AGLC


Updated: 14 February 2019

This resource is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC). For further details and examples of citations refer to:

Melbourne University Law Review Association, Australian Guide to Legal Citation (4th ed, 2018) <https://law.unimelb.edu.au/mulr/aglc/about>.

You should always check your unit guide and/or with your unit chair, lecturer or tutor to make sure that this is the recommended style for your unit.


General principles

The AGLC style consists of:

  1. Footnotes
    A superscript number is placed after the relevant text, which refers to a footnote listed at the bottom of the page.
  2. A bibliography
    If a bibliography is required, it is provided at the end of the paper and gives details of each source, as well as details of other sources consulted in preparing the paper.

Footnotes

All sources must be acknowledged in footnotes. Footnotes should be used whenever ideas are discussed or when sources are summarised, paraphrased or quoted, unless the full source is already provided in text.

The superscript number should be placed at the end of the portion of text to which the corresponding footnote refers. The number should appear after any relevant punctuation, such as a full stop or a comma.

The control order process undermines the fundamental principle that a person's liberty should not be restricted unless there is a judicial finding of criminal guilt.1

_________________________

1 Nicola McGarrity, 'From Terrorism to Bikies: Control Orders in Australia' (2012) 37(3) Alternative Law Journal 166, 168.

The first time a source is cited, the footnote must provide full bibliographic details. Footnotes for subsequent references to the same source do not repeat all the details but use a shortened form – see the section below on repeat citations for further details.

In footnotes:

  • authors’ names should be exactly as they appear in the source
  • an author's given name should be provided before the family name
  • where there are two or three authors, the names of all the authors are included and the word 'and' separates the names of the last two authors
  • where there are more than three authors, include the family name of the first-listed author only, followed by 'et al'
  • authors’ initials are not spaced and there are no full stops after initials
  • all titles have the first letter of significant words capitalised
  • titles of journals, books, cases and Acts are formatted in italics
  • each footnote ends with a full stop. (Note that this is not the case with bibliography entries).

Aside from referencing, footnotes are also used to provide tangential or extraneous information outside the body of the text. They can be used to back up an argument or to acknowledge a source that has contributed to an argument: See AGLC rule 1.1.5.

Quotation style

Use single quote marks for short quotes of less than three lines. Punctuation marks such as commas and full stops at the end of direct quotes should not be included within quote marks unless they form an important part of that sentence.

Note the broad definition of security arrangements by the Australian Law Reform Commission: 'an interest in property which is held by one person to ensure the performance of an obligation by another'.16


For quotes longer than three lines, do not use quotation marks. Start the quote on a new line, in a smaller font size and indent the quote about 1 cm from the left-hand margin of the page.

Hoffmann J concluded that:

The public interest requires a balancing of the advantages to the economy of facilitating the borrowing of money against the possibility of injustice to unsecured creditors. These arguments for and against the floating of charges are matters for Parliament rather than the courts and have been the subject of public debate in and out of Parliament for more than a century.21

For quotations within quotations use double quote marks for short quotes and use single quotation marks within indented long quotes.

Bibliography

Check with your unit chair, lecturer or tutor to determine if you are required to compile a bibliography for your assignment.

In a bibliography, list all works referred to both in footnotes and in the body of your assignment, as well as all works consulted in writing your assignment.

Sources should be presented under the following sections where applicable:

A Articles/Books/Reports

B Cases

C Legislation

D Treaties

E Other


Sources under Other might include:

  • government documents, such as parliamentary debates, parliamentary committee reports or Royal Commission reports
  • newspaper articles
  • television or radio transcripts
  • press releases
  • legal encyclopedias
  • loose-leaf (or legal commentary) services
  • internet sources.


Note that details provided in the bibliography are almost identical to details provided in the footnotes, with the following exceptions:

  • List entries alphabetically under each section of the bibliography, disregarding 'A', 'An or 'The'.
  • Do not use a full stop at the end of bibliography entries (unlike footnotes which always end with a full stop).

The formatting of authors' names in bibliographic entries also differs from footnotes:

  • Order works alphabetically according to the family name of the first-listed author.
  • For works by a single author, begin with the author's family name first, followed by a comma and the given name or initials. (Note that in footnotes, the given name or initials appear first, followed by the family name.)
  • For works by two or three authors, begin with the first-listed author's family name, followed by a comma and the given name or initials. Second and third authors' names are provided in the correct order. Separate the last two authors with 'and'.
  • For works by four or more authors, begin with the first-listed author's family name, followed by a comma and the given name or initials, and then 'et al'.


