Deakin guide to referencing

Learn about how and why we use sources in academic writing.

Referencing explained:

Did you miss an Orientation session on referencing? View the recording in UniStart.

Still have a question? Study Support can help.

Before you browse the guide, first learn about how and why we use sources in academic writing

Referencing explained:

Did you miss an Orientation session on referencing? View the recording in UniStart.

Still have a question? Study Support can help.

Select a referencing guide

Deakin guide to Australian Harvard

Different disciplines and units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Always check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use.

Please be aware that different versions of the Harvard style of referencing are used by different universities and publishers. Check with your teacher, supervisor or publisher whether you are required to follow a version of the Harvard style that differs from the advice presented in this guide.

Last updated: 13 October 2020

Deakin guide to Australian Harvard (PDF, 816.6KB)


Just need a quick reminder? This short version of the guide covers the basics:

Quick guide to Australian Harvard (PDF, 396.9KB)

Need to review some of the recent updates?

Summary of 2020 updates to Harvard (PDF, 288.4KB)

Previous version of the Deakin guide to Harvard (PDF, 498.1KB)


Select a topic

Harvard explained

Select a topic

Overview

Australian Harvard is an author-date style of referencing.

In-text citations:

  • Provide the author and year of publication in the body of your writing.
  • In addition, provide a page number for quotes.
  • Page numbers can also be provided for paraphrases.

Reference list:

  • Create a list of all sources used in your in-text citations.
  • Order them alphabetically according the first-listed author's name of each source.

This guide has been adapted from advice provided in:

Digital Transformation Agency (2020) Author-date, Australian Government Style Manual, Commonwealth of Australia, accessed 8 October 2020.

In-text citations

For in-text citations in Harvard, provide:

  • the family name of the author(s) or the name of the organisation/department(s)
  • the year of publication
  • page numbers when quoting directly from a source (essential)
  • page numbers when paraphrasing a source (recommended)
  • a colon between the year and the page number (or other locator)
  • a corresponding entry in the reference list.

When using in-text citations, you can emphasise the author:

Wood (2002:64) believes that the ethical culture of an organisation does not develop from ‘company decree alone’.

Or the information:

The ethical culture of an organisation does not develop from ‘company decree alone’ (Wood 2002:64).

If the citation is from more than one page, include the page range in the in-text citation:

The ethical culture of an organisation does not develop from ‘company decree alone’ (Wood 2002:64–5).

Important: it is essential when citing sources to engage with your sources critically. Avoid writing paragraphs that lack your own commentary and analysis of sources.


There are three main ways to include sources in your work: summarising, paraphrasing or directly quoting.

1. Summarising your source

A summary of a work or section of a work, or a general reference to someone's theory or idea, always requires a citation.

Include the author(s) and the date:

Whelan and Fink (2016) observe that sustainable practices can lower operational costs.


2. Paraphrasing your source

A paraphrase accurately conveys the meaning of a brief and specific section of text from a source – and in roughly the same number of words.

  • Include the author(s) and the date.
  • We also recommend including a page number (or other locator if there are no page numbers, e.g. paragraph number).

Hughes et al. (2012:567) suggest the information sought from Facebook is more likely to be obtained socially, for example …


3. Quoting your source

A direct quote is the exact reproduction of someone’s words.

Only quote a source when it is essential that the reader sees the original wording – for example, it may be a memorable quote, a definition, regulation, legislation, a literary work or a controversial statement.

For further information on Direct quotes see the next topic.

Learn more about summarising, paraphrasing and quoting sources.

Direct quotes

Only directly quote a source when it is essential that the reader sees the original wording. For example, it may be a memorable quote, a definition, regulation, legislation, a literary work or a controversial statement.

Note: While it is more common to provide direct quotes in disciplines such as History, Literature and in disciplines where policy documents or regulations need to be cited, it is less common in the sciences.


Short quotes

For direct quotes of approximately less than 30 words:

  • include the author, the date, and the page number (or for web sources you may use another locator e.g. paragraph number or section title)
  • enclose the quote in single quotation marks
  • place the full stop inside the quote marks only if this is part of the original quote.

From this perspective, it appears that ‘our social structure too is oriented towards this model, in a form of electronic solidarity’ (Butler et al. 2009:18).


Long quotes

For longer quotes of more than approximately 30 words, format as a block quote:

  • indent the quote from main text
  • use a smaller font size
  • use 1.5 or double spacing
  • do not use quotation marks
  • place the in-text citation after the full stop in the original text.

Following the 1987 Wall Street crash, Australian industries were forced to reflect on ethical business practices:

The collapse of some financial institutions, and the prosecution, imprisonment, and public vilification of several powerful business figures, caused governments, businesses, and the public to examine openly the moral precepts upon which Australian business relationships were predicated. (Wood 2002:61)


Quote marks within quotes

When quoting directly from a source that already includes quote marks, use double quotation marks inside single quotation marks.

Domestic ambience ‘depends not so much on seeking “contact with other colours”; but rather on their being value free’ (Proto 2019:29–30).


Adding or removing text from direct quotes

You may add or remove text from a direct quote for clarification or to improve the flow of your sentence – as long as it does not change the intended meaning of the original text.

Use ellipses (…) to show where you have removed words.

It is ‘a future in which our every move, our every word … is trackable, traceable, and data-mineable by unprecedented collaborations between government and tech giants’ (Klein 2020:para.9).

Use text in square brackets to show where you have added words.

Easton (1996:22) claims that the constructions ‘by SES and its affiliates of the Muja Mine Office [in Western Australia] … rank as possibly the largest single rammed earth project since the Great Wall of China’.

Reference list

All in-text citations must have a corresponding entry in the reference list. This provides your reader with details on how to locate your sources. In each entry, you provide the:

  • author
  • year of publication (some sources also require the day and month)
  • title of the work
  • publication details (note: this varies for different source types)
  • date you accessed the source (for some online sources).

Note: some titles of works published online are hyperlinked to the URL. For further details, see the Harvard topics: URLs and DOIs and Web and video: Overview.

The entries in a reference list are alphabetically ordered:

  • by the family name of author or authoring organisation
  • by title where there is no author (disregarding 'A', 'An' or 'The').

Multiple entries by the same author
  • Provide a long dash in place of the author for subsequent entries.
  • Order entries by date.

Žižek S (2001) On belief, Routledge, London.

————(2008) Violence: six sideways reflections, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.


Multiple entries by the same author in the same year
  • Provide a long dash in place of the author's name for subsequent entries.
  • Add lower case letters following the year, i.e. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c.
  • Order entries alphabetically by the title of the work.

Žižek S (2001a) Enjoy your symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out, Routledge, London.

————(2001b) On belief, Routledge, London.


Group authors

Where you have used a shortened form for a group author (organisation, agency or government department) in an in-text citation, provide the reference list entry under the shortened form of the name, followed by the full name in brackets:

HREOC (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) (1997) Bringing them home: report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, HREOC, Sydney.

For further examples, see the Harvard topic Group authors and the section Government, NGO and legal.

Note: some specialised sources – for example, artworks or legal sources – may require their own list. These lists often have a title such as ‘List of artworks’ or ‘Legislation cited’. Check with your unit teaching staff if you are required to provide a list in addition to the main reference list.

Here is a sample reference list, with the title ‘References’ centred and in bold:

References

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2013) Industrial disputes, Australia, June 2013, catalogue number 6321.0.55.001, accessed 8 July 2019.

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2020) ‘Australia’s welfare 2019: data insights’, Australia’s Welfare Series 14, catalogue number AUS 226, AIHW, Australian Government, doi:10.25816/5d5e14e6778df

Ames-Lewis F (1987) Review of Mantegna by Lightbrown R in Renaissance Studies, 1(2):273–279.

Butler R, Clarke DB, Doel MA, Genosko G, Kellner D, Poster M, Smith RG and Wernick A (2009) 'Commentaries on Jean Baudrillard's "On disappearance"', in Clarke DB, Doel MA, Merrin W and Smith RG (eds) Jean Baudrillard: fatal theories, Routledge, Oxon.

Cansdale J, Kirk S, Gaita A, Goldman S, Haack P, Okuda D and Greenaway J (10 June 2020) VisualStudio: GitHub extension [source code], v2.11.104, GitHub, accessed 14 September 2020.

Ekwall A, Gerdtz M and Manias E (2008) ‘The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(6):800–809, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x

Howell J (28–30 September 2016) ‘Making connections: enhancing program outcomes via stakeholder partnerships' [conference presentation], WIL 2020: Pushing the boundaries, Macquarie University, Sydney, accessed 1 February 2020.

HREOC (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) (1997) Bringing them home: report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, HREOC, Sydney.

Russell EK and Carlton B (in press) ‘Counter–carceral acoustemologies: sound, permeability and feminist protest at the prison boundary’, Theoretical Criminology.

Whelan T and Fink C (21 October 2016) ‘The comprehensive business case for sustainability’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27 August 2020.

Wood G (2002) ‘A partnership model of corporate ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 40(1):61–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019990724275

WorkSafe Victoria (2017) Guide to the occupational health and safety regulations 2017, Worksafe Victoria, Victoria State Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Žižek S (2001a) Enjoy your symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out, Routledge, London.

————(2001b) On belief, Routledge, London.

————(2008) Violence: six sideways reflections, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Number of authors

In-text citations

For sources with a single author, provide the family name, or organisation/agency name, and the date.

Australia ranks 23 in Afghanistan’s principal export destinations (DFAT 2020).

The ethical culture of an organisation does not develop from ‘company decree alone’ (Wood 2002:64).

For sources with two authors, provide the family names of the authors in the order they appear in the publication.  Use the word ‘and’ – not the ‘&’ symbol.

Whelan and Fink (2016) observe that sustainable practices can lower operational costs.

It has been suggested that sustainable practices can lower operational costs (Whelan and Fink 2016).

For sources with three or more authors, use only the family name of the first-listed author in publication, followed by ‘et al.’ (meaning 'and others').

Ekwall et al. (2008) found that the impact of interpersonal relationships that occur at triage can …

From this perspective, it appears that ‘our social structure too is oriented towards this model, in a form of electronic solidarity’ (Butler et al. 2009:18).


Reference list

Provide the names of all the authors in the order that they appear in the publication.

Butler R, Clarke DB, Doel MA, Genosko G, Kellner D, Poster M, Smith RG and Wernick A (2009) 'Commentaries on Jean Baudrillard's "On disappearance"', in Clarke DB, Doel MA, Merrin W and Smith RG (eds) Jean Baudrillard: fatal theories, Routledge, Oxon.

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: Afghanistan, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Ekwall A, Gerdtz M and Manias E (2008) ‘The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(6):800–809, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x

Whelan T and Fink C (21 October 2016) ‘The comprehensive business case for sustainability’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27 August 2020.

Wood G (2002) ‘A partnership model of corporate ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 40(1):61–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019990724275

Group author

In-text citations

An author may be an organisation, a government agency/department or a corporate body.

  • Only use a shortened form of an organisation/department/agency if it is in common use.
  • Spell out the full name of an organisation/department/agency the first time you use it, then use the shortened form from that point on.

The report (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission [HREOC] 1997) traces the history of foster arrangements during the long period of racial segregation and assimilation in Australia.

The HREOC (1997) …

According to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT 2020), Australia ranks 23 in Afghanistan’s principal export destinations.

DFAT (2020) states …


Reference list

If you use a shortened form in your text, provide the reference list entry under the shortened form of the name, followed by the full name in brackets.

Shortened Form (Full Name) (year) …

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: Afghanistan, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

HREOC (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) (1997) Bringing them home: report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, HREOC, Sydney.

For further examples of Government sources, see the Harvard section: Government, NGO and legal.

No author

Note that sometimes where it appears there is no author, the author is in fact an organisation or government department.

For sources that do not name a specific author or have an authoring organisation, you can begin the citation with:

  • the name of the publication (e.g. the name of the news site or blog)
  • the title of the work (e.g. the title of the book), or descriptive title (e.g. an artwork with no title).
In-text citations

The media often draw on popular culture to provoke audience interest in astronomical events and observations (ABC News 2020).


Reference list

Government department (year) …

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: Afghanistan, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

News site (day month year) …

ABC News (1 September 2020) ‘NASA scientists zoomed in a million times on a far away galaxy and found a shape similar to Darth Vader's TIE fighter’, ABC News, accessed 2 September 2020.

Newspaper (day month year) …

The Argus (10 January 1880) ‘The unfairness of the advocates of the plebiscite’, Trove, National Library of Australia, accessed 23 June 2020.

Descriptive title of artwork in collection (year) …

Gay liberation badge, UK (c.1984) [brass, enamel] (registration number 1984,0210.1), The British Museum Collection Online, accessed 3 September 2020.

No date

When you cannot find a date for a source, use:

  • n.d. (meaning 'no date') instead of a date
  • c. (short for ‘circa’) if the date can be reliably estimated.

In-text citations

Others in the field have come to similar conclusions (Grossi and Custance n.d.).

It has been suggested that The seven deadly sins (Bosch c.1500) is less characteristic of his style.


Reference list

Bosch H (c.1500) The seven deadly sins [oil on wood], ARTstor Digital Library, accessed 4 March 2020.

Grossi and Custance (n.d.) Language and learning in the age of covid, Pass the Salt Press, Melbourne.

Titles

Capitalisation

  • For most titles, capitalise the first letter of the first word and the first letter of proper nouns.
  • However, for journal titles, and some government sources and legislation, retain the capitalisation used in the original title.

Quote marks

  • For titles of chapters, articles and blog posts, enclose the title in single quote marks.

Italics

  • Format titles of books, web pages, journals and newspapers in italics .

Hyperlinks

  • Only hyperlink titles to URLs of web sources that are freely available to the public.
  • There is no need to hyperlink to sources with DOIs.

A+B blog (31 March 2020) ‘Collaborative tiny home project unveiled’, A+B blog, Deakin University, accessed 31 August 2020.

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83

Eades D (2013) Aboriginal ways of using English, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra.

Wood G (2002) ‘A partnership model of corporate ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 40(1):61–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019990724275

For further details on how to format titles, look at the examples provided for specific source types.

No page numbers

Some sources, such as websites and some e-reader editions of e-books, do not have page numbers.

In-text citations

For sources with no page numbers, you may include another locator in your in-text citation, such as a:

  • paragraph number (para.)
  • section heading
  • chapter heading.

It is potentially a future where everything we do ‘is trackable, traceable, and data-mineable’ (Klein 2020:para.9).

Herodotus (2002:‘Book one’) gives his take on the Phoenician and Persian accounts.


Reference list

Herodotus (2002) The histories, Kindle edn, (Rawlinson G trans), Alfred A Knopf, New York.

Klein N (9 May 2020) ‘Screen new deal’, The Intercept, accessed 12 August 2020.

Multiple citations

In-text citations

Citing multiple sources at the same point:

When citing more than one source at the same point in your writing:

  • order the sources by date, from the earliest date to most the recent
  • separate each source with a semicolon
  • if sources have the same date of publication, order them alphabetically by author name.

Many agree that Wallace's work critiques an ironic mode of postmodernism (Zeffirelli 2000; Fraser 2006; Goerlandt 2006; Dulk 2012).


Citing the same source multiple times in one paragraph:

Ensure that it is clear which part of your text is linked to each citation.

According to Hopkins (2019:29), little attention has been given to the way curators might resolve this. While there has been much discussion around cuts to funding (Barikin 2018; Lovelace 2020), Hopkins (2019:33) argues that management practices need to be investigated.

Important: In addition to citing your sources it is essential to comment on and analyse your sources.

Same author

In-text citations

When citing more than one work by the same author at the same point in your writing:

  • provide the author and dates
  • order citations by date, from the earliest to most the recent
  • separate the dates with commas.

On this point, he has been consistent (Ali 2008, 2010, 2011).

When citing more than one work by the same author in the same year:

  • use the lower case letters (a, b, c etc.) after the date to distinguish between sources
  • the lower case letters are assigned to the dates according to the alphabetical order of the titles (see reference list below).

Genome research confronts us with ‘the ongoing decoding of the human body’ (Žižek 2001b).

Reference list

Multiple entries by the same author:

  • Provide a long dash in place of the author for subsequent entries.
  • Order entries by date.

Ali T (2008) The duel: Pakistan on the flight path of American power, Simon and Schuster, London.

———(2010) The Obama syndrome: surrender at home, war abroad, Verso, London.

———(2011) On history: Tariq Ali and Oliver Stone in conversation, Haymarket, Chicago.

