Professor Catherine Bennett, Deakin’s Chair in Epidemiology within Deakin’s Institute for Health Transformation, is a leading researcher and teacher in public health, with a specific interest in infectious disease epidemiology and community transmission. During the COVID-19 pandemic, she has become a trusted and reassuring voice in the media, clearly presenting the facts around the daily case numbers and reducing anxiety and uncertainty by stripping away the misinformation and speculation surrounding the virus and its impact on our lives.
Her engaging commentary and expertise ranges from analysing and interpreting the numbers, to discussing the reasons why people can’t or won’t comply with restrictions, and the importance of facts over opinion.
For the most up-to-date evidence-based comments and analysis, follow Catherine on LinkedIn
Read more about vaccine rollout
- 24/8/2021: NSW’s extraordinary vaccination rates give it a fighting chance against Delta
- 9/8/2021: Deakin University's Bennett on Delta Challenges, Australian Outbreaks (Bloomberg TV)
- 8/8/2021: Mass vaccination hubs to offer AstraZeneca to all adults
- 4/8/2021: We need to start vaccinating people in their 20s and 30s, according to the Doherty modelling. An epidemiologist explains why
- 4/8/2021: ‘There is no going back’: experts on what Australia’s Covid modelling reveals
- 2/8/2021: Should we vaccinate children against COVID-19? We asked 5 experts
- 8/6/2021: The time for vaccine hesitancy is over, Deakin expert says
- 31/3/2021: Australia falls 3.4m doses short of 4m vaccination target by end of March
- 25/3/2021: A useful overview in Nature on where we are at with AstraZenica ahead of the release of more complete data. Bristol roll-out data indicate that AZ has an efficacy of around 70% after 1 jab, a fraction ahead of Pfizer. With the longer 12 week spacing we are employing here in Aus, we should expect better than that with the 2nd jab booster. Hopefully 80% effectiveness is feasible and real, and a practical, safe vaccine option to deliver to every corner of the globe. Let’s see those US trial numbers! What scientists do and don’t know about the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID vaccine
- 10/3/2021: ‘Safety’ first: Government’s commitment to safety reason for vaccine delay
- 8/3/2021: What's causing vaccine delays in some Asian countries?
- 27/2/2021: The great unknown: do Covid vaccines stop you spreading the virus?
- 1/12/2020: “On the cusp - final results coming in for vaccines and roll-out imminent. Our vaccine development story is extraordinary, whilst evidence mounts that public health systems in first world countries have become under-resourced over time and weren’t ready for a pandemic." Catherine chats with the ABC's Glen Bartholomew Moderna vaccine seeks emergency distribution approval
- 28/11/2020: “Sweden is struggling to contain their surge and now will resort to more strict measures, though still largely relying on individual responsibility. The testing rates have tripled in the second wave which is a relief. If you are trying something new, especially if the only country taking this path, it is extraordinarily risky, if not negligent, to not invest in testing regimens that allow you too monitor very closely how the virus moving through the population.” Sweden's coronavirus plan failed to stop the virus, and a vaccine may not be enough to 'rescue' them, experts warn
Stopping the spread
Restrictions and lockdowns
- 17/8/2021: The unlinked “mystery” cases keep coming in Melbourne and we are still finding a third of new cases only after they are infectious. Add those two things together and it translates to even more exposure sites – and that means more cases. This is the vicious cycle created by the speed of transmission of the Delta variant. It is awful to confront the idea of yet more weeks of lockdown — even more so as they come with added layers of rules and enforcement — but the reality is we are confronted by a very different version of the virus than that which led to our lockdown this time last year. Delta has shifted the goalposts and only a team effort can beat it
- 12/8/2021: Delta danger means lockdown extension crucial to contain spread
- 7/8/2021: Victorian lockdown likely to be extended as cluster sources remain unknown "We must close these two loopholes in the management of primary close contacts. This is more critical than ever with Delta making it unlikely that primary close contacts can be identified and isolated before they become infectious.
In Victoria last month those people that we know contracted the virus by attending an event or game that a case was at were infectious for 1.7 days on average before starting quarantine.