Note: the only examples of bibliographic entries provided are in the following sample bibliography. All other examples in this guide are footnotes.

AGLC sample bibliography

A Articles/Books/Reports

Bell, Justine et al, 'Legal Frameworks for Unique Ecosystems: How can the EPBC Act Offsets Policy Address the Impact of Development on Seagrass?' (2014) 31(1) Environmental and Planning Law Journal 34

Boros, Elizabeth, 'Virtual Shareholder Meetings: Who Decides How Companies Make Decisions' (2004) 28(2) Melbourne University Law Review 265

Cryer, Robert et al, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Rooney, Greg, 'Mediation and the Rise of Relationship Contracting: A Decade of Change for Lawyers' (2002) 76(10) Law Institute Journal 40

Tooher, Joycey, and Bryan Dwyer, Introduction to Property Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2008)

Weerasooria, WS, Bank Lending and Securities in Australia (Butterworths, 1998)

B Cases

Breen v Williams (1995) 186 CLR 71

Hospital Products Ltd v United States Surgical Corporation (1984) 156 CLR 41

Uniting Church in Australia Property Trust (NSW) v Mimer (Ion 145) Pty Ltd (1991) 24 NSWLR 510

Victoria Park Racing and Recreation Grounds Co Ltd v Taylor (1937) 58 CLR 479

C Legislation

Banking Act 1959 (Cth)

Supreme Court Act 1986 (Vic)

D Treaties

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, opened for signature 1 July 1968, 729 UNTS161 (entered into force 5 March 1970)

E Other

The Financial Ombudsman Service, 'Insurance Policy Excesses and Financial Difficulty' (2010) 3 Circular Edition <http://fos.org.au/circular3/Excesses.html>

Internet Patent News Service, Patent Database, Patenting Arts and Entertainment <http://www.patenting-art.com/database/dbase1-e.htm>

'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne, 6 June 2005) 4

Whinnett, Ellen, 'Industry Poll Reverses Greens' Survey Forestry Offensive', The Mercury (Hobart, 25 September 2004) 3

Repeat citations

When a particular source is cited more than once in a paper, the full bibliographic details should only be provided in the first instance.

The terms 'Ibid' and 'n' are used for repeat citations of the same work.

Using 'Ibid'

Use 'Ibid' in a footnote where the immediately preceding footnote refers to the same work. The exception to this rule is if a footnote lists more than one source (in this case use 'n').

If a footnote is to the same work and to the same pinpoint reference, simply use 'Ibid'. The pinpoint reference does not need to be repeated in this instance.

If a footnote is to the same work but to a different pinpoint reference, use 'Ibid' followed by the pinpoint reference.

1 Joycey Tooher and Bryan Dwyer, Introduction to Property Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2008) 38.

2  Ibid.

3 Ibid 52–3.


Using 'n'

Use 'n' to refer to a source that has been cited in a previous footnote other than the immediately preceding footnote. (However, 'n' is required when referring to an immediately preceding footnote that lists more than one source.)

Include 'n' and its number in a round bracket.

Author (n number of first citation) pinpoint (if different from first citation).

4 Dallas Buyers Club LLC v iiNet Ltd (2015) 245 FCR 129 (‘Dallas Buyers Club’).

7 Dallas Buyers Club (n 4) 132 [7].


When multiple works are referred to by the same author, then a shortened form of the title can be used in subsequent footnotes.

Author's Surname, 'Title' (n number of first citation) pinpoint (if different from first citation).

48 Kim Rubenstein, 'Meanings of Membership: Mary Gaudron's Contributions to Australian Citizenship' (2004) 15 Public Law Review 305.

...

62 Rubenstein, 'Meanings of Membership' (n 48) 307–11.

Square and round brackets in citations

Volumes of law report series use either square or round brackets around the year.

Square brackets are used where law report series are organised by year.

34 Beattie v Ball [1999] 3 VR 1.

If the law report series is organised by volume number, the year in which the decision was handed down (or often the year in which the case was reported) is provided in round brackets.

91 Hollis v Vabu Pty Ltd (2001) 207 CLR 21.

For further information on the use of brackets in reported decisions, see  AGLC rule 2.2.1.

Note that square brackets are also used for:

  • additions and alterations to quotes in text
  • pinpoint references of paragraphs
  • distinguishing cases where there is more than one hearing of the same matter (see AGLC rule 2.1.13).