Multiple entries by the same author in the same year:

  • Provide a long dash in place of the author's name for subsequent entries.
  • Add lower case letters following the year, i.e. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c.

Order entries alphabetically by the title of the work.

Žižek S (2001a) Enjoy your symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out, Routledge, London.

———(2001b) On belief, Routledge, London.

Source within a source

In-text citations

When citing a source that you have not read directly but which has been quoted within a source that you have read, provide:

  • the name of both authors in text
  • a citation for the source you have read.

In this example, you have read Cotterall and Cohen, who are citing Donato – but you have not read Donato directly. Nevertheless, you would like to cite Donato.

Donato (cited in Cotterall and Cohen 2003:158) explains the concept of scaffolding, which supports learners as they extend their competence and skills.


Reference list

Provide only the details of the source you have read.

Cotterall S and Cohen R (2003) 'Scaffolding for second language writers: producing an academic essay', ELT Journal, (57)2:158–166.

URLs and DOIs

DOIs

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique identifier that is available for most academic journal articles and some e-books.

  • A DOI is a more stable identifier than a URL, so where a DOI exists, cite this rather than a URL.
  • There is no need to provide the date you accessed a source with a DOI.
  • Do not place a full stop at the end of a DOI.

You can usually find the DOI on the first page of an article in the header or footer. They also appear in library records. DOIs typically appear in one of these formats:

https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2019.2106

doi:10.1089/ast.2019.2106

Here are two reference list examples of articles with DOIs.

Ekwall A, Gerdtz M and Manias E (2008) ‘The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(6):800–809, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x

Wood G (2002) ‘A partnership model of corporate ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 40(1):61–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019990724275


URLs

In reference list entries, URLs are provided for some online sources, such as web pages, web documents, blog posts and online videos – and for online articles that do not have a DOI.

Note: in most cases, there is no need to provide a URL for an e-book nor for an article published in an academic journal. Instead, they are usually cited in the same way as print publications (with the addition of a DOI, if there is one).

When including a URL:

  • hyperlink the title of the work to the URL of the source.
  • provide the date you accessed the URL.
  • do not include the URL of a library database or any other URL that is not freely available to the public.
How do I hyperlink a title?

If you are using Microsoft Word:

  1. Select the title you want to hyperlink.
  2. Click CTRL + K (PC) or COMMANDK (Apple).
  3. Paste the URL into the address.
  4. Save.
  5. Check that your link is correct.

Web document:

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: Afghanistan, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Blog post:

A+B blog (31 March 2020) ‘Collaborative tiny home project unveiled’, A+B blog, Deakin University, accessed 31 August 2020.

Online article with no DOI:

Whelan T and Fink C (21 October 2016) ‘The comprehensive business case for sustainability’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27 August 2020.

Translation

In-text citations

Cite the original author, not the translator.

Intergenerational poverty ‘is not written in the stars; underdevelopment is not one of God's mysterious designs’ (Galeano 1973:7).


Reference list

Include the name and role of the translator in brackets after the title of the work.

Galeano E (1973) Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent (Belfrage C trans), Monthly Review Press, New York.

Books

Select a topic

Overview

In-text citations

The concept of race 'bears the traces of its origins in the biological discourse of social Darwinism' (Barker and Jane 2016:247).

Controlling is one of the four managerial functions that can be utilised to help describe what managers do (Williams et al. 2020).


Reference list
  • Provide as much detail as is available. If a detail is not given, for example an edition or place of publication, simply leave it out.
  • For the most part, the same information is provided for both print books and e-books.
  • For older books (for example, when citing classical literature), the original year can be included as well as the year of the edition. See the Shakespeare example below.
  • An e-reader edition of an e-book may need to be noted, as it may be a unique edition. For further details, see the Harvard topic: e-books.
  • DOIs should be provided, where available. If provided there is no need to include a place of publication. For further details, see the Harvard Explained topic: DOIs and URLs.

Provide the following bibliographic details, where available, for both print books and e-books:

Author (year) Title of book: subtitle of book, edition, volume, (Editor/Reviser/Translator/Compiler), Publisher, Place of publication, DOI

Barker C and Jane EA (2016) Cultural studies: theory and practice, 5th edn, Sage, London.

Galeano E (1973) Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent (Belfrage C trans), Monthly Review Press, New York.

Hocking J (2008) Gough Whitlam: a moment in history: the biography, vol 1, Melbourne University Publishing, Carlton.

Maddison S and Denniss R (2013) An introduction to Australian public policy: theory and practice, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107255920.007

Shakespeare W (1600/1967) The merchant of Venice (Moelwyn W ed), Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Williams C, McWilliams A, Lawrence R and Waheduzzaman W (2020) MGMT4, 4th edn, Cengage Learning Australia, South Melbourne.

e-books

In-text citations

For e-books that do not have page numbers, you may cite:

  • a chapter (‘Chapter title’)
  • section title (‘Title of section’)
  • paragraph number (para.).

Herodotus (2002:‘Book one’) gives his take on the Phoenician and Persian accounts.


Reference list

In most cases, reference list entries for e-books:

  • are the same as for print books (with the addition of a DOI, if available)
  • do not require a URL, a database name, nor a date of access.

For further details, see the Harvard Explained topic: DOIs and URLs.

For example, here is a reference list entry for an e-book accessed via a Deakin database. Note how it has the same details as for a print book.

e-book with no DOI:

Barker C and Jane EA (2016) Cultural studies: theory and practice, 5th edn, Sage, London.

e-book with DOI:

Maddison S and Denniss R (2013) An introduction to Australian public policy: theory and practice, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107255920.007

Marmot M and Wilkinson R (eds) (2009) Social determinants of health, 2nd edn, Oxford Scholarship Online, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565895.001.0001

e-reader editions:

For e-reader editions of e-books that have differing (or no) page numbers (e.g. Kindle editions), provide the edition.

Herodotus (2002) The histories, Kindle edn, (Rawlinson G trans), Alfred A Knopf, New York.

Edition

Reference list
  • Place the edition of the book after the title.
  • If the book is a first edition, there is no need to note an edition number.

Author (year) Title of book, edition, Publisher, Place of publication.

Williams C, McWilliams A, Lawrence R and Waheduzzaman W (2020) MGMT4, 4th edn, Cengage Learning Australia, South Melbourne.

Note that ‘edition’ can refer also to an e-reader edition of an e-book – but note too that most e-books are not different editions and correspond to the equivalent print edition.

Author (year) Title of book, e-reader edition, (Translator trans), Publisher, Place of publication.

Herodotus (2002) The histories, Kindle edn, (Rawlinson G trans), Alfred A Knopf, New York.

Editors, translators

Reference list

The names of the editor (ed), editors (eds), compiler (comp), reviser (rev) or translator (trans) can be included in two ways:

  • after the title (in brackets)
  • or if these roles are of primary importance, they can be placed in the author position (in brackets).

Author (year) Title of book (Translator trans), Publisher, Place of publication.

Galeano E (1973) Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent (Belfrage C trans), Monthly Review Press, New York.

Compiler (comp) (year) Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Smith JA (comp) (1969) The Faber book of children's verse, Faber and Faber, London.

Editors (eds) (year) Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Becker WE, Watts M and Becker SR (eds) (2006) Teaching economics: more alternatives to chalk and talk, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Editors (eds) (year) Title of book, edition, Publisher, DOI

Marmot M and Wilkinson R (eds) (2009) Social determinants of health, 2nd edn, Oxford Scholarship Online, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565895.001.0001

Place

Reference list
  • The first-listed city of publication is placed after the publisher's name.
  • If a DOI is provided there is no need to include a place of publication. For further details, see the Harvard Explained topic: DOIs and URLs.

Author (year) Title of book, edition, Publisher, Place of publication or DOI

Barker C and Jane EA (2016) Cultural studies: theory and practice, 5th edn, Sage, London.

Maddison S and Denniss R (2013) An introduction to Australian public policy: theory and practice, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107255920.007

The state or country of publication can be added for lesser known cities or where two cities might be confused.

Cambridge, MA

Cambridge, UK

Milton, Qld.

Chapter

Note: When citing a chapter from a book written by a single author or single set of authors, cite as you would a whole book – there is no need to include the chapter title in the reference list entry.

When citing a chapter from an edited collection (a book of collected works by different authors), provide the author of the chapter (or preface, foreword or introduction) in the in-text citation.


In-text citations

Watts (2006:168) concludes that ...


Reference list

When citing a chapter from an edited collection, include the following:

  • author of the chapter (or preface, foreword, introduction)
  • title of chapter
  • editor(s) of the book.

Author (year) 'Chapter title', in Editor (ed) Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Watts M (2006) 'Team term papers and presentations', in Becker WE, Watts M and Becker SR (eds) Teaching economics: more alternatives to chalk and talk, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Journal articles

Select a topic

Overview

A journal article in the context of academic study often refers to an article published in a peer-reviewed academic publication, but the term can apply more broadly to a range of articles that you may find online.

Be aware that some news and magazine sites may not always be credible sources of information for the purposes of your assessment. Discuss this further with the teaching staff in your unit. Learn more about evaluating sources.

The best way to find journal articles is via the Deakin Library:

See also the Harvard topic: News articles.

Most academic journal articles (whether in print or online) have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). DOIs can usually be found on the first page of the article or in the entry on the Library catalogue. Note that there are different formats for DOIs. Use the format provided in the article.

For further details, see the Harvard Explained topic: DOIs and URLs.


In-text citations

Whelan and Fink (2016) observe that sustainable practices can lower operational costs.

Benford et al. (2013:68–9) explore how user discomfort can be managed carefully and ethically to foster emotional engagement of computer users.

For longer online articles with no page numbers, you can use paragraph numbers or section headings.

It is ‘a future in which our every move, our every word … is trackable, traceable, and data-mineable’ (Klein 2020:para.9).


Reference list

Provide as much detail as is available. If a detail is not given, for example a journal issue number, simply leave it out.

  • Place article titles in single quote marks, and only capitalise the first letter of the first word and any names.
  • Format journal titles in italics, and use capital letters as they are used in the publication.
  • Place the journal issue number in brackets after the volume number.
  • Include a colon between the issue and the page range.
  • Provide a DOI, where available. Do not place a full stop after a DOI.
  • Do not include the name of the library database where you sourced the article, nor a library database URL.

Author (year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume(issue):page range, DOI

Denmark D, Ward I and Bean C (2012) 'Gender and leader effects in the 2010 Australian election', Australian Journal of Political Science, 47(4):563–578, https://doi.org/10.1080/10361146.2012.731485

Benford S, Greenhalgh C, Giannachi G, Walker B, Marshall J and Robben T (2013) 'Uncomfortable user experience', Communications of the ACM, 56(9):66–73, doi:10.1145/2500889

Online article - no issue, volume number or DOI:

  • Provide the full date, where available.
  • Hyperlink the title to the URL of the article, if it is freely available to the public.
    Note that Library database URLs are not freely available to the public. Never link to a downloaded copy of the article.
  • Include the date you accessed the article.

Author (day month year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, accessed date.

Klein N (9 May 2020) ‘Screen new deal’, The Intercept, accessed 12 August 2020.

Whelan T and Fink C (21 October 2016) ‘The comprehensive business case for sustainability’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27 August 2020.

Online article with article number:

Some journals use article numbers rather than volume, issue and page numbers.

Author (year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, article number, DOI

Chou CL, Teherani A and Masters D (2014) 'Workplace learning through peer groups in medical school clerkships', Medical Education Online, article no. 25809, doi:10.3402/meo.v19.25809

Article in press

  • Use the term in press to refer to a peer-reviewed article accepted for publication in a future issue of a journal.
  • Leave out any details that cannot be confirmed, for example, the year, issue, volume, DOI or page number. Never guess any of the details.

In-text citations

Russell and Carlton (in press) reported similar results.


Reference list

Russell EK and Carlton B (in press) ‘Counter–carceral acoustemologies: sound, permeability and feminist protest at the prison boundary’, Theoretical Criminology.

Review

In-text citations

Include the name of the reviewer.

It is this sort of ‘archaeological precision’ (Ames-Lewis 1987) that tends to overlook the broader context of the artist’s work and world.


Reference list
  • In addition to details of the review and the journal it was published in, include the publication details of the work being reviewed.
  • Note: some reviews, like the one below, do not have a title – in this case, simply leave out the title of the review.

Reviewer (year) 'Title of review', review of Title of work by Author in Title of Journal, volume(issue):page range.

Ames-Lewis F (1987) Review of Mantegna by Lightbrown R in Renaissance Studies, 1(2):273–279.

Government, NGO and legal

Select a topic

Government overview

In-text citations

The author of government reports and other publications is often a specific department or agency.

  • Only use a shortened form of a department or agency if it is in common use.
  • Spell out the full name of a department or agency the first time you use it, then use the shortened form from that point on.

According to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT 2020), Australia ranks 23 in Afghanistan’s principal export destinations.

DFAT (2020) states …

One aim is to better understand intergenerational disadvantage (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW] 2020:para.12).

Reliable data is important when discussing factors that influence wellbeing (AIHW 2020:para.2).


Reference list
  • If you use a shortened form in your text, provide the reference list entry under the shortened form of the name, followed by the full name in brackets.
  • For online sources, hyperlink the title if the source is freely available to the public.
  • For reports that are part of a series, provide the title of the series.
  • Provide a catalogue number, if one exists.
  • Include the name of the government that the department belongs to.
  • Cite according to source type. See also the Harvard topics: Book, Web page, Web document, Media release, Report.

Report on a web page:

Note: In this example, the source is also a part of a series, and has a catalogue number and a DOI.

Shortened Form (Agency) (year) ‘Title of report’, Title of series, catalogue number, Agency, Government, DOI

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2020) ‘Australia’s welfare 2019: data insights’, Australia’s Welfare Series 14, catalogue number AUS 226, AIHW, Australian Government, doi:10.25816/5d5e14e6778df

Print report with a named author:

Author (year) Title of report, Department, Government, Place of publication.

Baslum S (2000) Payments to Vietnam veterans: a summary, Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Australian Government, Canberra.

Web document:

Shortened Form (Department) (year) Title of document, Department, Government, accessed date.

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: ‘Afghanistan’, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Department of Justice, Community and Justice Policy (2007) Step forward: getting help about sexual violence, Department of Justice, Northern Territory Government, accessed 25 August 2019.

Web page:

Shortened Form (Department) (year) Title of webpage, Department, Government, accessed date.

DET (Department of Education and Training) (2020) Bushfire at-risk register (BARR), DET, State Government of Victoria, accessed 3 October 2020.

ABS

In-text citations

Spell out the full name of the Australian Bureau of Statistics the first time you use it, then use the shortened form ABS from that point on.

… (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] 2013).

... (ABS 2013).

Reference list

  • Hyperlink the title of the ABS publication to the precise URL.
  • Provide the ABS catalogue number, where relevant.
  • Learn more about citing various ABS resources (but then always apply the advice in this guide to your final citation).

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (year) Title of publication, catalogue number, accessed date.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2013) Industrial disputes, Australia, June 2013, catalogue number 6321.0.55.001, accessed 8 July 2020.

Bills

The following advice is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style. For further details, see the Deakin guide to AGLC.

The following details are included in both in-text citations and the reference list.

  • Title and year: the title of the Bill is followed by the year (but they are not in italics, as with Acts)
  • Jurisdiction: abbreviated and in round brackets, e.g. (Cth) = Commonwealth
  • Pinpoint reference: references are often to clauses or subclauses. For example, cl = clause; sub-cl = subclause (see section 3.1.4 and Appendix C of the AGLC).

In-text citations
  • Citations of Bills may be integrated into the sentence or cited in round brackets at the end of the sentence.

Title of Legislation year (Abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint

In regards to the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83 …

… (Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83).


Reference list
  • There is no full stop at the end of reference list entries.
  • Note: you may be asked in your unit to create a separate section for legal sources (e.g. Acts and Bills).

Title of Bill year (abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83

Cases

The following advice is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style. For further details, see the Deakin guide to AGLC.

The following details are included in both in-text citations and the reference list.

  • Case name: full name of case in italics
  • Year: in square brackets – if case has a unique court identifier or if law report volume is organised by year
  • Year: in round brackets – if law report is organised by continuous volume numbers
  • Unique court identifier: See rule 2.3.1 and Appendix B of the AGLC for a list of unique court identifiers
  • Judgement number
  • Pinpoint: if required, refer to the paragraph number

In-text citations

Citations of cases may be integrated into the sentence or cited in round brackets at the end of the sentence.