The same would apply to any “silent cases” that went undetected among the 1/4 or more of primary contacts who quarantined but did not get tested. If there were public exposure sites linked to these missed cases, then they were missed too.
All household contacts of primary close contacts are automatically quarantined. But by quarantining with an untested primary contact who is actually a case, they are very likely to become infected too, lagging some days behind.
Household contacts of a primary contact who hasn’t tested positive, or hasn’t tested at all, won’t be tested at the end of quarantine if the primary contact has a negative test then - which they will even if they were a “silent case” as it would now be more than 2 weeks since their exposure and they will have cleared the infection. Their household contacts are then released… untested and potentially still infectious.
All primary contacts must test at the start to ensure they are were not infectious whilst in the community. We are told this might be a barrier and discourage contacts from coming forward, but surely 14 days of quarantine is the greater deterrent. That said we should make testing easier, via home visit, given the enormous potential cost of missing a case.
Secondly, all household contacts of a primary close contact should also be required to test on day 13. Even if the primary contact does always get tested, then there is always a chance a primary contact is still incubating at test 1 so the test result is negative, and then the infection has cleared by day 12 so they test negative again, but infected their household contacts in the meantime.
We risk unrecorded exposes and transmission opportunities at both ends of quarantine if we don’t get this right. If thousands of people are going to do the right thing by quarantining.. let’s make it count."
- 5/8/2021: Victoria will enter its sixth lockdown from 8pm on Thursday in response to the emergence of new mystery cases of COVID-19 in recent days. Contact tracing is no longer enough to contain an outbreak of the Delta variant – people who have contracted the virus just can’t be found fast enough. Lockdown six needed to tackle mystery cases
- 2/6/2021: Tough but necessary measure to tame the beast
- 31/3/2021: My summary in the Age. Now eight more QL community cases have been announced overnight - five people associated with the nurse and her sister. One other a known contact of the previous male cluster, and two still being investigated. Authorities now believe the nurse did contract the virus from work though are still waiting on genomic results. Brisbane outbreak sends us all a strong warning
- 30/3/2021: QL update - we have two clusters stemming from two distinct index infection events associated with two returned travellers. Both had the B.1.1.7 variant, but different enough to allow us to distinguish between the two clusters. First it’s worth clarifying that QL does not have hot hotels, health hotels or SHA hotels like other states, all returned travelers who test positive are relocated into hospital instead. The original Princess Alexandria Hospital doctor who was infected on March 9 and tested positive March 12 is linked to the first cluster. In this group we have three close contacts who are PCR negative but have antibodies and so may have recovered from an earlier infection. But we do not know how they physically link back to the hospital. Maybe the latest two will hold the clue. Five cases now linked to the Princess Alexandria nurse cluster. One further new case is linked to a close contact but we don’t know from which cluster. 14 community cases now including that original doctor. Tonight a further case was reported, again linked to the Princess Alexandria Hospital. Today the CHO said they know they haven't any missed cases in the community because all the cases they have found are linked. But they are actively testing contacts so that’s not surprising. If all cases cannot yet be epi-linked to the index case, unknown cases are out there.
- 29/3/2021: QL lockdown - So much one could say but that’s why they have word limits on articles! Let’s hope that we hear more about actual epi linkages between cases now the genomics have (so far) identified these as one cluster associated with the Princess Alexandra Hospital case from March 9. It’s the epi links, the way cases overlap in person, time and place, that tell us when and where transmission occurred. This also helps map the outbreak and the risk of their being more missed cases. Without this, the 3-day lockdown may be destined to run longer. Testing rates are up the last two days, so fingers crossed any other cases will be found through this and rapid contact tracing. Our hearts go out to all those in Greater Brisbane now, or that have been there in the last couple of weeks. COVID in Brisbane: 3-day lockdown begins as authorities scramble to find missing links
- 19/11/2020: Experts, including Deakin University Chair in Epidemiology Professor Catherine Bennett say SA got it right, even if the measures seem overly restrictive.