Group author

For sources authored by a body (for example a non-government organisation or a government department), place the name of the body in the author position.

If a government department is the author and the jurisdiction is not evident by the name, the abbreviated jurisdiction should be included in parentheses. See AGLC rule 3.1.3 for a list of abbreviations.

5 Department of Defence (Cth), 'Highest East Timorese Honour for Army Officers' (Media Release, MSPA 172/09, 22 May 2009).

If an individual on behalf of the body is the author, both the individual and the body should be included.

17 Gillian Triggs, Australian Human Rights Commission, Human Rights, Refugees and Asylum Seekers, 2013.

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference within a footnote directs the reader to a particular place in the cited work. For sources such as cases, books or journal articles, a pinpoint reference might refer the reader to a particular chapter, page or paragraph. For legislative materials, pinpoint references can also refer to parts, sections, clauses or divisions. A pinpoint reference is provided at the end of both footnotes and bibliography entries.

See Appendix C of the AGLC for a full list of abbreviations used in pinpoint references for legislative materials.


Pages are indicated by the page number only (do not use 'p' or 'pg').

1 Victoria Park Racing and Recreation Grounds Co Ltd v Taylor (1937) 58 CLR 479.

2 William Gough, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990) 220, 223.

3 Joycey Tooher and Bryan Dwyer, Introduction to Property Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2008) 91–2.


Paragraphs are indicated by the paragraph number in square brackets.

4 Cartwright v Cartwright [2007] NTSC 32, [10].


Sections are indicated by an 's' followed by a space and the section number.

5 Banking Act 1959 (Cth) s 5.


Chapters are indicated by 'ch' followed by a space and the chapter number.

6 James Edelman and Elise Bant, Unjust Enrichment in Australia (Oxford University Press, 2006) ch 4.


Multiple pinpoint references are separated by a comma. Consecutive pinpoint references are separated by a dash.

7Fair Trading (Reinstatement of Regulations) Act 2008 (Tas) ss 4(2)(a)–(b), 5(b).


For further information on pinpoint references see AGLC rule 1.1.61.1.7.

Legal abbreviations

Legal abbreviations provide a short-hand way to cite and identify legal publications and courts. This Deakin Library Resource Guide provides a list of the most commonly used abbreviations for law reports, journal titles and medium neutral citations, as well as links to the Deakin Library catalogue.

In the AGLC see the following rules on abbreviations used in citations:

  • 2.3.1 and Appendix B – Unique court identifiers (for medium neutral citations)
  • 3.1.3 – Jurisdictions
  • 3.1.4 and Appendix C – Abbreviations used in pinpoint references

Cases

Reported

  • Case name: full name of case in italics.
  • Year: Volumes of law report series are organised either by year or by volume number. For volumes of law report series organised by year, square brackets are used around the year. If the law report series is organised by volume number, the year in which the decision was handed down (or often the year in which the case was reported) is provided in round brackets.
  • Volume number
  • Abbreviation of report series: Report series have abbreviations that are used in citations. For instance, Commonwealth Law Reports will always appear as CLR in a citation.
  • First page of case
  • Pinpoint: if required. Refer to the page or paragraph number.

Case Name (year) or [year] Volume number Abbreviation of report series First page of case, pinpoint.

17 Uniting Church in Australia Property Trust (NSW) v Mimer (Ion 145) Pty Ltd (1991) 24 NSWLR 510.

23 Breen v Williams (1995) 186 CLR 71, 113.

34 Beattie v Ball [1999] 3 VR 1.

Unreported – Medium neutral citation

Medium neutral citation is a citation system that does not depend on the publisher or the medium of the source. This style is allocated by the court.

Cite unreported cases only if no reported version is available.

  • Case name: full name of case in italics.
  • Year: in square brackets
  • Unique court identifier: See rule 2.3.1 and Appendix B of the AGLC for a list of unique court identifiers.
  • Judgement number
  • Pinpoint: if required, refer to the paragraph number.

Case name [year] Unique court identifier Judgement number, [pinpoint].

13 Director of Consumer Affairs Victoria v Gibson [2017] FCA 240, [120].

For more information about decisions with medium neutral citations, see AGLC rule 2.3.1.

For information about unreported cases without a medium neutral citation see AGLC rule 2.3.2.


Legislative materials

Acts

The year of the Act appears in italics following the title.