Case name [year] Unique court identifier Judgement number pinpoint

In Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39 [27], it is stated that …

… (Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39 [27]).


Reference list
  • There is no full stop at the end of reference list entries.
  • Create a separate section for cases within the reference list, under the sub-heading 'Cases'. List cases alphabetically.

Case name [year] Unique court identifier Judgement number Pinpoint

Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39

Cases without a unique court identifier (Reported cases):

  • Where a case does not use a unique court identifier in the citation, it has come from a law report series. The abbreviations for law reports are in Appendix A of the AGLC.
  • Note that both round and square brackets are used around the year. Copy the reference details as they appear in your source.
  • Some of these cases have no volume number.

Case name (year) or [year] Volume if applicable Abbreviation of law report series First page of case, pinpoint

Waltons Stores (Interstate) Ltd v Mather (1988) 164 CLR 387, 390

Legislation

The following advice is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style. For further details, see the Deakin guide to AGLC.

The following details are included in both in-text citations and the reference list.

  • Title and year: the title of the Act is followed by the year, and are both in italics
  • Jurisdiction: abbreviated and in round brackets e.g. (Cth) = Commonwealth
  • Pinpoint reference: reference to a page, paragraph, section, clause, etc. For example, s = section; pt = part (see rule 3.1.4 and Appendix C of the AGLC).

In-text citations

Citations of legislation may be integrated into the sentence or cited in round brackets at the end of the sentence.

Title of Act year (abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint

In the Transfer of Land Act 1958 (Vic) s 74, we find that …

… (Banking Act 1959 (Cth) s 5).

Australian consumer law:

The principle consumer protection law in Australia is found in schedule 2 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth). The first citation of this Act should be:

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) sch 2 (‘Australian Consumer Law’)

Subsequent citations should be shortened to Australian Consumer Law. See rule 3.1.7 in the AGLC for more information on individual parts of legislative material.

Unconscionable conduct is prohibited under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) sch 2 (‘Australian Consumer Law’). In relation to goods and services, the relevant provision is s 21 of the Australian Consumer Law.


Reference list
  • There is no full stop at the end of reference list entries.
  • Note: you may be asked in your unit to create a separate section for legal sources (e.g. Acts and Bills).

Title of Act year (abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint

Banking Act 1959 (Cth) s 5

Transfer of Land Act 1958 (Vic) s 74

NGO

In-text citations
  • Only use a shortened form of a non-government organisation (NGO) if it is in common use.
  • Spell out the full name of an organisation the first time you use it, then use the shortened form from that point on.

The World Health Organization (WHO 2014) states that …

The WHO (2014) reports ...

… (Australia for UNHCR 2019)


Reference list
  • If you use a shortened form in your text, provide the reference list entry under the shortened form of the name, followed by the full name in brackets.
  • Cite according to source type. See also the Harvard topics: Book, Web page, Web document, Media release.

Organisation (year) Title of document, Name of Website/Organisation, accessed date.

Australia for UNHCR (2019) 2019 annual report, UN Refugee Agency, accessed 3 July 2020.

WHO (World Health Organization) (2014) WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion, WHO, accessed 3 August 2020.

Organisation (year) Title of web page, Name of Website/Organisation, accessed date.

UNICEF Australia (n.d.) Early childhood development, UNICEF Australia, accessed 26 March 2019.

Parliament

Parliamentary debates and proceedings:

In-text citations

… (Australian Senate 2000).


Reference list

When citing Australian parliamentary debate, or Hansard, provide:

  • the volume number before a colon
  • page number range after the colon.

Name of Parliamentary Committee or House (year) Debates, volume:page range.

Australian House of Representatives (2000) Debates, HR103:2–9.


Australian Senate (2000) Debates, S25:68.

When citing official recordings of proceedings in Parliament, provide:

  • the issue number in parentheses, or the volume number
  • page number range after the colon.

Name of Parliamentary Committee or House (year) Journals or Votes and Proceedings, (issue) or volume:page range.

Australian House of Representatives (2000–01) Votes and Proceedings, 1:631.

Australian Senate (2000–01) Journals, (123):718.

Treaties

The following advice is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style. For further details, see the Deakin guide to AGLC.

Treaties (also known as Conventions, Covenants, Declarations, Protocols and Statutes) are international agreements between states and are part of international law.


In-text citations

The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (‘CISG’) governs contracts of sale of commercial goods between signatories. A written contract is not mandatory (CISG art 11) and an offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree (CISG art 15).


Reference list

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, signed 11 April 1980, 1489 UNTS 3 (entered into force 1 January 1988).

Web and video

Select a topic

Overview

There are endless sources of information to be found on the internet, but not all of it is appropriate to contribute to your academic writing.

  1. What is the purpose of your writing task? Which sources will support your response to the task?
  2. Use your set unit readings as a starting point. Look at the citations in those readings.
  3. Then use the Deakin Library databases and Resource Guides to find further sources.
  4. Always ask yourself: Is this a credible and reliable source of information?
  5. Seek advice from teaching staff in your unit.
  6. You can also get help from the Deakin Library and Study Support.

Do I always need to include a URL and date of access?

In the Australian Harvard style of referencing, online sources that can be easily updated require:

  1. the full URL hyperlinked in the title of the work
  2. the date you accessed the source.

This applies to the following source types:

  • web pages or documents
  • online news reports
  • blog posts
  • online videos e.g. YouTube
  • podcasts.

Only provide links to freely available sources. If a source is behind a paywall, requires a log in (e.g. a Deakin Library database) or is private access only, do not hyperlink to it.

If you are submitting your work in print format only, in your reference list you will need to provide the full URL after the accessed date instead of hyperlinking titles. Do not place a full stop at the end of a URL.


Note: most e-books and online journal articles do not require a URL nor a date accessed, and they do not require any information about the Library database where they were found. They are mostly cited the same way as print books and articles.

Likewise, citations of films or TV episodes, even those accessed via digital streaming platforms, do not require the name of the platform (e.g. Netflix) nor a URL.


How do I hyperlink a title?

If you are using Microsoft Word:

  1. Select the title you want to hyperlink.
  2. Click CTRL and K (PC) or COMMAND + K (Apple).
  3. Paste the URL into the address.
  4. Save.
  5. Check that your link is correct.

Is this source available to the general public?

Sources that are not available to the general public, such as private social media posts, wikis and email messages, should be treated as Personal communications. If you are not sure whether it is appropriate to cite social media or personal communications in your assessment, seek clarification from the teachers in your unit.

Web page

  • Note: Many web pages do not include the names of individual authors. Learn more in the Harvard topics: Group authors, Government overview, NGOs.
  • It is preferable to cite a web page rather than an entire website – this provides a more accurate location of your source.
  • Provide the day, month and year, where available (commonly provided for an article on a webpage) but do not use the copyright date. Be aware that some web pages do not provide any date – and in this case give the date as (n.d.) ‘no date’.

In-text citations
  • For longer webpages, provide section titles or paragraph numbers (instead of page numbers).
  • When citing multiple sub-pages or sub-sections of a website, you may provide the titles of the specific sections in your in-text citation. In the reference list, provide the single web page where all sub-sections/pages can be found.

It is now recognised that ideas once relegated to ‘fringe’ economic thought may soon instead be part of an innovative solution (United Nations 2020:para.7)

Responsibility and accountability are key aspects of this (Deakin University n.d.:‘GLO6 self-management’).


Reference list
  • Include the day. month and year, where available.
  • Hyperlink the title of web page to the URL if the source is freely available to the public.
  • Do not link to a URL from a library catalogue or database.
  • Do not link to a source that requires a log in. Instead, provide the homepage URL in text.
  • Include the date you accessed the web page.

Organisation (day month year) Title of web page, Website/Organisation, accessed date.

Deakin University (n.d.) Deakin graduate learning outcomes, Deakin University, accessed 8 September 2020.

United Nations (3 September 2020) Women are key to response and recovery out of the COVID era: Deputy UN Chief, UN News, accessed 14 September 2020.

If a site is not freely available (e.g. requires a log in), include the homepage URL after the title.

Organisation (day month year) Title of web page, homepage URL, Organisation, accessed date.

ABCB (Australian Building Codes Board) (2019) NCC 2019 volume one, https://ncc.abcb.gov.au/, National Construction Code, accessed 2 May 2020.

Web document

  • Note: Many web documents do not include the names of individual authors. Learn more in the Harvard topics: Group authors, Government overview, NGOs.
  • Provide the day, month and year, where available, but do not use the copyright date. Be aware that some web documents do not provide any date – and in this case give the date as (n.d.) ‘no date’.

In-text citations

For a long document with no page numbers:

  • you may cite a paragraph number, sub-heading or section title.
  • never cite the page numbers of your printed version of the document.

Core relief was delivered to more than 20,000 Syrian refugees in this period (Australia for UNHCR 2019:10).

An average of $829,000 is reported in losses to cybercrime every day in Australia (ACCC 2020:‘Australian Cyber Security Centre’).


Reference list
  • Include the day, month and year, where available.
  • Hyperlink directly to the URL of the PDF (or to the landing webpage where the document can be found) if the source is freely available to the public.
  • Do not link to a source that requires a log in. Instead, provide the homepage URL in text.
  • Include the date you accessed the document.

Author (year) Title of document, Name of Website/Organisation, accessed date.

ACCC (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission) (2020) Be safe, be alert online, ACCC, Australian Government, accessed 1 October 2020.

Australia for UNHCR (2019) 2019 annual report, UN Refugee Agency, accessed 3 July 2020.

WHO (World Health Organization) (2014) WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion, WHO, accessed 15 August 2020.

Blog post

In-text citations
  • Provide the author and year.
  • As most blog posts are short they do not require paragraph numbers, sub-headings or other locators – but they can be provided for longer posts, if needed.

The Prefab21 tiny home offers homeless residents of Geelong ‘safety, dignity, comfort … and the time to transition to more permanent housing’ (A+B blog 2020).

Smith (2020) explores some of the debates around ‘academic quality’ in the context of some of the recent organisational disruptions.


Reference list

For blog posts, provide:

  • the author’s name as it appears in the post
  • the blog as author if a post has no named author
  • the day, month and year of the post
  • a hyperlinked title of the post
  • the date you accessed the post.

Author of post (day month year) 'Title of post', Title of blog, accessed date.

A+B blog (31 March 2020) ‘Collaborative tiny home project unveiled’, A+B blog, Deakin University, accessed 31 August 2020.

Smith P (3 September 2020) ‘Rethinking higher education’, Inside higher ed, accessed 1 October 2020.

Social media post

Before citing a social media source, ask yourself:

  • Is it acceptable to cite social media sources for an assessment in this unit?
  • What is the purpose of citing this source?
  • Is this a credible and reliable source of information?
  • If the post is referring to content that can be found elsewhere, should I try to find the original source?
  • Is the social media post/update public or private? Posts from private social media accounts should be treated as Personal communications. All the following examples are of public social media posts.

In-text citations

Provide the author of the post and year.

Dawkins (2014) suggests that children learn from a young age to see through ‘a certain class of falsehoods’.


Reference list

For social media posts and updates, provide the:

  • author name (can also be username or name of an organisation)
  • day month and year of the post
  • first 10 words of the post followed by an ellipsis (…), hyperlinked to the URL of the post
  • the type of post in square brackets
  • the date you accessed the post.

Author of post (day month year) ‘First 10 words of post ...’ [type of post], Name of page/handle, accessed date.

Facebook:

Goodall J (23 April 2020) ‘What I’m doing now is my job, trying to wake…’ [Facebook post], Jane Goodall, accessed 29 May 2020.

Instagram:

Kristensen A (4 August 2020) ‘Yesterday, as Melbourne woke up to its first morning under…’ [Instagram post], @annika_kristensen, accessed 10 September 2020.

Twitter:

Dawkins R (4 June 2014) ‘Fairy tales, as well as charming, can be good training…’ [Tweet], @RichardDawkins, accessed 9 June 2020.

Online video

In-text citations

‘Online video’ here refers to videos that have been uploaded to a website or a social media platform such as YouTube. It does not refer to any film or episode that may have been viewed online (e.g. on Netflix or ABC iview). For further details see also the Harvard topics: Films and TV episodes.

  • Place the creator or owner of the video in the in-text citation
  • In some cases, you might provide the presenter in the in-text citation (if it is a video with a single presenter, e.g. a TED talk).
  • In addition, when citing a specific speaker in the video (e.g. interviewee), include their name in text.

Hilary Mantel discusses the possibility and process of changing popular perceptions of historical figures (Waterstones 2020).

Einstein’s theory of relativity has contributed to a range of contemporary everyday technologies, including GPS (Lagerstrom 2015).


Reference list

For online videos, provide the:

  • name of video creator/owner, which may be a username or the name of an organisation
    (if there is only one speaker, such as in a TED talk, you can place their name in the author position).
  • Day, month and year the video was uploaded, if available
  • title hyperlinked to the URL of the video
  • medium as [video]
  • name of the channel or the name of the organisation that owns the content
  • name of the website (if different from the authoring organisation, e.g. YouTube)
  • date you accessed the video.

Creator/Owner of video (day month year) ‘Title of video’ [video], Channel/Organisation, Website, accessed date.

Fitzpatrick S (7 April 2017) ‘The Russian Revolution of 1917 and World History: A Centenary Reflection’ [video], Schwartz Media, YouTube, accessed 23 May 2020.

Waterstones (24 February 2020) ‘Hilary Mantel: The Waterstones Interview - Wolf Hall Trilogy’ [video], Waterstones, YouTube, accessed 6 May 2020.

Creator/Owner of video (day month year) ‘Title of video’ [video], Organisation/Website, accessed date.

Transport Accident Commission (21 July 2016) ‘TAC: Meet Graham concept’, Best Ads, accessed 3 August 2020.

Speaker/presenter (month year) ‘Title of video’ [video], Organisation/Website, accessed date.

Lagerstrom L (January 2015) ‘Einstein’s Miracle Year’ [video], TED-Ed, accessed 8 August 2020.

Film

In-text citations
  • Provide the director and the original release year of the film.
  • Italicise film titles when mentioned in text.

‘I love the smell of napalm in the morning’ (Coppola 1979) continues to be one of the most parodied lines in TV and cinema.

Sunday too far away (Hannam 1975) was the first ever Australian film to be selected for the Directors' Award at the Cannes Film Festival.


Reference list

Whether a film has been accessed via Netflix, the Deakin Library or on DVD is irrelevant. Therefore, do not include information about the platform/distributor or the format in which you viewed the film.

  • Provide the name of the director and their role (or producer, if director unknown).
  • Provide the medium as [motion picture].

Note: IMDb (the International Movie Database) is a reliable source of information on films, including release years.

Director (director) (year) Title of film [motion picture], Film Studio/Publisher, Place of Production.

Bognar S and Reichert J (directors) (2019) American Factory [motion picture], Higher Ground Productions, Chicago.

Coppola FF (director) (1979) Apocalypse now [motion picture], Zoetrope Studios, San Francisco.

Hannam K (director) (1975) Sunday too far away [motion picture], South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide.

TV episode

In-text citations
  • Provide the director (or producer if the director is not known) and the original release year of the episode.
  • Place episode titles in singe quote marks, if mentioned in text.
  • Italicise names of series, if mentioned in text.

Several doctors were found to have prescribed drugs to patients who did not need them (ABC Television 2020).


Reference list

Whether a TV episode has been accessed via broadcast, streaming (Netflix or via a Deakin Library database) or on DVD is irrelevant. Therefore, do not include information about the platform or distributor i.e. how you accessed the episode.

  • Begin the citation with the director. If it not relevant/available, begin the citation with the producer or production organisation.
  • You may hyperlink to the TV episode, but only if the episode is freely available (e.g. ABC TV, SBS On Demand).
  • Include numbers of the episode and season, where relevant.
  • If an episode doesn’t have a name, provide the name of the program first.
  • Provide the medium as [television program].
  • Include the name of the studio/company that produced the episode (not the distributor or platform provider, e.g. Netflix, but note that in some cases this can be the same organisation).
  • Note: IMDb (the International Movie Database) is a reliable source of information on TV series and episodes.

Episode with title:

Producer (year) ‘Title of episode’ [television program], Name of show, Name of Station/Studio/Producer, Place of production.

ABC Television (2020) ‘Opioids Inc.’ [television program], Four corners, ABC Television, Sydney.