- 18/11/2020: Epidemiologists say six-day lockdown enough to contain SA outbreak
- 16/11/2020: Catherine joins the panel to discus the Adelaide COVID-19 cluster: The Drum Monday November 16
- 14/11/2020: How an Australian state beat its second wave of COVID-19
- 10/11/2020: Watch as Catherine talks about how Melbourne got on top of the second wave Melbourne Crushes Covid-19
- 9/11/2020: Victoria's achievement in bringing down daily coronavirus numbers from 700 new cases a day in August to none in the past 10 days has led Ireland and other European countries to seek our experts' advice on how the state did it. Zeroing in on Victoria's suppression success
- 8/11/2020: “We were more sedate after wave 1 in Melbourne (according to mobility measures and number of close contacts) and will be interesting to see what happens this time. Feels really busy in places already, but to be honest we have all adapted so much to isolation so hard to judge!” After Crushing Covid, Melbourne Emerges Wary and More Sedate
- 6/11/2020: “Victorians may be rewarded on Sunday after their perfect week of zero coronavirus cases with a more widespread easing of restrictions than had been planned.” After seven doughnut days, Victoria set to be 'much closer to normal'
- 1/11/2020: Catherine Bennett: Now that Melbourne’s COVID-19 lockdown has ended, what’s next?
- 31/10/2020: “Victoria may still have some work to do in communications and case management, but in all other respects we are there with contact tracing. And with our numbers down (only 1 new case today, 14-day average at 2.4 and 2 mystery cases in a fortnight), we should now be able to keep numbers down and outbreaks contained so that we never have to test the system at high case numbers again! NSW continues to have low-level community transmission with 20 cases in the last fortnight, averaging 1.4 cases a day. I am not sure why so much emphasis is being placed on “difference” when arguably we are in the same boat, although Vic has the advantage of less risk of wider community transmission for now at least as we emerge from our extended lockdown. Let’s hope both states can close off community transmission.. then we can celebrate together, move fully to prevention mode, and borders won’t be an issue!” Top epidemiologist rates Victoria’s contact tracing as the ‘gold standard’
- 28/10/2020: Victoria and only a handful of countries have achieved zero from second wave
- Melbourne's reopening is on a 'cautious pause' as authorities await the results of thousands of tests from the city's north: Why Melbourne's coronavirus reopening is on hold as regional Victoria steps forward
- “We should be able to manage this regardless of whether we are open or not. Part of this spread could in fact be due to the challenge of getting complex information to families in a way that allows them to do the right thing. We need a clear explanation about why the system can't cope and why we aren’t opening.” Premier's 'cautious pause' draws fire after plans thrown into disarray by outbreak
- "I really hope we get through October and see the end of the ring of steel before November or by November." Victoria could remove ring of steel border around Melbourne next month, Daniel Andrews says
- Coronavirus Victoria: Melbourne makes world history crushing second wave
- City's 5km limit could go to 20km, with models being run 'as we speak'
- Epidemiologist weighs in on whether Melbourne’s COVID-19 rules should be eased
- Victorian 'pivot' opens path out of lockdown
- A 14-day rolling average of 5 new daily cases is the wrong trigger for easing Melbourne lockdown. Let’s look at ‘under investigation’ cases instead
- Catherine talks to 10's The Project: The Project TV: Time To End Lockdown?
- Catherine talks to ABC NewsRadio's Thomas Oriti about how being able to control outbreaks is the key to lifting restrictions Tougher Covid-19 restrictions in Victoria
- “Case numbers don’t necessarily mean Melbourne has to postpone moving to step three, which would involve allowing outdoor dining for cafes and restaurants from next week” Which COVID restrictions are likely to be eased next week?
- “Another 14 cases today, but who’d have thought we’d be disappointed with a 14-day average under 10! Burnet modeling commissioned by DHHS had us with only a 17% chance of a resurgence if we opened up to the final step with up to 10 new cases daily, and even that assumed no ramping up of our outbreak response as numbers started to climb.. and predates the contacts of contacts “ring of containment” now being deployed. We are therefore more than ready to go to just the next step! We need to hear more of these positive predictions.” The new Covid-normal: is Victoria ready to come out of lockdown?
- "With case numbers in the community dropping in metro, including at least 3 days in a row this week with zero mystery cases, there is more chat about the next steps for both metro and regional Vic. The focus for most of us now is on suppression of risk, not suppression of actual transmission. That is, the suppression of seeding potential and of outbreak potential. If the virus happens to land in a worker who takes it home to another part of town or the State, then the less mixing there this, the more likely it is that it will simply die out, or be contained effectively if known about and tracing done.