The jurisdiction abbreviation is included in brackets. See AGLC rule 3.1.3 for jurisdiction abbreviations.

For more information on abbreviations used in pinpoint references see AGLC rule 3.1.4.

Title of Act year (Abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint.

3 Transfer of Land Act 1958 (Vic) s 74.

5 Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) sch 2.

38 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005 (Cth) pt 3A div 2.


Citing individual parts of legislative materials

A short title may be given for a portion of an Act, piece of delegated legislation or Bill.

The short title is provided in brackets at the end of the first citation. This short title is then used in subsequent references.

Pinpoints following the short title in subsequent references refer only to items within that portion of the Act.

12 Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) sch 1 (‘Criminal Code’).

13 Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) sch 2 (‘Australian Consumer Law’).
….

25 Criminal Code (n 12) s 80.2(5).

26 Australian Consumer Law (n 13) s 3.

For further information, see AGLC rule 3.1.7.

Bills

Bills are cited in similar way to Acts, but the title is not italicised. The year of the bill follows the title.

Pinpoints are often to clauses or subclauses. For more information on abbreviations used in pinpoint references see rule 3.1.4 of the AGLC.

Title of Bill year (Abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint.

51 Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83.

For information on how to refer to a portion of a Bill, see advice in this guide under ‘Acts’.

Explanatory memoranda

Explanatory memoranda are also known as explanatory statements or explanatory notes in different jurisdictions and should be cited appropriately for each jurisdiction. Pinpoints are usually to pages, or pages and paragraphs.

Explanatory Memorandum/statements/notes, Citation of Bill pinpoint.

13 Explanatory Memorandum, Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Bill 2006 (Vic).

27 Explanatory Notes, Adoption Bill 2009 (Qld) 5–6, 29.


Books

Books – general principles

  • Author names should be provided as they appear in the publication. Initials are not spaced and there are no full stops after initials.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each word in titles except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and) and prepositions (by, for, with). Italicise book titles and place chapter titles within single quote marks.
  • Provide the publisher, the edition number (other than the first edition) and the year together in round brackets.
  • Pinpoints are usually to chapters, pages or paragraphs.
  • If an e-book is also available in print, cite as a print book source. If an e-book is not available in print, then cite as you would other internet sources.

Books – one to three authors

First Author, Second Author and Third Author, Title of Book (Publisher, edition number, year) pinpoint.

8 WS Weerasooria, Bank Lending and Securities in Australia (Butterworths, 1998) 230.

31 Edward I Sykes and Sally Walker, The Law of Securities (Lawbook, 5th ed, 1993) 39.

49 ELG Tyler, PW Young and Clyde Croft, Fisher and Lightwood's Law of Mortgage (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2nd Australian ed, 2005).

Books – four or more authors

Provide the name of the first-listed author only, then 'et al'.

First Author et al, Title of Book (publisher, edition number, year) pinpoint.

14 Robert Cryer et al, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge University Press, 2007) 87.

Chapter in an edited book

Begin the footnote with the author of the chapter and also provide the name of the editor(s) of the book.

Author, 'Title of Chapter' in Editor (ed), Title of Book (publisher, edition number, year) first page of chapter, pinpoint.

12 William Gough, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990) 220, 223.

Legal dictionary

Hard copy

If there are multiple definitions for a term, provide the number of the relevant definition preceded by ‘def’.

Dictionary title (edition number, year) ‘entry title’ (definition number).

2 LexisNexis Concise Australian Legal Dictionary (5th ed, 2015) ‘repudiation’ (def 2).

Online

Dictionary title (online at date of retrieval) ‘entry title’ (definition number).

3 Encyclopaedic Australian Legal Dictionary (online at 22 January 2019) ‘quiet enjoyment’.

Legal encyclopedias

  • Provide paragraph pinpoints.

Hard copy

  • Include date of chapter update, if provided.

Publisher, Title of Encyclopedia, volume number (at Full date) Title number Name of Title, 'Chapter number Name of Chapter' [paragraph].

38 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia, vol 4 (at 11 February 2018) 75 Charities, '1 Charitable Purposes' [75-1].

Online

  • Provide the date of retrieval.

Publisher, Title of Encyclopaedia (online at Date of retrieval) Title number Name of Title, ‘Chapter number Name of Chapter’ [paragraph].

38 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (online at 1 June 2018) 90 Constitutional Law, '6 Limitations on Legislative Powers' [90-2226].