Episode with season/episode numbers instead of title:

Director (director) (year) Name of series (season, episode) [television program], Name of Station/Studio/Producer, Place of production.

Rochant E (director) (2018) The bureau (season 4, episode 9) [television program], The Oligarchs, Paris.

Podcast

In-text citations
  • Cite the name of the podcast host or producer in the in-text citation.
  • When citing a specific speaker within the podcast (e.g. an interviewee), include their name in text.

Brian Deer has debunked the often alleged link between MMR and autism (Adams 2020).


Reference list

Provide the:

  • name of the host or the producer of the podcast
  • the day, month and year of publication or original broadcast
  • title hyperlinked to the webpage where the episode is available (a landing page is preferable to linking directly to a file), if freely available to the public
  • medium as [podcast]
  • the episode and season number, where relevant.

Host (host) (day month year) ‘Title of episode’ [podcast], Name of podcast (season, episode), Radio Network, accessed date.

Spiegel A and Rosin H (hosts) (8 March 2020) ‘The Last Sound’ [podcast], Invisibilia (season 6, episode 6), NPR, accessed 6 May 2020.

Host (host) (day month year) ‘Title of episode’ [podcast], Name of show, Radio Network, accessed date.

Adams P (host) (9 September 2020) ‘Andrew Wakefield's fraudulent war on vaccines’ [podcast], Late night live, ABC Radio National, accessed 11 September 2020.

Other sources

Select a topic

Artwork

The following advice is around citing artwork viewed in a gallery or museum.

  • For artworks viewed online see also the Harvard topics: 
    Web pageOnline video and Digital collection.
  • For advice on how to include images in your work, see the Harvard topic: Figures, tables.
  • Check with your unit teaching staff whether you are required to include a ‘List of Artworks’ as a separate list to your reference list.
  • For further information around citing artworks, see the Australian Government Style Manual (but then always apply the advice in this guide to your final citation).

In-text citations
  • Include the artist's name and year of the artwork.
  • Maintain the original capitalisation used in the title of the artwork and format in italics, if mentioning in text.

Ngarra minytji relates to a sacred men’s ceremony and a totemic ancestor associated with the coast of Arnhem Land (Wilingarr 1937).


Reference list
  • Maintain the original capitalisation used in the title of the artwork.
  • Include details about the medium of the artwork.
  • Provide details about where the artwork was viewed, including the title of the exhibition and the exhibition dates. Alternatively, you might find the artwork online, in which case you have the option of linking to a Digital collection.

Artwork in an exhibition:

Creator (year) Title of work [medium], Title of exhibition, Gallery, Location, date of exhibition.

Wilingarr M (1937) Ngarra minytji (Ngarra ceremony design) [natural pigments on bark], Transformations: early bark paintings from Arnhem Land, Ian Potter Museum of Art, University of Melbourne, 13 November 2013 – 23 February 2014.

Exhibition catalogue:

Author or Gallery Name (year) Title of exhibition [exhibition catalogue], date of exhibition, Gallery/Publisher, Location.

Witt-Dörring C and Asenbaum P (2011) Vienna: art and design – Klimt, Schiele, Hoffmann, Loos [exhibition catalogue], 18 June – 9 October 2011, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Construction regulation

In-text citations

When citing legislation from a publication, include the details of the legislation in addition to an in-text citation for the publication. For further details on how to cite legislation, see the Harvard topic: Legislation.

… as stated in ‘CP2 Spread of fire’ in BCA Vol.1 (ABCB 2019).

OHS Regulations 2017 (Vic) Pt 3.3 (Prevention of Falls) s21 requires the duty holder to manage risks ... (WorkSafe Victoria 2017:27).


Reference list
  • Cite according to the source type – usually a web document.
  • Hyperlink to the source only if freely available to the public.

Author (year) Title of regulation/code, Website/Publisher, date accessed.

ABCB (Australian Building Codes Board) (2019) NCC 2019 volume one, https://ncc.abcb.gov.au, National Construction Code, accessed 2 May 2020.

WorkSafe Victoria (2017) Guide to the occupational health and safety regulations 2017, Worksafe Victoria, Victoria State Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Computer code

In-text citations

… (Cansdale et al. 2020)


Reference list
  • Hyperlink the title to the landing page where the code can be accessed.
  • Include details of the version and the medium.
  • Provide an accessed date.

Author (day month year) Title of code [medium], version, Publisher/Website, date accessed.

Cansdale J, Kirk S, Gaita A, Goldman S, Haack P,  Okuda D and Greenaway J (10 June 2020) VisualStudio: GitHub extension [source code], v2.11.104, GitHub, accessed 14 September 2020.

Conference paper

  • Cite according to the source type, e.g. web document.
  • Include [conference presentation] or [unpublished conference presentation] after the title.
  • Provide the full date, the name and the place of the conference.

In-text citations

Howell (2016) recommends that …


Reference list

Published:

Author (day month year of conference) ‘Title of presentation’ [conference presentation], Name of Conference, Location, accessed date.

Howell J (28–30 September 2016) ‘Making connections: enhancing program outcomes via stakeholder partnerships' [conference presentation], WIL 2020: Pushing the boundaries, Macquarie University, Sydney, accessed 1 February 2020.

Unpublished:

Author (day month year of conference) ‘Title of presentation’ [unpublished conference presentation], Name of Conference, Location.

Blaiklock B (25–26 November 2009) 'Seeking a new model of learning support' [unpublished conference presentation], 9th Biennial National Conference of the Association for Academic Language and Learning, University of Queensland, St Lucia.

Dataset

In-text citations

… (ABS 2019)


Reference list
  • Cite according to the source type, e.g. web page or web document.
  • Provide the ‘date last updated’ as the year.
  • The medium of [data set] can be provided if the medium is not obvious.
  • Include a catalogue number, where relevant.

Author (year) Title of data set [data set], catalogue number, Website/Publisher, accessed date.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2019) Prisoners in Australia, 2019, catalogue number 4517.0, ABS, Commonwealth of Australia, accessed 20 August 2020.

Department of Planning, Industry and Environment (2019) State Environmental Planning Policy (Kosciuszko National Park-Alpine Resorts) 2007 [data set], Data.NSW, NSW Government, accessed 3 September 2020.

Deakin content

  • Note: in some units it is not acceptable to cite course materials (e.g. class presentations and slides).
  • Cite only if you have been given permission to do so.

In-text citations

… (Doolan 2019)


Reference list

Author (day month year) Title or your own descriptive title of class/topic [medium], Full name and code of unit, Deakin University.

Doolan L (13 April 2019) Week 2: Being and Time [class slides], Introduction to Phenomenology PHP267, Deakin University.

Dictionary, encyclopedia

Please note: in some units, citing dictionaries or encyclopaedias is not acceptable. Consult your unit guide for further details.

While Wikipedia can be a good starting point for gathering general information before you begin your research, a site such as Wikipedia can be updated at any point and by multiple authors, so it cannot be relied on as source for an academic assignment.


In-text citations
  • For most dictionaries and encyclopaedias, provide an in-text citation only.
  • No entry in the reference list is required.

The Macquarie dictionary (2018) defines political correctness as ...

However, if you are citing a more comprehensive authored entry from an encyclopaedia, you may cite according to the source type (e.g. Book, Chapter, Web page).

Glassman (2008) outlines eight ‘humanistic values’ or norms.


Reference list

Glassman U (2008) ‘Group work values’, in Gitterman A and Salmon R (eds) Encyclopedia of social work with groups, Routledge, New York.

Digital collection

The following advice is for artworks, images and manuscripts held in online repositories, databases or galleries.

See also the Harvard topics: Artworks and Figures, tables.


In-text citations
  • Provide the creator of the original work in the in-text citation, if known.
  • Italicise the titles of works if mentioned in text.

Wilson (1915) did not believe this characterisation of the American public was warranted nor that their sympathies were ‘controlled by their pocket books’.

It has been suggested that The seven deadly sins (Bosch c.1500) is less characteristic of his style.


Reference list
  • If the author is unknown, begin the citation with the title (or descriptive title) of the artwork or the name of publication in which the work originally appeared.
  • The original date of the work or the digital release date may be cited.
  • Use ‘c.’ (circa) for estimated dates.
  • You may choose to hyperlink the title to freely available web sources; however, do not hyperlink to a University Library database or other source that is not accessible to the public.
  • Include a catalogue or other reference number, if relevant.

Digitised image or artwork:

Artist (year) Title of artwork [medium of original artwork], catalogue number, Digital collection, date accessed.

Bosch H (c.1500) The seven deadly sins [oil on wood], ARTstor Digital Library, accessed 4 March 2020.

Cartier-Bresson, H (1945) Dessau: exposing a Gestapo informer [photograph], ARTstor Digital Library, accessed 19 October 2019.

Descriptive title of artwork (year) [medium of original artwork], catalogue number, Digital collection, date accessed.

Gay liberation badge, UK (c.1984) [brass, enamel], registration number 1984,0210.1, The British Museum Collection Online, accessed 3 September 2020.

Digitised manuscript or record:

Author (year) ‘Title of manuscript’, Title of archive series [medium], Digital collection, date accessed.

Wilson W (1914) ‘Memorandum of interview Samuel K Ratcliffe, March 25 1915’, Woodrow Wilson Papers: Series 5: Peace Conference Correspondence and Documents, 1914–1921; Subseries A: Policy Documents, 1914–1919; 1914, Dec. 26–1917, Oct. 31 [manuscript/mixed material], Library of Congress, accessed 13 August 2020.

Digitised newspaper article:

If the author is unknown, begin the citation with the name of the newspaper.

Newspaper (day month year) ‘Title of article’, Digital collection, Location, date accessed.

The Argus (10 January 1880) ‘The Unfairness of the Advocates of the Plebiscite’, Trove, National Library of Australia, accessed 23 June 2020.

See also the Harvard topic: News article

Figures, tables

This topic covers two distinct sub-topics:

  1. Including figures or tables in your own work
  2. Citing images, figures or tables

You may also want to browse these Harvard topics: Artwork, Dataset and Digital collection.

Note: You can include a separate ‘List of artworks cited’ or ‘List of figures and tables’ in addition to your main reference list. Check with teaching staff in your unit to determine if you are required to do this.


1. Including figures or tables in your own work

When adding figures (e.g. images, maps, graphs) or tables into your own work (e.g. document, slide presentation), each figure/table requires:

  • A figure/table number, e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2; Table 1, Table 2 – so that you can easily refer to them in your text – together with a brief, accurate and descriptive title .
  • An in-text citation and corresponding reference list entry if your figure/table has been copied or adapted from another source.
  • Copyright and permission information
    When you copy something (e.g. image, table) from a source which is for a public audience, you may need to add copyright details about, for example:

    - a website or other source that asks you to credit them for re-using their work
    - Creative Commons (CC) licensed material
    - journals or other publications.

Learn more in the Deakin Copyright modules for students 3: Copyright for your studies.

See also these Deakin Library guides to using Creative Commons, finding copyright-free images and finding image resources in the Library.


Including (or adapting) an image/map/graph/table from a publication

In your text:

  • Refer to the figure number.

Table 3 shows that the mortality rate for men is significantly higher in Eastern European countries.

The mortality rate for men is significantly higher in Eastern European countries (see Table 3).

Immediately above your figure/table:

  • Include the figure number and title.

Table 3. Correlation between coronary heart disease and reduced fresh food supply.

Immediately below your figure/table:

  • Include an in-text citation.

Source: Adapted from Marmot and Wilkinson (2003:27).

Reference list:

  • Include a copyright statement in addition to the usual reference details of the source.

Marmot M and Wilkinson R (2003) Social determinants of health – the solid facts, World Health Organization, Geneva. Copyright WHO 2003.


Including an image licensed under Creative Commons

Immediately above your figure:

  • Include a figure number and title.

Figure 1. Mainz Cathedral.

Immediately below your figure:

  • Include an in-text citation.
  • Note: in some cases the author may be a username.

Source: (barnyz 2014)

Reference list:

barnyz (18 July 2014) Mainz Cathedral interior [photo], Flickr, accessed 5 October 2020. Available under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0).


Using your own image
  • Provide a descriptive title.
  • A citation is not required.

Figure 5. Screenshot of the author’s journal: databases searched and keywords used.


2. Citing figures/tables from a publication

In-text citations

When citing a specific figure or a table within a publication (e.g. book, article, web document), include the figure/table number in text in addition to the in-text citation.

In the AIHW (2020:11) report into welfare (see Figure 1.4), the authors clarify …

Huyghe's location photographs of incomplete architecture in Chantier permanent are an early investigation into the 'open present' (see Figure 2.1, Barikin 2012:43).

Reference list

  • The details of the figure or table are not provided in the reference list entry.
  • Cite according to the source type, e.g. Web document, Book.

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2020) ‘Australia’s welfare 2019: data insights’, Australia’s Welfare Series 14, catalogue number AUS 226, AIHW, Australian Government, doi:10.25816/5d5e14e6778df

Barikin A (2012) Parallel presents: the art of Pierre Huyghe, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Industry report

In-text citations

The author of an Industry report may be an individual but is more likely to be an organisation.

... (Marketline 2019)


Reference list
  • For online sources that are not accessible to the public, do not hyperlink the title. Provide the homepage URL in text.
  • Do not include the name of the Library database where the report was accessed.
  • Include a report/profile number, where relevant.

Author (year) Title of report/profile, Website name or home page URL, accessed date.

Marketline (2019) Company profile: Rio Tinto, www.marketline.com, accessed 14 June 2020.

Media release

In-text citations

Spence (2020) outlines …


Reference list

Author (day month year) Title of media release [media release], Organisation, accessed date.

ASRC (Asylum Seeker Resource Centre) (7 October 2020) Budget 2020 abandons people seeking asylum and refugees [media release], Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, accessed 19 October 2020.

Author (Title, if relevant) (day month year) Title of media release [media release], Government, accessed date.

Spence R (Minster for Multicultural Affairs) (14 September 2020) Making multicultural communities stronger [media release], Victorian State Government, accessed 15 September 2020.

News article

This topic covers online and print news and magazine articles.

  • If an article has been accessed via a Library database, such as Newsbank or Factiva, do not include database information. Cite the article as it was originally published (e.g. in print).
  • For an example from Trove, see the Harvard topic: Digital collection.

In-text citations

The reason for this is made clear when looking more closely at the ‘range of uncertainty’ (Doman et al. 2020:para.44).

Afghan refugees faced an increased chance of being sent home (Narushima 2010).


Reference list
  • Include the day month and year of publication.
  • Hyperlink the title to an online article, if freely available to the public.
  • Online articles require a date accessed.

Online:

Author (day month year) 'Title of article', Title of Website, accessed date.

Doman M, Palmer A and Scott N (31 January 2020) ‘Cracking the code to Steve Smith's batting success’, ABC News Australia, accessed 5 February 2020.

Print:

Author (day month year) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper.

Narushima Y (1 October 2010) 'Expulsion looming for Afghans', The Age.

No listed author:

Newspaper/site (day month year) 'Title of article' …

ABC News (1 September 2020) ‘NASA scientists zoomed in a million times on a far away galaxy and found a shape similar to Darth Vader's TIE fighter’, ABC News Australia, accessed 2 September 2020.

Personal communication

In-text citations 

Personal communications include letters, emails, private social media posts, personal interviews and telephone conversations.

  • It is advisable to get the permission of the person concerned before citing them.
  • The day, month and year can be provided within your text or as part of the in-text citation.

It is sometimes useful to indicate the role of the person being cited and their organisation.

When interviewed on 8 October 2019, Jenny Robinson, Manager of Heathville Community Centre, confirmed...

… (J Robinson, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, interview, 8 October 2019)

J Robinson (email with author, 8 October 2019) indicated ...

Reference list

No entry in the reference list is required.

Other print

This topic covers print advertisements, brochures, posters and newsletters.


In-text citations

Include the author or authoring organisation and year.

The print campaign by the Australian Heart Foundation (1999) clearly drew on earlier successes in community engagement.


Reference list
  • Provide the medium after the title in square brackets.
  • The year of publication may not always be known; however, if the year can be inferred with some certainty place a c. (meaning 'circa') before the year.

Author (year) Title of publication [medium], Name of Publisher/Organisation, Place of Publication.  

Australian Heart Foundation (1999) Be active every day: physical activity for a healthy heart [brochure], Australian Heart Foundation, Melbourne.

The Australian Greens (c. 2013) We're standing up for what matters [campaign flyer], The Australian Greens, Melbourne.