If the regions move another step, then the State remains out of sync. The Premier has already suggested the State may not reunite even if metro does move to join regional Vic on Step 3 on ~ Oct 19. Hopefully this will all be moot if these outbreaks are shut down in the next 2 weeks. Then we can be back in sync and move as a State towards the last steps. Melburnians staying the course under very strict lockdown for the sake of these small outbreaks is probably as frustrating as it is for regional Victoria under restrictions with no cases. It will be a great day when we can move to the final step and put this difficult phase behind us." Low COVID-19 case numbers have regional businesses straining against Victoria's restrictions
- Daniel Andrews will detail the next step in Melbourne's coronavirus restrictions roadmap today
- "If people are taking care and we're moving to step three … [the outbreak] is contained, it's not high-risk" More COVID-19 restrictions may be eased in Victoria on Sunday. Here's what the health experts think
- "It's unlikely there is now underlying community transmission in regional Victoria because of the length of the lockdown" Safe for NSW to open up to regional Victoria, experts say
- "Victoria's dropping case numbers are "tracking better" than modelling initially suggested and the state's daily figures could warrant fast-tracking the lifting of lockdown restrictions." 'No epidemiological argument for border closure' if case numbers fall at this rate
- If you take out the positive cases linked to known outbreaks, the proportion of cases coming back positive dropped to below 0.1 per cent. Victoria should take 'cautious' approach to early easing of coronavirus restrictions, expert says
- The lowest 24-hour increase since nine cases were recorded on June 16 brings Melbourne’s rolling 14-day average to 34.4. 11 new cases, two deaths; Melbourne’s harsh lockdown could end weeks early
- Common sense must guide us on this road map, and will allow a shift in focus to the important business of evidence-based prevention, early warning systems and testing strategies, backed up by contact tracing and outbreak response readiness, writes Catherine Bennett in The Age Dropping cases should lead to a 'common-sense' rethink on opening up
- Catherine Bennett chats to Patricia Karvelas on RN Drive Victoria to boost coronavirus contact tracing
- On 6 September, the State Government announced the stage four lockdown would be extended by two weeks, with more significant restrictions to be eased in late October. Experts question model and map as new cases fall to lowest since June
- The Victorian Government's roadmap to easing coronavirus restrictions has been met with varied reactions. Victoria's coronavirus restrictions roadmap could exacerbate anxiety and prolong economic pain, experts say
- Catherine's thoughts on Victoria's roadmap out of restrictions Steps out will be incremental, frustrating, even arbitrary
- The Conversation asked four experts, including Catherine Bennett, what they see as the most important aspects of Victoria’s path out of stage four. Four perspectives on how Victoria should exit stage 4 lockdown
- Allowing households to open their doors to one or two close friends and family in a 'germ bubble' is being considered as a possible route out of stage four lockdown and the loneliness that goes with it. The lonely and the learned back 'germ bubbles' as the way to ease lockdown
- COVID curfew crunch: Nearly $1 million in fines but medicos are split on its effectiveness
- “Evaluation of interventions now will allow us to move from blunt shutdowns to precision tactics in our COVID-19 fight, and help chart our way out of our current lockdown safely.” Stage four lockdown offers a chance to find out path out
- “The Stage 5 threat - not the best way to encourage compliance. The compliance engineered into stage 4 should be more than enough to bring this under control. Otherwise, we risk going to even more restrictions to stop people from mixing, or give up on control attempts and live with consequences. Doesn’t bear to think about either, so let’s make this work and work fast!” Stage 5 ahead? What Melbourne could face if COVID cases don’t decline
- “Lockdown is the key to killing off clusters that we can’t see, as well as the ones we can. Arguments for a “stage 4” lockdown are lost on me... why use a NZ style shutdown when consensus is that was overkill first time round, (especially as Aus and Melb achieved same outcome) and there is no evidence it will make a difference given current epidemic dynamics. Reduced mobility, more distancing, masks and isolation if symptomatic is the path to shutting this down.” Victorian lockdown high COVID case numbers mean longer lockdown necessary
Community transmission and contact tracing
- 26/11/20: "The Adelaide story continues to be unpacked. The first case was not the cleaner it seems, but a security guard. This not only means that it is now not proof that the initial infection was from contaminated surfaces (the cleaner had no contact with returned travellers), it also is another piece removed from the 'this strain is different' scenario that led to the context that made the infection of a man who only collected a pizza cooked by a case in the kitchen seem plausible.
