as [Internet]
  • title of the post and the blog
  • publisher and place of publication, if known
  • date the blog began
  • date of the last revision/update
  • date the material was cited
  • URL. No full additional full stop after URL.

For blog posts where the author is also the owner of the blog, provide the author of the post.

Author Initials. Title of blog [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. first year of blog - .  Title of post; year month day of post [cited year month day]; [estimated length]. Available from: URL

Smith SW. Dr. Smith's ECG blog [Internet]. Minneapolis: Dr Stephen W Smith. 2008 - . Hyperacute T-waves? Anterior STEMI? No, LVH with PseudoSTEMI pattern!; 2013 December 31 [cited 2014 Jan 9]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://hqmeded-ecg.blogspot.com.au/

Where the blog post is written by a contributor other than the blog owner, provide the author of the post and the owner/editor of the blog. In some cases this may be the same as the publisher.

Author Initials of post. Title of post. year month day of post [cited year month day]. In: Author or Editor of blog. Title of blog [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. first year of blog - [estimated length]. Available from: URL

Harwood A. Tourists enter the medical mix. 2011June 7 [cited 2012 Aug 1]. In: Rural Health Workforce. Rural health – a life changing difference [Internet]. Melbourne: Rural Health Workforce. 2012 - [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://ruralchampions.govspace.gov.au/2011/06/07/tourists-enter-the-medical-mix/

Podcast and streaming video

For podcasts and streaming videos, accessed online or via a database, provide:

  • author, if known
  • title of the individual podcast or video
  • medium as [podcast on the Internet] or [video on the Internet]
  • place of production and the producer
  • full date of production or date of copyright
  • date cited
  • URL. No additional full stop after URL.

Author Initials. Title of podcast or video [podcast/video on the Internet]. Place of production: Producer; year month day [cited year month day]. Available from: URL

Improving patients' care in hospitals [podcast on the Internet]. Sydney: ABC Radio National; 2013 Dec 30 [cited 2014 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/30-december-2013/5139908

Ryner J. Risking our kids [video on the Internet]. Sydney: Film Finance Corporation of Australia; c2008; [cited 2014 Feb 01]. Available from: http://edutv.informit.com.au/watch-screen.php?videoID=568045

DVD, CD-ROM and other hardcopy audiovisual material

For referencing hardcopy audiovisual material, such as DVDs, CD-ROMs, audiotapes, videocassettes, slides or films, provide:

  • author
  • title
  • medium in square brackets
  • place of publication and the publisher
  • year of copyright.

Author Initials. Title [medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Anderson, SC, Poulsen, KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. 2nd version. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2002.

John Sabella & Associates Incorporated. Onboard first aid: immediate actions [DVD]. South Tom's River (NJ): Shipboard Video Express; c2005.

Heizer WD, Semrad CE, Sweeting JG. Clinical nutrition I [slides]. Bethesda (MD): American Gastroenterological Association; c2000.


Government, legal sources

ABS publication

For Australian Bureau of Statistics releases accessed online, cite as you would other webpages, with the addition of the ABS catalogue number.

Australian Bureau of Statistics [Internet]. Canberra: ABS; year. Title of release. Catalogue number. [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available: URL

Australian Bureau of Statistics [Internet]. Canberra: ABS; 2011. Causes of death. Cat. 3303.0. [updated 2013 Mar 15; cited 2014 Feb 03]. Available: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/3303.0Contents2011?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3303.0&issue=2011&num=&view=

Legal sources

No specific information is provided by NLM on how to cite legal sources in the Vancouver style. The following examples are based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC). For more information on referencing legal sources, including legal abbreviations, see the Deakin referencing guide to AGLC.

Note that:

  • titles of Acts and cases are in italics
  • there are no full stops at the end of reference list entries.


Act of Parliament:

Title of Act year (Jurisdiction) section number

Health Records Act 2001 (Vic) s. 25


Case (law report series organised by year):

Title of Case (year) Volume number Abbreviation of report series First page of case

Psalidis v Norwich Union Life Australia Ltd (2009) 29 VR 123


Case (law report series organised by volume):

Title of Case [year] Volume number Abbreviation of report series First page of case

Beattie v Ball [1999] 3 VR 1


Case (unreported judgement):

Title of case [year] Court abbreviation Judgement number (day month year) [paragraph]

Royall v Croydon Hospital Pty Ltd [2013] VSC 453 (26 Aug 2013) [27]

Government publications

Cite according to the source type and also provide:

  • the name of the author or if not identified the name of all relevant authoring agencies/departments and the jurisdiction, if not evident from other publication details
  • titles should appear as they occur in the publication and capital letters in all titles are maintained.