Report

This topic covers corporate, government, research and technical reports.

  • See also the Harvard topics: Web pages, Web documents, Government overview and NGOs.

In-text citations

Sydney Water (2013) states …


Reference List
  • Cite according to the source type, e.g. web documents, with the addition of a report number, where relevant.
  • Provide a description of the report if the report’s title does not adequately describe the document.

Online report without report number:

Author (year) Title of report, Organisation/Publisher, accessed date.

Rutledge S, Cohen-Vogel L and Osborne-Lampkin L (2012) Identifying the characteristics of effective high schools: report from year one of the national center on scaling up effective schools, National Center on Scaling Up Effective Schools, accessed 3 November 2019.

Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008) Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health, World Health Organization, accessed 22 June 2020.

Online report with report number:

Sydney Water (2013) Sydney Water annual report 2013, report number SW 103 10/13, Sydney Water, accessed 3 February 2020.

Report published in print:

NASW (National Association of Social Workers) (2012) 2011–2012 annual report, NASW, Washington, DC.

Song

In-text citations
  • Include the artist and year.
  • When including song titles in text, place within single quote marks.

‘Tomorrow never knows’ (Lennon and McCartney 1966) was a pioneering work in the history of sampling and electronic dance music.


Reference list

Check with teaching staff in your unit whether you are required to create a separate list for musical compositions.

Creator (year) ‘Title of song’ [song], Album, Publisher.

Lennon J and McCartney P (1966) ‘Tomorrow never knows’ [song], Revolver, Northern Songs.

Creator (year) Title of album [album], Publisher.

Beyoncé (2016) Lemonade [album], Parkwood Entertainment.

For further information on citing music, see the Australian Government Style Manual (but then always apply the advice in this guide to your final citation).

Standard

In-text citations

For procedures and practices relating to timber framed constructions in non-cyclonic areas... (Standards Australia 2006).

Nurses are obligated to ensure their decision making is informed and ethical (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia [NMBA] 2017:'Standard 1').


Reference list
  • Cite according to the source type – usually a web document.
  • In addition, provide a reference number for the standard.

Author (day month year) Full title of document, standard number, Website/Publisher, date accessed.

HIA (Housing Industry Association) (8 August 2019) Barriers and handrails, BCA 15-05, accessed 14 September 2020.

NMBA (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia) (2016) Registered nurses standards for practice, accessed 19 October 2020.

Standards Australia (2006) Residential timber-framed construction Part 2: Noncyclonic areas, AS 1684.2-2006, SAI Global, accessed 16 September 2020.

Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand (8 June 2001) Information technology - code of practice for information security management, AS/NZS ISO/IEC 17799:2001, Federation University, accessed 13 July 2019.

Thesis

In-text citations

Lee (2010) …


Reference list

Provide details of the thesis and whether it is published.

Author (year) ‘Title of thesis’ [type of thesis], Name of University, Location, date accessed.

Lee RL (2010) 'Mary De Garis: progressivism, early feminism and medical reform' [PhD thesis], Deakin University, Geelong, accessed 3 July 2020.

Author (year) Title of thesis [unpublished type of thesis], Name of University, Location.

Gray BE (2011) Exploring academic writing through corpus linguistics: when discipline tells only part of the story [unpublished PhD thesis], Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.

Unpublished

  • For unpublished sources, such as draft documents not available to the public or for internal reports and other documentation, provide as much relevant information as is available.
  • Always seek permission from the author/organisation before citing an unpublished work.
  • For private emails, interviews and private social media posts, see the Harvard topic: Personal communications.

In-text citations

Ng (2018) …


Reference list

Author (year) Title [unpublished manuscript/report], Organisation.

Ng A (2018) Machine learning yearning [unpublished manuscript], deeplearning.ai

Deakin guide to APA7

Different disciplines and units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Always check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use. Remember that this is a guide only – not a set of rules to be strictly obeyed. However, it is essential that you write in a referencing style that is clear and consistent, and act at all time with academic integrity.

Last updated: 24 October 2020

Deakin guide to APA7 (PDF, 1.5MB)


Just need a quick reminder? This short version of the guide covers the basics:

Quick guide to APA7 (PDF, 1.3MB)

Need to review some of the recent updates made to APA7?

Summary of changes in APA7 (PDF, 1.1MB)

Previous guide APA6 (PDF, 503.0KB)


Select a topic

APA7 explained

Select a topic

Overview

This guide to APA7 referencing provides a number of examples of print, electronic and media sources. If you cannot find the exact source you wish to reference here, use elements from different parts of this guide to create an appropriate reference. The important thing is to be consistent – and if in doubt, provide more detail rather than less.

The APA style of referencing consists of:

  1. In-text citations in the body of the paper that include the author, the date and often a page number.
  2. References at the end of the paper, giving full bibliographic details of all in-text citations.

This guide has been adapted using information provided in:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). (2020). American Psychological Association https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Further information and style guidelines can be found at https://apastyle.apa.org/

In-text citations

APA in-text citations consist of the author's family name and year of publication. In addition, page numbers should be included when quoting directly from a source. You are also encouraged to provide page numbers when paraphrasing (rephrasing a short passage). The author, year and page number within parentheses are separated by commas. An in-text citation can go at the beginning, within, or at the end of a sentence.

There are three ways to cite your sources
General reference

When you are making a general reference to an idea or information contained in a work, page numbers are not necessary.

Hughes et al. (2012) investigated the relationship between personality and the use of Facebook and Twitter for both information and social purposes.

Paraphrase

When paraphrasing (or rephrasing) information, it is useful to provide a page number to help the reader locate the source information, and also, to help you find it later. However, this is not mandatory.

Hughes et al. (2012, p. 567) suggest that this may be because the information sought from Facebook can be obtained socially, whereas the information sought on Twitter is more cognitively based, for example, of an academic or political nature.

Quote

To quote means to reproduce the exact words from a source. Details of the source and the page number(s) must be provided in text.

Short quotes (fewer than 40 words) should be incorporated into the text within double quotation marks.

Hughes et al. (2012, p. 563) hypothesised that “the short, quick fire nature of Twitter usage determined by the limit of 140 characters per ‘tweet’ may appeal to those high in conscientiousness as they can still partake in social networking without it becoming a temporal distraction”.

Longer quotes, known as “block quotes” (40 words or more):

  • start on a new line
  • are indented about 1.27cm from the left-hand margin
  • are double spaced
  • do not have quotation marks
  • begin with a colon
  • do not end with a full stop

… while others have supported this view:

We don’t do burden in the twenty-first century. We do entitlement. We do expectation and our politicians have learnt to give us what we want. In 2008, US presidential candidate Barack Obama caught the American people’s imagination with the phrase ‘hope you can believe in’. Kennedy sells sacrifice: Obama sells expectation. (Salt, 2011, p. 19)

The sense of entitlement …


There are two ways to include your in-text citation


You can emphasise the author:

Woodward (2010) states that what we buy and how we consume things once we have bought them reveals a great deal about the society we live in.

Or you can emphasise the information:

What we buy and how we consume things once we have bought them reveals a great deal about the society we live in (Woodward, 2010).

References

An important purpose of the references is to enable readers to locate your sources. Each in-text citation and the related reference list entry should be identical in spelling and year. A work is listed only once in the reference list, regardless of how many times it is cited in your work. All citations should be listed in the reference list, with the exception of personal communications and classical works.

The four basic elements of a reference list entry in APA style are:

  • author (who is responsible?)
  • date of publication (when was it published?)
  • title (what is it called?)
  • publication data (where can I find it?)

These elements are set out in the following order:

Author, Initials. (Date). Title. Publication data

The references should:

  • begin on a new page with a heading titled 'References' that is centred, and bold.
  • have entries arranged alphabetically by family name of the first-listed author or name of organisation
  • list works with no author under the first significant word of the title (disregarding ‘A’ or ‘The’)
  • use the hanging indent (0.5 in. = 1.27 cm) paragraph style for each new reference
  • use double spacing.

References

Borton, J. L. S., Markowitz, L. J., & Dietrich, J. (2005). Effects of suppressing negative self-referent thoughts on mood and self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 172–190.

Butt, SA., Lidegaard, Ø ., Skovlund, C., Hannaford, PC., Iversen, L., Fielding, S., & Morch, LS. (2018). Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer: A cohort study among premenopausal women. PLoS ONE, 13(10), 1-8. Article e0206358. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206358

Chapman, A. L., & Rosenthal, M. Z. (2016). Managing therapy-interfering behavior: Strategies from dialectical behavior therapy. American Psychological Association.

Department of Health. (2019). Commonwealth Home Support Programme Interaction with Home Care Packages [Fact sheet]. Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/commonwealth-home-support-programme-interaction-with-home-care-packages-fact-sheet

Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

Giovanetti, F. (2019, November 16). Why we are so obsessed with personality types. Medium. https://medium.com/the-business-of-wellness/why-we-are-so-obsessed-with-personality-types-577450f9aee9

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000

Malcom L. (Presenter). (2014, January 5). The music in your brain [Audio podcast]. http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/the-music-in-your-brain/5132382

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

DOIs and URLs

When should a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) be included?
  • For all print or online articles that have a DOI, include the DOI in the reference list entry, regardless of whether you used the online or print version.
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
When using a DOI:
  • use the following DOI format http://doi.org/xxxxx
  • Do not add a full stop after a DOI
  • Date of retrieval is not required.
  • It is acceptable to use default hyperlink displays OR leave as plain text

Phillips, A. (2019). Effective approaches to health promotion in nursing practice. Nursing Standard, 34(4), 43–50. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.2019.e11312

URL’s from a library database

Databases are searchable collections of published information that include journal articles, published books, newspapers and more.

  • URL links to database searches are not required in References as there are many ways a reader can access the source, and the database you used is just one option.
  • If there is no DOI, and the only link available is a database URL, format the source as a print source.

Savage, J. (2004). Researching emotion: The need for coherence between focus, theory and methodology. Nursing Inquiry, 11(1), 25–34.

When should I use a URL from a publisher?
  • If no DOI is provided for online articles, use the URL or homepage URL of the publisher if publicly available.
  • Use either the default display for hyperlinks (blue-underlined font) OR plain text without an underline.
  • The phrase “Retrieved from” precedes a URL, but is not used with a DOI.
  • Do not add a full stop after a URL

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995b).Temperament and response processing: Facilitatory and inhibitory consequences of positive and negative motivational states. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 59–84. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00926566

If no DOI is available and you have accessed the source from an academic or library database (i.e. the URL is not publicly available to all readers) reference like a print journal.

Silavera, D. H., Lavack, A. M., & Kropp, F. (2008). Impulse buying: The role of affect, social influence, and subjective wellbeing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25 (1), 23–33.

One author

In text citation

Joo (2019) OR (Joo, 2019)

References

Joo, K.R., (2019). Immunization Schedule Updates for Children, Adolescents, and Adults, Advances in Family Practice Nursing, 1, 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfpn.2018.12.006

Two authors

In text citation

Adelson and Eckert (2020) OR (Adelson & Eckert, 2020)

References

Adelson, P., & Eckert, M. (2020). Skin cancer in regional, rural and remote Australia; opportunities for service improvement through technological advances and interdisciplinary care. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(2), 25-30. https://doi.org/10.37464/2020.372.74

Three or more authors

In text citation
  • For three or more authors, use only the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.' (meaning 'and others') for every citation.

Witten et al. (2011) OR (Witten et al., 2011)

Session et al. (2020) OR (Session et al., 2020)

References
  • Include all authors for sources with up to 20 authors.
  • Where there are over 20 authors, list the first 19 authors followed by an ellipsis (…) and then include the last author’s name.
  • Do not include an ampersand (&) in a reference of 20 or more authors.

Witten, I. H., Frank, E., & Hall, M. A. (2011). Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques (3rd ed.). Morgan Kaufmann.

Reeve, W., Ardley, J., Tian, R., De Meyer, S., Terpolilli, J., Melino, V., Tiwari, R., Yates, R., O'Hara, G., Howieson, J., Ninawi, M., Zhang, X., Bruce, D., Detter, C., Tapia, R., Han, C., Wei, C., Huntemann, M., Han, J., … Kyrpides, N. (2014). Genome sequence of the Listia angolensis microsymbiont Microvirga lotononidis strain WSM3557 (T). Standards in Genomic Sciences, 9(3). 540 - 550.

Group authors

In-text citation

Sometimes the author is an organisation, government agency, association or corporate body. If the name of a group is long and the abbreviation is familiar to readers, cite the full name and provide the abbreviation in brackets in the first instance. Then use the abbreviation only in subsequent references.

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2013) provides practical and realistic recommendations for healthy eating…

Most Australians eat only about half the recommended quantity of fruit, although they drink excessive amounts of fruit juice (NHMRC, 2013).

References
  • Works are entered in the reference list alphabetically by name of authoring organisation.
  • Use the most specific agency when numerous government agencies are listed as author.

Department of Health. (2018). Commonwealth Home Support Programme (CHSP) Manual. Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/2020/07/commonwealth-home-support-programme-chsp-manual.pdf

No author

In-text citation


If no author is designated, cite the title of the work and the year of publication in your text. If the title is long, use the first few words of the title only.
Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter or webpage. Use italics and no quotation marks for the title of a journal, book, brochure or report.

… (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 2020).

...("Forgotten Melbourne", 2020).

Only if the author’s name is given as anonymous, use “Anonymous” in text as the author’s name.

… (Anonymous, 2017).

References

Works with no author are entered in the reference list under title.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). (2020). American Psychological Association.

Works in which the author’s name is given as anonymous are listed in the reference list under “Anonymous”.

Anonymous. (1997). The art of non-doing. Los Angeles: Starlight.

No date

In-text citation

If no year of publication is provided for a source, use ‘n.d.’ (meaning 'no date') in parentheses after the author's name.

In a detailed analysis, Jones (n.d.) argues...

References

Jones, P. (n.d.). The hanging hypothesis. Metzger & Son.

No page numbers

When quoting or paraphrasing, a page number is usually required in the citation. However, some written works (e.g. web pages, websites and some e-books) do not contain page numbers. In such cases you have three options:


  • provide heading or section name

(Department of Social Services, 2019, Section 1)

  • provide a paragraph number

(Department of Social Services, 2020, para 2)

  • provide both

(Department of Social Services, 2019, Section 2, para. 3)

Citing multiple authors

When citing more than one source at the same point in the text, list the sources alphabetically in the same order in which they would appear in the reference list and separate each with a semicolon within the same parentheses.

There have been several studies on the links between personality and Facebook use (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010; Ross et al., 2009; Ryan & Xenos, 2011).

Note that the authors’ names can also be placed in the narrative.

Amichai-Hamburger and Vinitzky (2010), Ross et al. (2009) and Ryan and Xenos (2011) studied the links between personality and Facebook use.

When citing two or more sources by the same author at the same point, provide author name once and then include the dates for the subsequent sources, starting with the most recent. If using n.d., this precedes year of publication.

(Duff, 2008; 2017; 2019a; 2019b)

Repeat citations

In any one paragraph, if you cite an author or authors more than once in the narrative (i.e. the author's name does not appear in parentheses), then include the family name(s) and year the first time. In subsequent citations cite the family name(s) only, provided studies cannot be confused.

Hughes et al. (2012) observe that Facebook and Twitter appear to be used for different purposes by different users. They found that people who seek and spread information on Facebook do not use Twitter in the same way and vice versa. Hughes et al. suggest that this may be because …

When the name of the author(s) and year are in parentheses in any one paragraph, the year is always included in subsequent citations in that same paragraph.

Facebook and Twitter appear to be used for different purposes by different users (Hughes et al., 2012). The researchers found that people who seek and spread information on Facebook do not use Twitter in the same way and vice versa. Hughes et al. (2012) suggest that this may be because …

Secondary sources

Sometimes you read one author (secondary) who cites another (primary). A good habit of academic research and writing is to find the primary source, read it, and cite it directly. However, in some case you will need to cite the secondary source.

In the example that follows, you have read Savage who refers to a publication by Lupton, but you have not read Lupton yourself. Use the phrase “as cited in”.

In-text citation

If the year is known for the primary source:

(Lupton, 2001, as cited in Savage, 2004)

If the year is not known for the primary source:

Lupton (as cited in Savage, 2004) distinguishes between "emotional labour" and "emotional work".

References

Reference only the source that you have read.