- These bookend infection stories ,with some short incubation period chains of transmission in-between, conspired to create the case to close down a state.
- You can only base your decisions on what you know.. a pity two stories presented in quick succession in a way that made them seem more aberrant than they actually were, therefore making SA Health less suspicious than they otherwise might have been. This is real life epi.
- The cleaner must have had a short incubation period to have looked as if infected before the security guards. The other case’s in this person’s family also becoming infectious quickly.. with mild symptoms .. which might fit with a family with an immunological propensity for this epidemiological picture. Not a bee strain as was feared."
- 23/11/20: Crown bans high rollers from smoking over coronavirus fears from staff
- 21/11/20: Catherine talks to ABC News Radio about SA’s outbreak ABC News radio
- 2/6/2021: "The message remains the same, get tested if you have symptoms or when directed to by public health officials, and isolate when necessary. In particular, keep an eye on those exposure sites, even if you only dropped in to grab a coffee. But we shouldn’t be overly concerned about COVID-19 spread by 'fleeting contact'. The precautions we all know (hygiene, distancing and masks) still work and are our best forms of protection." We’re seeing more casual COVID transmission. But is that because of the variant or better case tracking?
- 16/11/2020: Coronavirus contact tracing inquiry told Victoria's DHHS had problems with open disclosure
- 7/11/2020: “In early September, as Victoria's daily COVID-19 case numbers were finally dropping out of triple figures, Premier Daniel Andrews announced the creation of a system of local response units in Melbourne, to replace the highly centralised system that had failed to stop the second wave.” Melbourne's suburban coronavirus contact tracing teams were supposed to be running by now. So what's the hold-up?
- 7/11/2020: “Victoria has continued its streak of zero COVID-19 cases, with no new infections or deaths reported on Saturday, but a positive swab showed a case linked to aged care is still shedding the virus.” Victoria records zero new cases, but viral shedding found in a case linked to aged care
- 5/11/2020: “Amid fears that a coronavirus outbreak would spread quickly among campers, the Mornington Peninsula Shire will keep three of its council-managed camping grounds closed until February…” No Christmas under canvas after council slaps a COVID ban on camping
- 31/10/2020: Victoria has ramped up its highly criticised contact tracing system to a “gold standard”, according to a leading epidemiologist Top epidemiologist rates Victoria’s contact tracing as the ‘gold standard’
- 29/10/2020: Now we're opening up, testing and contact tracing really matters
- 26/10/2020: Restrictions ease, but ‘main problem’ with Vic contact tracing remains
- "We've got a much more front foot local team who can get to the site of a case or a cluster very quickly. That's going to make the difference between having a case, and having a wave." As coronavirus cases plummet, it's time to ask: Is Australia ready for the third wave?
- Blowout in city travel times predicted as lockdown eases
- Which countries are doing well with contact tracing for coronavirus? A look at South Korea, Singapore, China, New Zealand and Belgium
- Sydney versus Melbourne: what the experts say about the COVID numbers comparison
- Where have Melbourne's recent 'mystery' COVID-19 cases been found?
- “The index case truck driver who took the virus to Kilmore and Shepparton would have already been isolated and prevented from making that journey if the ‘contacts of contacts’ approach had been introduced a week earlier (dCHO confirmed today). Our numbers have been low enough to invoke this for some weeks now, and of course I have been advocating for it for many more weeks than that. I do not think NSW does do this routinely btw, I only heard brief mention of it once when they discovered 3 chains of transmission had occurred within 10 days. So it is great that Victoria is now taking this active step to help suppress these clusters early. Better late than never, but a pity we were just a few days shy of preventing this double cluster.” Contact tracing delay and a failure to reveal all threatens to spark Covid outbreak in regional Victoria
- "Victoria’s contact tracing system has faced criticism in the past for being inefficient, with officials flying to NSW in September to learn from that state. Comparisons are difficult in a pandemic because each outbreak has its own unique characteristics. That said, there are some key features that underpin the differing responses of NSW and Victoria when it comes to contact tracing": Where did Victoria go so wrong with contact tracing and have they fixed it?