Department of Health and Ageing. National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity User Guide. Canberra: AGPS; 2008.

Department of Health and Ageing, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Australian Food and Grocery Council. Department of Health [Internet]. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; c2008. 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey - Main Findings. [cited 2014 Feb 3]; 58p. Available from: https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/8F4516D5FAC0700ACA257BF0001E0109/$File/childrens-nut-phys-survey.pdf

Government reports

To reference a government report published on the internet, provide:

  • government agency/department
  • medium as [Internet]
  • year of publication
  • date cited
  • catalogue number
  • place of publication and publisher
  • URL. No additional full stop after the URL.

Government Agency/Department. Title of report [Internet]. year [cited year month day]; catalogue number. Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cancer in Australia: an overview 2012 [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2013 Apr 23]; Cancer series no. 74. Cat. No. CAN 70. Canberra: AIHW. Available from: http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129542353


Other sources

Conference paper

Conference paper published in proceedings:

Author Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of publication. Proceedings of Title of Conference; date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication. page range.

Horrobin DF, Lampinskas P. The commercial development of food plants used as medicines. In: Prendergast HD, Etkin NL, Harris DR, Houghton PJ, editors. Plants for food and medicine. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Society for Economic Botany and the International Society for Ethnopharmacology; 1996 Jul 1-6; London. Kew (UK): Royal Botanic Gardens; 1998. p. 75-81.

Conference proceedings published online:

Author Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of publication [Internet]. Proceedings of Title of Conference; date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; [cited day month year]. page range [or estimate]. Available from: URL DOI

Goldschmidt L. Telehealth strategies and information technology transform patient care within the US Department of Veteran Affairs. In: He J, Liu X, Krupinski EA, Xu G, editors. Health Information Science [Internet]. Proceedings of the First International Conference, HIS 2012; 2012 April 8-10; Beijing. Heidelberg: Springer; [cited 2014 Jan 31]. 198 p. Available from: DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-29361-0

Unpublished conference paper:

Author Initials. Title of paper. Paper presented at: Title of conference; year month day; Place of conference.

Bernhardt A, Weiss C, Breuer J, Kumpf M, Sieverding L. The clinical relevance of an elevated lactate level after surgery for congenital heart disease. Paper presented at: Myocardial cell damage and myocardial protection. 3rd International Symposium on the Pathophysiology of Cardiopulmonary Bypass; 2000 Dec 16; Aachen, Germany.

Personal communication

Personal communications include letters, emails, private social media posts, personal interviews and telephone conversations. It is always important to get the permission of the person concerned before referring to them in an assignment. No entry in the reference list is required. Provide all relevant information in text. Written permission should always be obtained from the person being cited. Such information can also be included in an acknowledgements section.

In an interview on 8 October 2013, J Robinson, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, confirmed ...

Dr A Smith (email, 8 January 2014) indicated ...

Table, figure, appendix

After the main bibliographic information, add the descriptor Table/Figure/Appendix, the number and the title. Provide the page number if the source is paginated.

House MG, Choti MA. Palliative therapy for pancreatic/biliary cancer. Surg Clin N Am. 2005 Apr;85(2):359-71. Appendix 1, Principles guiding care at the end of life; p. 389-90.

If no number or title is given, place Table/Figure/Appendix and a descriptive title in square brackets.

Roth S, Semjonow A, Waldner M, Hertle L. Risk of bowel dysfunction with diarrhea after continent urinary diversion with ileal and ileocecal segments. J Urol. 1995 Nov;154(5):1696-9. [Figure, Resection of long ileal or ileocecal segments disturbs enterohepatic bile acid circulation]; p. 1697.

For electronic sources, place the relevant details after the date of publication, followed by the date cited, the page number and the URL.

Collins SR, Kriss JL, Davis K, Doty MM, Holmgren AL. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and financial well-being of American families [Internet]. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep. Figure ES-1, Individual market is not an affordable option for many people; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. viii. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Collins_squeezedrisinghltcarecosts_953.pdf

Thesis

Author Initials. Title of thesis [thesis type]. Place: University; year. Available from: URL/database/collection

Cohen E. Patient participation in symptom management in an acute oncology setting [PhD thesis]. Geelong: Deakin University; 2012. Available from: http://dro.deakin.edu.au/eserv/DU:30048429/cohen-patientparticipation-2012A.pdf

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