Savage, J. (2004). Researching emotion: The need for coherence between focus, theory and methodology. Nursing Inquiry, 11, 25-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1800.2004.00196.x

Same author, same year

In-text citation


If an author (or authors listed in the same order) have published two or more works in the same year, use the lower case letters a, b, c … after the year to distinguish between the works. Letters are assigned according to the alphabetical order of the title.

Reed and Derryberry (1995b) examined …

According to Reed and Derryberry (1995a) …

References

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995a). Temperament and attention to positive and negative trait information. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 135–147.Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01918869

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995b). Temperament and response processing: Facilitatory and inhibitory consequences of positive and negative motivational states. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 59–84. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00926566

Annotated bibliography

  • Always check and follow your task instructions regarding expected content and formatting of assignments.
  • Format and order references in an annotated bibliography in alphabetical order (as with reference lists).
  • Each annotation should be a new paragraph below the reference entry with a 1.27cm Indent from the left margin (the first line of the annotation should not be indented).
  • If annotation spans multiple paragraphs, indent the first line of the second and any subsequent paragraphs 1.27cm.

Books

Select a topic

Overview

See APA7 explained for how to cite multiple authors and including page numbers.


In-text citation

Gardner (1983) developed a radically different and pluralistic view of mind, proposing seven intelligences.

or

Intelligence is not a single, monolithic ability that can be measured only by IQ tests (Gardner, 1983).

References
  • See APA7 explained > Overview for the general formatting requirements of APA7 references
  • Include all publishers listed
  • If publisher is the author, do not repeat the publisher name
  • Italicise the title and capitalise only the first letter of the first word of a book title (as well as any proper nouns, acronyms or intialisms). If there is a subtitle, capitalise the first letter.
  • Do not include a URL from a library database – see DOI’s and URL’s
  • Do not include a ‘retrieved from’ date
With DOI


Author, Initials. (year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher. DOI

Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000

Without DOI


Author, Initials. (year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher.

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

Chapter in an edited book

In-text citation

If citing from a particular chapter in an edited book (collection of articles/chapters written by different authors), only cite the author(s) of that chapter.

The study by Marelich and Holt (2006) confirmed previous research that people’s jealous reactions in relationship threatening situations can be attributed to the need to maintain their sense of self.

References
  • Provide the reference list entry under the name of the chapter authors.
  • If the edited book chapter includes a DOI, include the chapter DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • If the edited book chapter does not have a DOI, the entry is the same as for a print edited book chapter.
With DOI

Author, Initials. (year). Title of chapter. In Initials. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Publisher. Chapter DOI

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016

Without DOI

Author, Initials. (year). Title of chapter. In Initials. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Publisher

Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

Dictionary, encyclopedia

  • In general, citing Wikipedia entries is not recommended.
  • Note that in some units, citing dictionaries is not acceptable. Consult your unit guide for details.
In-text citation

Where the author is identified for entries in print or online encyclopedias or other reference works, provide the author and year as for other authored sources.

Low and Jin (2012) comment that urging someone to do their best does not appear to be as effective as involving the person in setting specific and relatively difficult goals…

Where the author is not identified, provide the title of the entry in the book.

Field theory is defined as “a systematic approach describing behaviour in terms of patterns of dynamic interrelationships between individuals and the psychological, social and physical situation in which they exist” (“Field theory”, 2007, p. 375).

References

Online dictionary encyclopedia with author identified

Author, Initials. (year). Title of entry. Title of encyclopedia (edition if not the first.). Publisher name. https://URL

Low, R., & Jin P. (2012). Achievement motivation and learning. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 47–51). https://doi:10.1007/078-1-4419-1428-6

Online dictionary or encyclopedia  with no author identified

Author, Initials. (year). Title of encyclopedia .Publisher name.

Field theory. (2007). In G. R. VandenBos (Ed.), APA dictionary of psychology (p. 375). American Psychological Association.

Print dictionary

Author. (year). Title of entry. In Title of dictionary (edition if not the first., p. x).

American Psychological Association. (2015). Mood induction. In APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed., p. 667).

Journals

Select a topic

Overview

Guidelines for references entries for both online and print articles in journals:

  • See APA7 explained > Overview for the general formatting requirements of APA7 references.
  • See APA7 explained for information on how to reference multiple authors.
  • Capitalise only the first letter of the first word in the title of an article (as well as the subtitle). Proper nouns, initialisms and acronyms are also capitalised.
  • Capitalise the first letter of every main word in the journal title.
  • Format the journal title and the issue number in italics.
  • Include the volume, issue number and page range if available.
  • For journal articles that have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), include the DOI in the reference list entry.
  • See DOIs and URLs for more information
In-text citation

Hughes et al. (2012) investigated the relationship between personality and the use of Facebook and Twitter for both information and social purposes.

According to Reed and Derryberry (1995), …

References
With DOI

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers, DOI

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

Reeve, W., Ardley, J., Tian, R., De Meyer, S., Terpolilli, J., Melino, V., Tiwari, R., Yates, R., O'Hara, G., Howieson, J., Ninawi, M., Zhang, X., Bruce, D., Detter, C., Tapia, R., Han, C., Wei, C., Huntemann, M., Han, J., … Kyrpides, N. (2014). Genome sequence of the Listia angolensis microsymbiont Microvirga lotononidis strain WSM3557 (T). Standards in Genomic Sciences, 9(3). 540 - 550.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. https://URL

Stegmeir, M. (2016). Climate change: New discipline practices promote college access. The Journal of College Admission, (231), 44–47. https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NACAC/nacac_jca_spring2016/#/46

From academic database or print version

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Baker, B. C., Buckenmaier, C., Narine, N., Compeggie, M. E., Brand, G. J., & Mongan, P. D. (2007). Battlefield anesthesia: Advances in patient care and pain management. Anesthesiology Clinics, 25(1), 131–134.

Borton, J. L. S., Markowitz, L. J., & Dietrich, J. (2005). Effects of suppressing negative self-referent thoughts on mood and self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 172–190.

Journal article with an article number / eLocator

If the journal article has an article number, include the word “Article” and then the article number instead of the page range.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article article number or locator. https://URL

Butt, SA., Lidegaard, Ø ., Skovlund, C., Hannaford, PC., Iversen, L., Fielding, S., & Morch, LS. (2018). Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer: A cohort study among premenopausal women. PLoS ONE, 13(10), 1-8. Article e0206358. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206358

Advance online publication

Advance online publication can refer to a work that has not yet been assigned a volume, issue or page numbers. It can also refer to a work that has been peer reviewed but not yet copyedited or formatted for final production.

In-text citation

Trezise et al. (2014) studied working memory in adolescent males…

References

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi

Trezise, K. L., Gray, K. M., Taffe, J., & Sheppard, D. M. (2014). Working memory in adolescent males with Down syndrome and males with autism and intellectual disability: Implications for the classroom. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability. Advance online publication. https://doi:10.3109/13668250.2013.874550

In press

Use the term in press to refer to a peer-reviewed article accepted for publication in a future issue of a journal

Pachur , T., & Scheibehenne, B. (in press). Unpacking buyer-seller differences in valuation from experience: a cognitive modelling approach. Psychonomic Bulleting & review

Review in a journal

In-text citation

Though Shafak’s memoir draws on the struggles of women for creative expression in male-dominated cultures, she largely characterises her own depression as an internal conflict (Juchau, 2014).

References

Reference the review author, but include details of the material under review in square brackets.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title of article. [Review of the book Title of book by Initials. Author] Title of journal, volume(issue), page numbers

Juchau, M. (2014, January 18). The maternal and a mystery [Review of the book Black milk: On motherhood and writing by E. Shafak, Trans. H. Zapsu]. The Age, Life & Style, p. 27.

Web and video

Select a topic

Overview

Different digital sources require differently formatted in-text and reference entries. Please view the relevant topic on the side menu for further information.

  • See APA7 explained > Overview for the general formatting requirements of APA7 references
  • Note that for online sources:
  • a date of retrieval is not usually included
  • no full stop is placed after a URL

Website and web document

In-text citation

Websites and web documents should be cited according to the name of the author, which is often a group or an organisation.

The Australian Psychological Society (2014) provides nine strategies for communicating better about issues of violence, peace and social justice.

If no author is provided for a webpage or web document, cite by title.

Cite page numbers where provided. Where no page numbers are provided, cite the chapter number, section heading or paragraph number.

See See APA7 explained >No page numbers.

The Australian Psychological Society (2014, “Why is it so difficult”, para. 3) suggests...

References
  • For a page from an organization’s website without individual authors, use the name of the organization as the author
  • Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage
  • Some online works note when the work was last updated. If it is clear that this date refers to the specific content (and not the whole website), then use the updated date in the reference
  • Do not include a date of last review in a reference because the content has not necessarily been changed
  • Italicize the title of the webpage
  • Provide the site name in the source element of the reference
  • End the reference with the URL
  • When citing multiple webpages from the same website, create a reference entry for each
Webpage with individual authors
  • When individual author(s) are credited on the webpage, list them as the author in the reference.

Author, Initials. (Full date available). Title of webpage or web document. Site name. URL

Giovanetti, F. (2019, November 16). Why we are so obsessed with personality types. Medium. https://medium.com/the-business-of-wellness/why-we-are-so-obsessed-with-personality-types-577450f9aee9

Wilkins, A. (2018, June 28). NZ Govt yet to address single-use plastic bags, despite Australia’s progress. Newshub. https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2018/06/nz-govt-yet-to-address-single-use-plastic-bags-despite-australia-s-progress.htm

Webpage with organisational group author
  • When the author of the webpage and the site name are the same, do not repeat the site name.

Group author. (Full date available). Title of webpage. https://URL

Nursing and Midwifery board. (2016). Registered nurse standards for practice. https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards/registered-nurse-standards-for-practice.aspx

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

General information from a website
  • When referring to a website generally i.e. without including specific information or a specific page from that site, do not include a reference entry or in-text citation. Provide the name of the website and the URL in parentheses.

We created our survey using Qualtrics (https://www.qualtrics.com)

Document from a website
  • When referencing a document from a webpage, follow the guidelines for citing a webpage and include a link to the document if available

Author, Initials / group author name. (year). Title of web document. [document type]. Site name. https://URL

Department of Health. (2019). Commonwealth Home Support Programme Interaction with Home Care Packages [Fact sheet]. Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/commonwealth-home-support-programme-interaction-with-home-care-packages-fact-sheet

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2017). Nursing shortage fact sheet [Fact sheet]. http://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/News/Factsheets/Nursing-Shortage-Factsheet-2017.pdf

Social media

In all cases you need to consider whether social media sources are appropriate and acceptable to include in your assignment. If you are uncertain, check your unit guide or with your unit chair or lecturer.

Social networking accounts can either be open to the public or restricted to nominated readers or participants. Posts that are public should be cited in-text and in the references. Posts from a private Facebook page, blog, email or wiki are treated as Personal communication. The following examples deal with public social media posts only.

  • Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the social media handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a full stop.
  • Provide the specific date of the post.
  • Provide the first 20 words of the post as the title. Count a URL, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words.
In-text citation

Include the author and year of the post.

Michael Carr-Gregg (2014) compared anxiety to a rocking chair: “It gives you something to do, but it doesn’t get you very far”.

References

Only public social media accounts should be included in the reference list. The author’s real name is provided first, followed by the username/screen name in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, provide without brackets.

Facebook
  • Use the page title in the reference (e.g., “Home,” “About,” “Reviews”).
  • Include the notation “[Facebook page]” in square brackets.
  • If a post includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.
  • Describe the post type (e.g., “[Status update],” “[Video]”) in square brackets after any description of attached content.

Post
  • Describe the post type (e.g., “[Status update],” “[Video]”) in square brackets after any description of attached content.

Author, Initials [screen name]. (year, month day). Up to first 20 words of post/update [Status update]. Facebook. https://url

News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/?type=3&theater

Page
  • Include the notation “[Facebook page]” in square brackets.
  • Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.

Author, Initials [screen name]. (year, month day). Up to first 20 words of post/update [Facebook page]. Month day, year from https://URL

National Park Service. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. January 12, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/nationalparkservice/

Twitter
  • If the tweet includes an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image with a link, indicate that in brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with link attached].
  • Include the description “[Tweet]  [Moment] or [Twitter profile]” in square brackets after the title
  • Credit Twitter as the site name in the source element and then provide the URL of the tweet.

Author, Initials [@ screen name]. (year, month day). Text of twitter post [Twitter description]. Twitter. https://url

APA Databases [@APA_Databases]. (2019, September 5). Help students avoid plagiarism and researchers navigate the publication process. More details available in the 7th edition @APA_Style table [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/APA_Databases/status/1169644365452578823

Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it’s difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/1170305718425137152

Instagram
  • Include a description of the post (e.g., “[Photo],” “[Video]” [Instagram profile] [Instagram highlight]) in square brackets after the title.
  • Credit Instagram as the site name in the source element and then provide the URL of the photo.

Philadelphia Museum of Art [@philamuseum]. (2019, December 3). “It’s always wonderful to walk in and see my work in a collection where it’s loved, and where people are [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B5oDnnNhOt4/

APA Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2019, June 14). Male depression is serious, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Different men have different symptoms, but [Video]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BysOqenB1v7/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link

Blog

In-text citation

Rutledge (2013) comments that balance is important in the use of…

References

Provide the title of the blog post, not the title of the blog. Cite the author(s) of the blog post (be aware that this is not always the owner of blog).

Posts
  • Blog posts follow the same format as journal articles.
  • Italicize the name of the blog, the same as you would a journal title.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title of Blog post. Blog Site Name. https://url

Ouellette, J. (2019, November 15). Physicists capture first footage of quantum knots unraveling in superfluid. Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/11/study-you-can-tie-a-quantum-knot-in-a-superfluid-but-it-will-soon-untie-itself/

Comments
  • Cite the person who left the comment as the author using the format that appears with the comment (i.e., a real name or a username). The example shows a username.
  • Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment; then write “Comment on the blog post” and the full title of post on which the comment appeared (in quotation marks and sentence case, enclosed within square brackets).
  • Link to the comment itself if possible. Otherwise, link to the blog post.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title or up to the first 20 words of the comment [Comment on the blog post “full title of post”].Blog Site Name. https://url

joachimr. (2019, November 19). We are relying on APA as our university style format - the university is located in Germany (Kassel). So I [Comment on the blog post “The transition to seventh edition APA Style”]. APA Style. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/transition-seventh-edition#comment-4694866690

YouTube or streaming video

Online videos may be available from a number of different sources on the web and in different formats – downloadable video files, streaming videos, or video podcasts. The format below can also be used for other sites that host user-generated videos, including Vimeo. Cite the source that you have accessed.

In-text citation

You may cite a producer, writer, presenter or speaker. Their role may be specified in-text and it must be specified in the reference list entry.

Cain (2010) argues that introverts should be encouraged and celebrated.

…(Beyond Blue, 2013).

References
  • You may cite a variety of roles, e.g. producer, writer, presenter, speaker. This may depend on who you are citing and the publication information available. It is important to ensure that the source is easily retrievable by your reader.
  • In the case of YouTube and other user-publisher video platforms, always provide information about the person who has uploaded the video.
  • Your source may be available in more than one place. Cite the source that you have accessed.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Video file], [Video podcast].
  • If the video is from a URL that is highly likely to change over time, you may provide the homepage URL rather than the full URL.
  • Include the date that the video was uploaded.
YouTube video:

The “producer” of a YouTube (or similar platform) video is the person who has uploaded the video. Provide their real name and then the screen name/username in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, provide this without brackets.

  • Indicate the medium as [Video]

Producer, Initials. [screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. URL

Beyond Blue [beyondblueofficial]. (2013). I am anxiety [Video file]. http://www.youtube.com/user/beyondblueofficial

TED [TalkDocumentary’s channel]. (2013, September 10). Susan Cain: The power of introverts: TED talks: documentary, lecture, talks [Video file]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0KYU2j0TM4

Streaming video from database via Deakin Library:
  • Provide the homepage URL of video database (not the full URL).

Producer, Initials. (year). Title of video [Video file]. Homepage URL of database

VEA. (2011). Anxiety disorder [Video file]. http://vlearn.vea.com.au

YouTube channel
  • YouTube channel pages begin on the “Home” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Videos,” “Playlists”), use the name of that tab rather than “Home” in the title element of the reference (as in the Walker example).
  • Italicize the title of the channel.
  • Include the description “[YouTube channel]” in square brackets after the title.
  • Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.

APA Publishing Training. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/user/PsycINFO/

Walker, A. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz/playlists

Podcasts & online audio

Podcasts and audio files may be available from a number of different online sources. Only cite the source that you have accessed.