- Coronavirus Australia:‘Won’t be able to control the spread’: Urgent warning for NSW
- 'The sentinel surveillance is a key step to not only protect facilities from staff attending work whilst infectious, even if they are unsymptomatic.' How Victoria can cement its gains, put a lid on COVID hotspots and start getting back to normal
- Catherine Bennett on the ABC’s 7.30 Report Victoria has overhauled its swamped contact tracing system
- The Victorian government is implementing changes to its contact tracing system including moving to a suburban hub model similar to New South Wales. A day in the life of Victoria’s Covid contact tracers: ‘The puzzle is blank and once you get it together it's fantastic'
- COVID quarantine hotel sex: The rumour that triggered Victoria’s tidal wave of consequences
- “Finally! recognition for hardest hit low SES suburbs. I have been telling this story for a while now, but it has been left on the editors chopping block.” Expert on who REALLY should 'be credited for turning Victoria's COVID tide'
- “We have known SARS-CoV2 moves in clusters through communities since early on. Comparing Victoria and NSW is a great demonstration of the different outcomes if a new wave of infection is only discovered once multiple clusters have established simultaneously. These events feed more virus back into community that then seed more clusters.” Super-spreaders could be key to controlling COVID-19
- “Epidemic curves by LGA grouped in SES quintiles is even more interesting than could be covered in this story. Despite the outbreak being seeded in these communities and large clusters already well formed by the time any restrictions came in, and the fact that people in these areas are less able to work from home or be able to afford to stop working, the rate of drop is proportionally as great in these communities once the excess numbers from local outbreaks start to be contained. These low SES areas not only had the extra serve of bad luck at the start, they have collectively done an amazing job at being part of the public health solution.” 'Past the peak': Cautious optimism as state posts fewer new COVID-19 cases
- “Those unlinked COVID-19 community cases … if we can break these unseen chains of transmission.. we will have this beat!” Disease detectives baffled by mystery COVID-19 cases behind tough new lockdown
- “More detailed modelling of mobility and distancing data finds that Victoria was best in Australia when the reintroduction of COVID-19 occurred, and the suburbs at the heart of this were no different to others in Melbourne. This report also confirms that COVID transmission via clusters defies normal measures of epidemic potential. This comes back to my previous comments on the element of chance in where the virus lands in the community.. and the impact that this can have.” Victoria’s social distancing best on mainland when second surge hit
Masks and face coverings
- 9/11/2020: Catherine chats to 3AW How epidemiologists think Victoria’s mask rules should change
- 9/11/2020: Major change to Victoria's coronavirus rules: Masks may no longer be compulsory in public as the state heads towards a week of no new cases - but there is a catch
- 8/11/2020: “Premier Daniel Andrews has ended Victoria’s state of disaster, disbanded the crisis committee of cabinet and after 124 days opened the “ring of steel” which had kept Melburnians out of the regions as a reward for a ninth day in a row of no new coronavirus cases and no deaths.” Masks should go, experts say, as 'ring of steel' is abolished
- 5/11/2020: “Victorians are still getting used to wearing masks every time they leave the house but not everyone's wearing them correctly — and health experts say the messaging needs to be much clearer.” Victoria coronavirus rules on face masks should be clearer, experts say
- 1/11/2020: "We know that [masks] reduce risk dramatically — in some settings they say masks can reduce the risk of people becoming infected by up to 50 per cent." Low COVID-19 risk in regional Victoria, but this is no time to take off your mask, expert says
- Victorians must now wear fitted face masks instead of bandannas, scarves, plastic face shields as masks have been deemed more effective at stopping droplet spread. Masks are better than face shields: Experts say why
- Watch as Catherine talks to Skynews about Victorian restrictions.Stage three and masks are 'surely enough to manage COVID-19' in Victoria
- Research suggests the growing use of alternative face coverings may not be helpful in curbing the spread of COVID-19. Face shields not effective replacements for cloth masks, experts say
- “Warning - this story refers to facts and therefore may be considered offensive by some. Congratulations to SBS for pulling together this response.” Fact-checking Andrew Bolt’s claims about Melbourne’s mandatory mask order
The international picture
These graphs represent the response to the waves of COVID-19 outbreaks around the world and will continue to be added. The dark green curve shows the cumulative cases, while the light green curve shows the daily reported cases. Decisions that affect the whole population or sections of the country are classed into groups – governance, community mitigation, travel and surveillance, as well as the easing of restrictions and, further down the timeline, the vaccine rollout. These graphs allow us to visualise the timeliness and effect of some of the key decisions on the containment of COVID-19 within each country.