Periodicals

Periodicals – general principles

  • Author names should be provided as they appear in the publication. Initials are not spaced and there are no full stops after initials.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each word in titles except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and) and prepositions (by, for, with). Italicise journal titles, and place titles of articles within single quote marks.
  • Both the volume and issue number should be included. Issue number is in round brackets immediately after the volume number.
  • Provide the first page of the article.
  • Pinpoint references are usually to pages.
  • If an article is available in both print and online formats, cite the print version. If citing the online version, the date of retrieval is not given.

Journal article – one to three authors

First Author, Second Author and Third Author, 'Title of Article' (year) volume(issue) Journal Title first page of article, pinpoint.

48 Sharon Rodrick, 'Forgeries, False Attestations and Impostors: Torrens Systems Mortgages and the Fraud Exception to Indefeasibility' (2002) 7(1) Deakin Law Review 97, 106.

62 Penny Carruthers, Kate Galloway and Natalie Skead, 'Teaching Property Law in Australia in the Twenty-First Century: What We Do Now, What Should We Do in the Future?' (2012) 21(1) Australian Property Law Journal 57.

Journal article – four or more authors

Cite the first-listed author only, followed by 'et al'.

First Author et al, 'Title of Article' (year) volume(issue) Title of Journal first page of article, pinpoint.

1 Judy Allen et al, 'Privacy Protectionism and Health Information: Is there any Redress for Harms to Health?' (2013) 21(2) Journal of Law and Medicine 473, 474.

Online journal article

Articles appearing in journals that are only available online should, to the extent possible, be cited the same way as hard copy journal articles.

  • A date of retrieval is not required.
  • A URL is not required.

Author, 'Title of Article' (year)volume (issue) Title of Journal first page of article, pinpoint.

4 Kate Lewins, 'What's the Trade Practices Act Got to Do with It? Section 74 and Towage Contracts in Australia' (2006) 13(1) eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 58, 59.

Where it not possible to include a volume number, issue number or starting page, another identifier (such as an article number) may be used.

If the article is only online and in PDF or similar format, include the page range of the article after any article number/identifier.

Author, 'Title of Article' (year) volume(issue) Title of Journal Article number/identifier: page range of article, pinpoint.

22 Azzurra Annunziata et al, ‘European Consumers Interest Toward Nutritional Information on Wine Labelling: A Cross-Country Analysis’ (2015) 5 BIO Web of Conferences 04003: 1-5, 4.

Newspaper article

Author, 'Title of Article', Newspaper (Place of Publication, day month year) pinpoint.

8 Jamie Walker and Rachel Baxendale, 'Outlaw Bikies Face Nationwide Curbs', The Australian (Sydney, 31 October 2013) 5.

If an article appears in a named section of a newspaper and the section is independently paginated, the name of the section should be included in italics before the title of the newspaper.

10 'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne, 6 June 2005) 4.

Newspaper article – online or database

Electronic newspaper articles should only be cited where an identical print edition of the newspaper or the article cited does not exist.

A date of retrieval is not required.


Author, 'Title of Article', Newspaper (online, day month year) pinpoint <URL>.

56 Farrah Tomazin, 'Kinder Wages Breakthrough', The Age (online, 19 May 2009) <http://www.theage.com/au/national/education/kinder-wages-breakthough-20090519.bcwh.html>.

Newspaper article – no author

Begin the footnote with the title of the article.

10 'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne, 6 June 2005) 4.


Government documents

Law reform commission report

The type of publication (‘Report’, ‘Issues Paper’ etc.) should be included, where appropriate, as the document type.

Where reports contain multiple volumes, include the volume number in the pinpoint reference.

Pinpoint references should be to page numbers where available. Paragraph numbers may be referred to in addition to page numbers or where page numbers are not available.

Name of Law Reform Commission, Title (document type and number, month year) pinpoint.

12 Victorian Law Reform Commission, Civil Justice Review (Report No 14, March 2008).

41 Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice (Report No 108, May 2008) vol 1, 339.

Parliamentary committee report

Where a committee is from one chamber and this is not evident, then the name of the chamber is added before the committee name, as in the addition of 'Senate' in the example below.

Pinpoint references should be to page numbers where available. Paragraph numbers may be referred to in addition to page numbers or where page numbers are not available.

Committee, Legislature, Title (year) pinpoint.

11 Law Reform Committee, Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into Alternative Dispute Resolution and Restorative Justice (2009) 26.