If citing a transcript and not the recording itself, see Transcript.

In-text citation

You may cite a producer, writer, presenter or speaker. Their role may be specified in text and must be specified in the reference list entry.

Cummins (2010) argues that...

References
  • You may cite a variety of roles, e.g. producer, writer, presenter, speaker. This may depend on who you are citing and the publication information available. It is important to ensure that the source is easily retrievable by your reader.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Audio podcast].

Author, Initials. (Producer/Writer/Speaker). (year, month day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. URL

Malcom L. (Presenter). (2014, January 5). The music in your brain [Audio podcast]. http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/the-music-in-your-brain/5132382

Providing the homepage URL

If the podcast is from a URL that is highly likely to change over time, it is best to provide just the homepage URL rather than the full URL.

Cummins, R. (Writer & presenter), & Deakin University (Producer). (2012, September 17). Happiness and wellbeing [Audio podcast]. http://itunes.apple.com

Recording from album

  • Provide the copyright year, not the year of the recording.
  • Indicate the medium that you have accessed, e.g. [CD], [MP3], [Record], [Cassette].
  • If appropriate, indicate the recording artist after the title of the recording.

Songwriter/Composer, Initials.  (copyright year). Title of recording [Recorded by Initials. Artist]. On Title of album [medium].Record label.

Iglesias, A. (2002). Cucurrucucu paloma [Recorded by C. Veloso]. On Talk to her original soundtrack [CD].  Milan Music.

If accessed online, provide the appropriate medium type, and replace the city and record label with the homepage URL of the distributor.

Iglesias, A. (2002). Cucurrucucu paloma [Recorded by C. Veloso]. On Talk to her original soundtrack [MP3]. https://itunes.apple.com/

Film, DVD, Video

In-text citation

A beautiful mind (Howard & Grazer, 2001) depicts...

References
  • Provide the name of the producer and director.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Motion picture], [DVD], [Video]. Only cite the source that you have accessed.

Producer, Initials. (Producer), & Director, Initials. (Director). (year). Title of film [medium]. Country of origin: Studio.

Howard, R., & Grazer, B. (Producers), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [DVD]. United States: Imagine Entertainment.

For films accessed online:

  • provide the medium as [Video file].
  • Instead of the country of origin and studio name, provide the homepage URL of the distributor.

Producer, Initials. (Producer), & Director, Initials. (Director). (year). Title of film [Video file]. URL

Howard, R., & Grazer, B. (Producers), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Video file]. http://www.amazon.com/

  • See also you Tube or streaming video.

Televsion

In-text citation


Provide the title of the film in-text in italics and provide writer, director and/or producer in the citation.

In The Manus solution, Thompson & Michelmore (2014) provide a comprehensive account of the Manus riot…

References
  • Provide the names of the writer, director or producer. For current affairs series, provide the names of the reporter and producer.
  • If not accessed online, provide the city of production and name of TV studio instead of the URL.
  • You do not need to provide the full URL.
Single TV episode

Writer/Reporter, Initials. (Writer/Reporter) & Director/Producer, Initials. (Director/Producer). (year). Title of episode. [Television series episode]. In Initials. Producer (Executive producer). Title of series. https://URL

Thompson, G. (Reporter), & Michelmore K. (Producer). (2014, April 29). The Manus solution [Television series episode]. In S. Spencer (Executive producer), Four corners. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/

Entire TV series

Producer/Creator, Initials. (Producer/Creator). (years aired). Title of series [Television series]. https://URL

Bernstein, M., & Gilligan, V. (Producers). (2008–2013). Breaking bad [Television series]. http://www.tv.com/

See also YouTube or streaming video

Data sets

  • When you have retrieved data from publicly available archives, and have analysed data (secondary analysis), provide an in-text citation and a reference list entry with the archive name as author e.g. Australian Bureau of Statistics
  • If you are referring to data that has been published in a journal article, report, webpage etc., cite the source and author of the published material, rather than the data itself and use the writer of the text as author
  • Use the bracketed description [Data set]

O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36966.v1

Images and figures

Select a topic

Overview

Understanding when to provide a citation for an image, map, diagram or infographic, and when you need to include a copyright statement, depends on how you are using the image:

  1. If you have reproduced the image or figure in your paper (you can visually see the image in your assignment), then you will need to include a copyright statement.
  2. If you are only referring to the image or figure but have not included the actual image in your paper, then you just need a citation.

Reproducing figures and tables

When you make a copy of an image or table in your work (or an adapted version of a figure/table) this requires not just a citation, but also a copyright statement. Note that some images are copyright-free, and may not require this level of information - but it will not hurt to include it! For further information about copyright and student assessments, see the Copyright modules for students 3: Copyright for your studies.

See also these Deakin Library guides to using Creative Commons, finding copyright-free images and finding image resources in the Library.

As a student, you may reproduce (copy or adapt) figures or tables in your assessments, without seeking copyright permission, as long as you:

  • always ensure that full credit is given to the author and publisher as copyright holder (see details below)
  • can be sure that this work will be used for assessment purposes only – for example, if you think the work may later become available to the public in any way, you may need to obtain copyright permission.

Each figure (image, map or diagram) or table in your work needs to be identified with a number and a title, e.g. Figure 2 Accuracy in Experiment 1 for each type of feedback.

Immediately following this, you should provide a copyright statement. For example, if you were reproducing an image from a book you would include:

From / Adapted from Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [year] by Name of Copyright Holder.

Adapted from Managing Therapy-Interfering Behavior: Strategies From Dialectical Behavior Therapy (p. 172), by A. L. Chapman and M. Z. Rosenthal, 2016, American Psychological Association. Copyright 2016 by the American Psychological Association.

And this copyright statement would also require a corresponding reference entry:

Chapman, A. L., & Rosenthal, M. Z. (2016). Managing therapy-interfering behavior: Strategies from dialectical behavior therapy. American Psychological Association.

If you were reproducing an image from a website, you would provide:

From / Adapted from “Title of Web Document,” by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, year, http://URL. Copyright [year] by Name of Copyright Holder.

From “Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: Data, Trends and Maps. Alabama Indicator Details Percent of Adults Aged 18 Years and Older Who Are Obese,” by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015 http://nccd.cdc.gov/NPAO_DTM/DetailedData.aspx?indicator=29&statecode=30 . In the public domain .

And this copyright statement would also require a corresponding reference entry:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Nutrition, physical activity and obesity: Data, trends and maps. Alabama indicator details percent of adults aged 18 years and older who are obese. http://nccd.cdc.gov/NPAO_DTM/DetailedData.aspx?indicator=29&statecode=30

Citing only

When simply referring to a part of a work, such as a table, figure or appendix (but not reproducing it in your assignment), provide details of the part in-text in addition to the author name, year and page number.

In-text citation

Eunson (2008, Table 10.3, p. 324) sets out eight reframing strategies that can be used by individuals or groups to resolve issues, create new perspectives and eliminate counterproductive language.

References

Reference the source where the table, chart, figure or appendix is located and cite accordingly.

Eunson, B. (2008). Communicating in the 21st century (2nd ed.). Milton, Qld: John Wiley and Sons.

Artwork

Artwork from a museum or museum website

Use the following guidelines to cite all artworks found in museums:

  • The artist is the author and a description of the medium is included in brackets e.g. [Painting] or a specific description if available or relevant [Oil painting]
  • Include the name and location of the museum
  • If available, include a link to the museum website

van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/vincent-van-gogh-the-starry-night-1889/

Other sources

Select a topic

Brochure or pamphlet

  • Brochures, pamphlets, or flyers follow the same format as report references.
  • Include the description “[Brochure]” in square brackets after the title of the brochure.
In-text citation

Staying connected: A guide for parents on raising an adolescent daughter provides suggestions for helping a daughter deal with the challenges of adolescence (The American Psychological Association, 2017).

References

Online brochure

Author, Initials. (year). Title [Brochure]. URL

American Psychological Association. (2001). Staying connected: A guide for parents on raising an adolescent daughter [Brochure]. http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/brochures/staying-connected.pdf

Cedars-Sinai. (2015). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal cancer [Brochure]. https://www.cedars-sinai.org/content/dam/cedars-sinai/cancer/sub-clinical-areas/head-neck/documents/hpv-throat-cancer-brochure.pdf

Print brochure

Author, Initials. (year). Title [Brochure]. Publisher.

Quit Victoria (2011). Quit because you can [Brochure].

Conference paper

In-text citation

Duckworth et al. (2012) conclude that …

References

Published proceedings in a journal

Author, Initials. (year). Title of paper. Proceedings of Title of conference, country, vol(no), pages. https://DOI

Duckworth, A. L., Quirk, A., Gallop, R., Hoyle, R. H., Kelly, D. R., & Matthews, M. D. (2019). Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 116(47), 23499–23504. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910510116

Paper presentation

Presenter(s). (year, date range of conference). Title [Type of presentation]. Conference Name, Location. https://DOI or URL

Proudfoot, F. (2015, February 18–20). Understanding cultural differences at the frontline [Paper presentation]. Australasian Housing Researchers Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. http://ahrc2015.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Fiona%20Proudfoot.pdf

Course materials

You should always check with unit staff to determine if citing course materials is appropriate and acceptable in your unit. Where possible, find, read and cite the original source used in the course materials.
Some units advise that it is not acceptable to cite from course materials. Cite only if you have been given permission to do so. Note that Course materials available only on unit sites and not available to the general public should be cited as personal communication in-text. Do not provide an entry in the reference list.

Lectures and lecture notes

Some units advise that it is not acceptable to cite from lectures or accompanying notes provided by the lecturer. Cite only if you have been given permission to do so. Cite lectures in text as you would other personal communication. Do not provide an entry in the reference list.

…(Lecturer, Course code and title, Deakin University, lecture, 8 March 2014).
or
…(Lecturer, Course code and title, Deakin University, PowerPoint slides, 8 March 2014).

Government publication

In-text citation

The Australian Government Department of Human Services (2011) has outlined their direction and priorities for workforce diversity and inclusion.

If the name of a department or agency is long and the abbreviation is familiar to readers, cite the full name and provide the abbreviation in brackets in the first instance. Use the abbreviation in subsequent references.

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2013) provides practical and realistic recommendations for healthy eating…


Most Australians eat only about half the recommended quantity of fruit, although they drink excessive amounts of fruit juice (NHMRC, 2013).

References
  • When numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author of a work, name the most specific agency as the author in the reference.
  • The names of Parent agencies not present in the author position should appear after the title as the publisher.
  • If the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher name.
  • If a report number is available, place after the title.
  • See Reports
Online document

Author, Initials. (year). Title. (Report no., if available). https://URL

Australian Government Department of Human Services. (2011). Workplace diversity and inclusion strategy 2011–15. http://www.humanservices.gov.au/spw/corporate/publications-and-resources/resources/workplace-diversity-inclusion-strategy.pdf

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

Print document

Author, Initials. (year). Title. (Report no., if available). Publisher (if different from author).

Victorian Government Department of Health and Community Services. Primary Care Division. (1994). Victorian families.

Media release

  • The author is the organisation or media group that published the press release.
  • Include the description “[Press release]” in square brackets after the title.
  • Omit publisher name if same as the author.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title [Press release]. https://URL

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, November 15). FDA approves first contact lens indicated to slow the progression of nearsightedness in children [Press release]. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-contact-lens-indicated-slow-progression-nearsightedness-children

Newspaper article

In-text citation

Nader (2009) highlights the increasing incidence of mental health issues among children.

References
  • Provide the full date (year, month day)
  • Include page numbers from print versions
  • Italicise the title of the newspaper
  • If from a database, do not include database information. Include volume, issue and page numbers if available, If not, finish with title of newspaper

Author, Initial. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. https://URL

Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html

Stobbe, M. (2020, January 8). Cancer death rate in U.S. sees largest one-year drop ever. Chicago Tribune.

News website without daily or weekly newspapers

Author, Initial. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. https://url

Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/10/health/nap-heart-health-wellness-intl-scli/index.html

Personal communication

In-text citation


Personal communications refer to material that cannot be retrieved by the readers, and can include letters, emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations, private Facebook messages, university lectures, online chats or other course materials not available to the public.  It is important to get the permission of the person referred to in your assignment and it could be appropriate to indicate the role of the person.

Use the initial(s) and surname of the speaker, and provide an exact date

J. Robinson (personal communication, May 11, 2010) indicated...

OR

...(L. Frazer, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, interview, June 4, 2009).

References

Personal communications are not included in the reference list.

Report

In-text citation

Sydney Water (2013) states…

References

Format corporate, government, research or technical reports as you would books or web documents, with the addition of a report number (if available). A description of the report may also be given if the report’s title does not adequately describe the document. If provided, include a report number as well as the publisher. If the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher

The following format can be used for print and online reports.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Publisher.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Publisher. https://url

Individual authors within organisations or government
  • Include the organisation responsible for the report as the publisher

Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/does-money-grow-on-trees-restoring-financing-in-southeast-asia/

Stuster, J., Adolf, J., Byrne, V., & Greene, M. (2018). Human exploration of Mars: Preliminary lists of crew tasks (Report No. NASA/CR-2018-220043). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20190001401.pdf

Report by organisations (including governments)
  • The organisation or working group responsible for the report appears as the author. The names of parent agencies appear in the source element as the publisher.

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

Company annual report

Sydney Water. (2013). Sydney Water annual report 2013 (Report No. SW 103 10/13). http://www.sydneywater.com.au/web/groups/
publicwebcontent/documents/document/zgrf/mdu1/~edisp/dd_055996.pdf

Research particpants

  • When quoting research participants, follow the guidelines for quoting in the topic APA7 explained > ‘In-text citations’.
  • As this content forms part of our own research, do not include an entry in the References. State within the text that the quotations have come from research participants.

Standards

If a standard number is not available, provide alternative identifying information including editions or volume numbers

In-text citation

Standards Australia (2008, p. iv) recommends "the adoption of a quality management system should be a strategic decision by the organization."

The holding temperature of milk must not exceed 4 degrees C after the cooling process, according to the current Australian Standard for Farm milk cooling and storing systems (Standards Australia, 1996, p. 6).

Print

Standard Name. (Year). Title of standard (Standard number). Publisher.

Standards Australia. (2004). Risk management (AS/NZS 4360-2004). Standards Australia; Standards New Zealand.

Online or database

Standard Name. (Year). Title of standard (Standard number). https://URL or database

Standards Australia. (1996). Farm milk cooling and storage systems (AS 1187-1996). http://www.saiglobal.com/online/autologin.asp

Australian College of Perioperative Nurses Ltd (ACORN). (2018). Standards for Perioperative Nursing in Australia (15). https://www.acorn.org.au/standards

Thesis

  • If the thesis is unpublished, provide the description “[Unpublished doctoral dissertation]” or “[Unpublished master’s thesis]” in square brackets, followed by the name of the institution.
  • If the thesis is published, include the name of the awarding institution within the square brackets, and include either the database or if not in a database, the URL.
In-text citation

Harris (2014) demonstrates…

References

Unpublished

Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.

Published

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Miranda, C. (2019). Exploring the lived experiences of foster youth who obtained graduate level degrees: Self-efficacy, resilience, and the impact on identity development (Publication No. 27542827) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/2309521814.html?FMT=AI

Transcript

In-text citation

...(Seega & Swan, 2014).

References

Use this format for transcripts of audio or video files (podcasts, interviews, speeches). Note that files that are not retrievable by the general public (e.g. interviews and speeches that have not been published or are published on private or closed-group channels) should be cited as personal communication.

  • You may begin the citation with the details of a producer, interviewee or speech giver.
  • Provide the medium, e.g. [Interview transcript], [Audio Podcast transcript], [Speech transcript] etc.

Seega B. (Producer). (2014, May 5). Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis [Podcast transcript]. http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-psychosis/5430430

Cornish, A. (Host). (2017, May 17). This simple puzzle test sealed the fate of immigrants at Ellis Island [Audio podcast transcript]. In All things considered. NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=528813842

For interviews, begin the citation with the interviewee’s name and provide the interviewer’s name after the title.

Interviewee, Initials. (year, month day). Title of work (Initials. Interviewer, interviewer) [Interview transcript]. https:// URL

McWilliams, N. (2013, November 7). A psychodynamic understanding of personality structure (D. Van Nuys, interviewer) [Interview transcript]. http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/376.pdf

Translated work

In-text citation
  • Include both the date of the original work and the date of translation
  • Separate the years with a slash, including the earlier year first

Piaget (1970/1972) observed that intellectual evolution of...