More details about the international picture
Between 2 - 9 July 2020, Melbourne entered Stage 3 (stay at home) lockdown, when daily new cases were around 60-140 per day. As daily new cases reached an average of 300 new cases per day, Melbourne entered Stage 4 lockdown, which included a 5km travel limit, and a curfew.
Within two days of declaring Stage 4, the new daily cases began to rapidly fall. The first step of easing restrictions (not counting removal of curfew) – when 5km limit was increased to 25km and some businesses were allowed to reopen - was when Melbourne was at an average of five or less cases a day, in October. Vaccinations commenced at mid-end of February 2021.
Between 18 September 2020 and 5 October, Ireland progressively moved to Level 3 restrictions (outdoor dining still allowed, schools open, hairdressers and some retail open with protective measures). At this time, Ireland had between 250 and 500 new cases per day. On October 21, when there were approximately 1100 new cases per day, Ireland announced Level 5 restrictions (equivalent to Melbourne’s stage 4, except that schools would stay open). Within days of announcing and scaling up the enforcement of Level 5, daily cases began to drop. A planned first step for reopening commenced when new cases were around 300 per day (1 December); small businesses, retail, gyms, hairdressers and public places reopened. Reopening continued progressively leading up to Christmas. By Christmas time (25-29 December), Ireland was seeing over 1000 new cases per day, and climbing. It was around that time that the UK variant of the COVID-19 virus was confirmed in Ireland. Level 5 restrictions were re-introduced on the 30December, and two weeks later the country had its peak of 8227 new cases per day. At the beginning of January 2021, the UK variant of the virus was detected in approximately 25% of COVID-19 tests, but by mid-February this variant was found in over 90% of the tests. Ireland is currently experiencing around 600-700 new cases per day. Vaccinations commenced at the end of December 2020.
Around 7 April, when Singapore was experiencing approximately 60 new cases per day, a circuit breaker lockdown was implemented, which is equivalent to Melbourne’s Stage 3 lockdown. Around 1 June, when the daily new cases climbed over their peak of 860, and began to slowly fall to around 500, the last day of the circuit breaker was announced with a slow and progressive resumption of activities such as religious worship, and small businesses reopening. Clusters that were discovered, would be contained by placing entire households of close contacts immediately into quarantine. Numbers continued to decrease until around July (around 200 per day), increased to around 380 in August and continued to come back down, with no noted country-wide restrictions implemented. At the end of September, when there were around 25 new cases a day, offices returned to work and events of up to 250 people, with safety measures, were allowed. Singapore has maintained approximately 5-40 new cases per day until now, with no large outbreaks. Vaccinations commenced at the beginning of January. Although Singapore did have a nationwide lockdown period, their approach was more localised, with anyone breaching the stay-at-home order having their visa revoked or passport cancelled, businesses not following rules being shut down even during reopening stages, dormitories isolated as clusters were detected there, and heavy fines and prison sentences given out for individuals in violation of COVID safety measures.
‘Disease detectives’: The role of epidemiologists during a pandemic
Epidemiology is the study of health and illness in human populations, from the occurrence and distribution of disease and the factors behind to the dynamics of infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemiologists use the information they gather to design and test interventions for prevention and control, promote public health education and inform government policy making.
Epidemiologists are invaluable during a pandemic because of their skills in gathering information about disease in a population and using it to anticipate what’s needed, identify risks and prioritise health and other resources.
Listen to Catherine talk about life as an epidemiologist: So you want to be an epidemiologist?