39 Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Parliament of Australia, Administration and Operation of the Migration Act 1958 (2006) 280–1 [9.30]–[9.38].

Parliamentary debate

For parliamentary debates (or 'Hansard'), speakers' titles such as 'Senator' need not be included; however, if the position of the speaker within the ministry or shadow ministry is relevant, it may be included.

Jurisdiction, Parliamentary Debates, Chamber, day month year of debate, pinpoint (Name of Speaker).

2 Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, Senate, 18 June 2008, 2642–4 (Bob Brown).

78 Victoria, Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Assembly, 4 May 2006, 1289–95 (Rob Hulls, Attorney-General).

Royal Commission report

No jurisdiction should be included in the citation.

Where reports contain multiple volumes, include the volume number in the pinpoint reference.

Pinpoint references should be to page numbers where available. Paragraph numbers may be referred to in addition to page numbers or where page numbers are not available.

Name of Royal Commission (document type, month year) pinpoint.

12 Royal Commission into Trade Union Governance and Corruption (Final Report, December 2015) vol 2.


Other sources

Internet sources

  • A source should be cited as an internet source only if it does not exist in print form.
  • An author should only be cited if indicated on the webpage being cited, such as on a blog post. Where the author and web page are identical, the author should not be included.
  • Include the document type: ‘Blog Post’, ‘Forum Post’ etc. Where the type is not clear, use ‘Web Page’.
  • Where available, the full date of the last update of the webpage should be included. Where the full date is not provided, include as much of the full date as available.
  • The date of retrieval is not included in the citation.
  • Where the full URL is very long, and as long as the document can be easily located, you may provide the URL of the home page.

Author, 'Document Title', Web Page Title (Document Type, day month year, if provided) pinpoint <URL>.

1 ‘James Edelman’, High Court of Australia (Web Page) <http://www.hcourt.gov.au/justices/current/justice-james-edelman>.

2 Owen Hayford, ‘Back to the Past for Dodgy Construction Payment Adjudications: Probuild and Maxcon’, Opinions on High (Blog Post, 23 February 2018) <https://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/opinionsonhigh/2018/02/23hayford-probuild-and-maxcon/>.

Media releases

  • The author and body releasing the document should be identified. Where the author is the same as the body, the body should be omitted.
  • Release type should be as on the document (e.g. Media Release, Press Statement). If there is no release type on the document, use ‘Media Release’.
  • Only include a document number if it appears on the release. It may be abbreviated, but without full stops.

Author (jurisdiction), 'Title' (Document type and Number, Body, day month year) pinpoint.

5 Department of Defence (Cth), 'Highest East Timorese Honour for Army Officers' (Media Release, MSPA 172/09, 22 May 2009).

6 Australian Securities and Investments Commission, ‘ASIC Releases Consultation Paper on Reform of Fees and Costs Disclosure for Superannuation and Managed Investment Schemes’ (Media Release 19-002MR, 8 January 2019).

A URL may be included where it assists with retrieval.

Author (jurisdiction), 'Title' (Media Release, Document Number if provided, day month year) pinpoint <URL>.

12 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 'ACCC Accepts a Variation to the Digital Radio Access Undertakings' (Media Release, 19 December 2013) <http://www.accc.gov.au/media-release/accc-accepts-a-variation-to-the-digital-radio-access-undertakings>.

Television and other media

Television, radio and podcasts

  • The full date should be included based on the time zone from which the podcast or radio segment originates. See AGLC rule 7.14.4.
  • A URL may be added to aid retrieval.
  • Pinpoint may be used, specifying the hour/minute/second of the episode.

‘Episode title’, Series or podcast title (version details, Studio/Production company/Producer day month year) pinpoint

33 'States Legislators Vying to Pass Same-Sex Marriage Laws', The Law Report (ABC Radio National, 29 October 2013) 00:06:20.

108 ‘Dan Dresner on “The Ideas Industry”’, The Lawfare Podcast (Lawfare Institute, 17 June 2017).

Social media posts

  • For Twitter accounts, ‘@’ should be included in the username.
  • Where the social media post does not have a title, it should be omitted.

Username, ‘Title’ (social media platform, day month year, time) <URL>.

116 @s_m_stephenson (Scott Stephenson) (Twitter, 17 July 2017, 9:37pm AEST) <https://twitter.com/s_m_stephenson/status/887169425551441921> archived at <https://perma.cc/7A63-G2RT">

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