References
  • Follow the formatting for the source type, but include the translator details and the year the translated work was published without a full stop or comma (Initial. Translator, Trans)
  • Include the date of the original work in parentheses at the end (Original work published year)

Piaget, J. (1972). Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood (J. Bliss & H. Furth, Trans.). Human development, 15(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1159/000271225 (original work published 1970)

Deakin guide to Vancouver

Note: Different units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use.

Last updated: 31 October 2016

Deakin guide to Vancouver (PDF, 458.5KB)


Select a topic

Vancouver explained

Select a topic

Overview

Vancouver is a numbered citation style of referencing:

  1. A number in parentheses is assigned to a source and that same number is used for that source throughout a paper. The number follows the relevant section of the text.
  2. A numerically ordered reference list at the end of the paper giving full details of each source cited in text. There is only one reference list entry for each individual work.

The Vancouver style of referencing was developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). ICMJE produces the guidelines for publication, which are known as the ICMJE Recommendations (formerly known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts). The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) has further developed these citation standards.

Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007-  [updated 2011 Sep 15; cited 2013 Dec 14]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine

U.S. National Library of Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine; 2003- [updated 2013 Aug 20; cited 2014 Jan 29]. ICMJE recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing and publication of scholarly work in medical journals: sample references; [about 6 screens]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html

Numbered citations

  • For all sources cited in the body of the paper, provide a reference number in parentheses (round brackets).
  • Note that numbers in square brackets and superscript numbers are also acceptable formats used in biomedical journals
  • Reference numbers are usually placed outside full stops and commas, but journals vary in their practice.
  • The same number is used for a source throughout a paper. This number is determined by the first citation of the source, e.g. if a work is the fourth source cited in a paper, it will be referred to as (4) throughout the paper.

It is important to be consistent in the style you adopt. You may need to consult your unit guide or unit staff to determine the preferred style.

... and biomedical authorship continues to have important academic, social, and financial implications. (1) In the past, readers were rarely provided with information about contributions to studies from those listed as authors and in acknowledgments. (2) Some journals now request...


Citing multiple sources

When two or more sources are referred to at the same point in the text, the relevant numbers are separated by commas:

Recognition of the importance of symptom control has been growing. (4, 8, 21)

Three or more consecutive citations are joined by a hyphen:

Many studies have shown that 30 minutes of moderate physical activity per day is good for your wellbeing. (6-8)


Summarising, paraphrasing and quoting

You must reference all material you use from sources each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding from someone's work. It is necessary to cite a source each time you:

  • summarise (explain or discuss someone's idea in your own words)
  • paraphrase (closely re-word what someone has said)
  • quote (reproduce an author's exact words).

No quotation marks are required if you are summarising or paraphrasing. Place direct quotes within double quote marks.

Reference list

The reference list includes only the works cited in text. It appears at the end of the paper and provides the full bibliographic information of the sources cited. Only one reference list entry should be provided for each work cited. The reference list is ordered numerically.

If an article appears in both print and electronic form, it is important to cite the source type that you have read.

  • Reference list entries are ordered numerically and reference numbers are followed by a full stop.
  • Authors' family names are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stops between initials, e.g. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
  • Commas are used to separate each author's name. Note that 'and' is not used to separate the last two names.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated unless the title is a single word or very short.
Sample reference list
  1. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:284-7.
  2. Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.
  3. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.
  4. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
  5. Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A,Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.
  6. Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).
  7. Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2012 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/ AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm
  8. Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7; 338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752. PubMed PMID: 19129307: PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2615549.
  9. Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/
  10. O'Connor T. When your heart lets you down. The Age. [Internet] 2013 Dec 2 [cited 2014 Jan 22];Pulse:40. Available from: http://docs.newsbank.com/s/InfoWeb/aggdocs/AUNB/14A6EB518A6E3E08/104B74501DCB01D3?p_multi=ASAB&s_lang=en-US

Multiple citations

When citing two or more sources at the same point in the text, the relevant numbers are separated by commas:

Recognition of the importance of symptom control has been growing. (4, 8, 21)

Three or more consecutive citations are joined by a hyphen:

Many studies have shown that 30 minutes of moderate physical activity per day is good for your wellbeing. (6-8)

Repeat citations

  • The same number is used for a source throughout a paper and only one entry in the reference list should be provided for each work cited.
  • This number is determined by the first citation of the source, e.g. if a work is the fourth source cited in a paper, it will be referred to as (4) throughout the paper and in the reference list.

Number of authors

For works with one to six authors, provide the names of all of the authors.

Author Initials, Author Initials. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

For works with more than six authors, provide the names of the first six authors followed by "et al."

Author Initials, Author Initials, ... Author Initials, et al. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, et al. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995.

Group author

For works that list an organisation, corporation or agency as the author, provide the name of the group in the author position.

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.

Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001.

No author

If a person or organisation cannot be identified as the author but there are editors, revisers or translators named in the publication, begin the reference with the names of the editors/revisers/translators followed by their role.

Gilstrap LC, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

If no author, authoring organisation, editor, reviser or translator is given, begin the reference with the title of the book.

21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.

Cancer-Pain.org [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.cancer-pain.org/

Secondary source

When citing a source that you have not read directly but which has been quoted within a source that you have read, provide the name of the original author in text.

In this example, the student has read Rennie and Gunsalus, who cite Charrow, but the student has not directly read Charrow.

Charrow explains that… (18)

In the reference list provide details of the source you have read (e.g. Rennie and Gunsalus), as well as the author being cited (e.g. Charrow), using the phrase “cited in”.

18. Charrow RP. PHS' Office of Scientific Integrity Review: housekeeping is in order. J NIH Res. 1991;3:103-6. Cited in Rennie D, Gunsalus CK. Scientific misconduct: new definition, procedures, and office - perhaps a new leaf. JAMA. 1993;269:915-7.

No date

  • If no date is provided, enter [date unknown] in place of the date.
  • If no date is provided, but can be reliably estimated, place the estimated year with a question mark in square brackets.

No page numbers

If no page numbers are provided, which is often the case with online sources, you may provide the total number of paragraphs, or estimated number of printed pages or screens. Provide in square brackets before the URL, e.g. [3 paragraphs], [about 3p.], [about 4 screens].

Number of paragraphs

Complementary/Integrative Medicine [Internet]. Houston: University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center; c2007. Energy therapies; [cited 2007 Feb 21]; [3 paragraphs]. Available from: http://www.mdanderson.org/departments/cimer/dIndex.cfm?pn=7B632E4A-56B2-11D5-812100508B603A14

Estimated number of printed pages

Carey B. Psychiatrists revise the book of human troubles. New York Times [Internet]. 2008 Dec 17 [cited 2008 Dec 19];Health:[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/18/health/18psych.html?_r=1&em

Estimated number of screens

Grady D. Jump in doctor visits and deaths in flu season. New York Times [Internet]. 2008 Apr 18 [cited 2008 Dec 19];Research:[about 4 screens]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/18/health/research/18flu.html?scp=7&sq=flu%20season&st=cse

Books

Select a topic

Overview

Authors
  • For one to six authors, list all authors.
  • If there are more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by "et al."
  • Authors' family names are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stops between initials, e.g. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
  • Commas are used to separate each author's name. Note that "and" is not used to separate the last two names.
  • If there are no author names provided, but an editor/reviser/translator's name is provided, begin the entry with the name of the editor/reviser/translator followed by their role, e.g. Court FG, editor.
  • If relevant, in addition to authors, place the names of editors, revisers, translators or illustrators after the title of the book, followed by their role.
Titles
  • Titles of books and book chapters should only have the letter of the first word is capitalised, other than words that would normally be capitalised, such as proper nouns, acronyms and initialisms.
Editions
  • Include the edition number after the book title for all editions except the first edition.

Fritz MA, Speroff L. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005.

Other publication details
  • A relatively unknown city/place of publication is followed by an abbreviation of the state or country in parentheses, e.g. White Plains (NY).
  • Provide the year of publication, e.g. 2005. If the year of publication cannot be found, use the year of copyright with “c” as a prefix, e.g. c2005.
  • For e-books, provide the medium as [Internet], the date cited, and the URL or DOI. Do not add an additional full stop after the URL or DOI.

Whole book

Author Initials, Author Initials. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.


e-books

When citing an e-book, include the details as for a print book and in addition provide:

  • date last updated
  • date cited
  • URL and/or DOI.

Author Initials. Title of book [Internet]. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: URL DOI

Higgins JP, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions [Internet]. Version 5.1.0. London: The Cochrane Collaboration; 2011 [updated 2011 Mar; cited 2014 Feb 03]. Available from: http://handbook.cochrane.org/

Schiraldi GR. Post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. Available from: http://books.mcgraw-hill.com/getbook.php?isbn=0071393722&template=#toc  DOI: 10.1036/0737302658

Chapter

If citing a chapter from a book with collected chapters by different authors, see the topic Edited Collection.


When citing a chapter in a book with a single author or single set of authors:

  • provide the chapter number, title and page range at the end of the citation
  • do not repeat digits unnecessarily in the page range,  e.g. 124–7 not 124–127
  • place a "p." before the page range of the chapter (Note that the "p." is not used for page numbers of periodicals).

Author Initials. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Chapter number, Chapter title; page range.

Marc AF, Speroff L. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p. 1103-33.

When citing a chapter in an e-book, add:

  • medium as [Internet]
  • date last updated
  • date cited
  • URL and DOI, if available.

Author. Title of book [Internet]. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Chapter number, Chapter title; [updated year month day; cited year month day]; page range. Available from: URL DOI

National Academy of Sciences (US), Institute of Medicine, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Clinical Trial Registries. Developing a national registry of pharmacologic and biologic clinical trials: workshop report [Internet]. Washington: National Academies Press (US); 2006. Chapter 5, Implementation issues; [cited 2013 Nov 3]; p. 35-42. Available from: http://newton.nap.edu/books/030910078X/html/35.html

Edited collection

For a chapter in an edited book collection (a book with chapters written by different authors), provide the details as for a book source and in addition:

  • place the title of the chapter after the author(s), followed by the word 'In' and a colon, then the editor's name and then the book title
  • do not repeat digits unnecessarily in the page range, e.g. 124–7 not 124–127
  • place a "p." before the page range of the chapter. (Note that the "p." is not used for page numbers of periodicals).

Author Initials. Title of chapter. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of book. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year. page range.

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

When citing a chapter in an edited e-book collection, add:

  • medium as [Internet]
  • date last updated
  • date cited
  • URL and DOI, if available.

Author Initials. Title of chapter. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of book [Internet]. edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; year. [updated year month day; cited year month day]; page range.  Available from: URL DOI

Halpen-Felsher BL, Morrell HE. Preventing and reducing tobacco use. In: Berlan ED, Bravender T, editors. Adolescent medicine today: a guide to caring for the adolescent patient [Internet]. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2012. [cited 2012 Nov 3]; p. 307-18. Available from: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/9789814324496_0018

Dictionary or encyclopedia

For online dictionaries or encyclopedias, include:

  • medium as [Internet]
  • the title of the entry (topic)
  • date last updated
  • date cited
  • estimated length of entry if not paginated
  • URL.

Title of dictionary/encyclopedia [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of entry; [updated/reviewed year month day; cited year month day]; [estimated length]. Available from: URL

MedlinePlus [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); c1997-2014. Diabetes type 1; [updated 2014 Jan 10; reviewed 2013 Oct 18; cited 2014 Jan 29]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/diabetestype1.html

For print dictionaries or encyclopedias, cite as you would other books with the addition of the entry title:

Author Initials. Title of dictionary/encyclopedia. edition. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of entry; page range.

Turkington C, Tzeel A. The encyclopedia of children's health and wellness. New York: Facts on File, Inc.; c2004. Papilloma virus, human (HPV); p. 381-3.

If a dictionary or encyclopedia entry has no named author, begin the reference with the title of the publication.

Title of dictionary/encyclopedia. edition. Place of publication: Publisher; year. Title of entry; page range.

Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 30th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; c2003. Encephalomalacia; p. 609.

Journal articles

Select a topic

Overview

Authors
  • For one to six authors, list all authors.
  • If there are more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by "et al."
  • Authors' family names are followed by their two-letter initials with no space or full stops between initials, e.g. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL.
  • Commas are used to separate each author's name. Note that 'and' is not used to separate the last two names.
Titles
  • Titles of journal articles should use minimal capitalisation, that is, only the first word is capitalised except for words that would normally be capitalised such as proper nouns, acronyms and initialisms.
  • Journal titles are usually abbreviated unless they consist of a single word or are very short. There are conventions on how specific titles are abbreviated. See links below for more information.

Citing medicine: Appendix A: abbreviations for commonly used English words in journal titles

Journal title abbreviations (Caltech Library)

Australasian Medical Index (NLA)

CAS Source Index (CASSI) search tool


Other publication details
  • Months are abbreviated to the first three letters.
  • There are no spaces between the date, volume, issue and page numbers. The date is followed by a semicolon, the volume number, the issue number in brackets, a colon and the page range.
  • When providing the page range, do not repeat unnecessary numbers unless followed by a letter, e.g. 284-7 not 284-287, but 331A-333A is correct.
  • For online articles provide URL and DOI, if available. Do not add a full stop after a URL or DOI.

If a database's unique identifier is provided, it can be added at the end of the reference list entry.

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid organ transplantation in HIV infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.

Article

If a journal article is available in both print and electronic formats, cite the format that you have read.

Here is an example of an article accessed in print:

Author Initials, Author Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. year month day;volume(issue):page range.

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.


Online

For journal articles accessed online also include the:

  • medium as [Internet].
  • date cited.
  • page number range. If the article is not paginated, give an indication of the length of the article in square brackets. This can be provided as print pages, screens or paragraphs e.g. [about 1 p.], [about 5 screens], [8 paragraphs].
  • URL and DOI, if available.

Author Initials. Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal [Internet]. year month day [cited year month day];volume(issue):page range [or estimate]. Available from: URL DOI

Bertino E, Milani S, Fabris C, De Curtis M. Neonatal anthropometric charts: what they are, what they are not. Arch Dis Child (Fetal Neonatal Ed) [Internet]. 2007 Jan [cited 2007 Jan 9];92(1):F7-10. Available from: http://fn.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/92/1/F7

Forthcoming

"Forthcoming" journal articles refer to articles that have been accepted for publication but are not yet published.

  • Include the date, volume and issue number of journal, if known.
  • Include that the article is "forthcoming" and in which year.

Ilja Boor PK, Groot KD, Mejaski-Bosnjak V, Brenner C, van der Knaap MS, Scheper GC, et al. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts: an update and extended mutation analysis of MLC1. Hum Mutat. Forthcoming 2006.

Web

Select a topic

Website

For websites, provide the:

  • author, if available
  • medium as [Internet]
  • name of the website
  • publisher and place of publication, if known
  • copyright date, if known
  • date last updated/revised, if known
  • date cited
  • URL (note: no additional full stop after URL).

Website with author

Author Initials. Title of website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of copyright [revised/updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: URL

D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/

Huckstep RL, Sherry E. WorldOrtho [Internet]. [place unknown: publisher unknown]; c1997 [updated 2007 Mar 23; cited 2007 Mar 23]. Available from: http://www.worldortho.com/


Website with no identified author

Title of website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of copyright [revised/updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: URL

Mesothelioma.com: the web's most trusted source on mesothelioma [Internet]. New York: Early, Ludwick, Sweeney & Strauss; c2005 [cited 2007 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.mesothelioma.com/

Web page

For web pages, provide the:

  • author, if available
  • medium as [Internet]
  • name of the website and web page
  • publisher and place of publication, if known
  • copyright date
  • date last updated/revised, if known
  • date cited
  • URL (note: no additional full stop after URL).

Web page with author

Author Initials. Title of website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of copyright. Title of webpage. year month day of webpage [revised/updated year month day; cited year month day]; [estimated length]. Available from: URL

Rollins A. Australian Medical Association [Internet]. Canberra: AMA; c1995-2012. Give Indigenous kids a better start in life: AMA. 2013 Feb 17 [cited 2014 Jan 17]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://ama.com.au/ausmed/give-indigenous-kids-better-start-life-ama


Web page with no identified author

Title of website [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of copyright. Title of webpage. year month day of webpage [revised/updated year month day; cited year month day]; [estimated length]. Available from: URL

AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007. AMA launches exclusive partnership with the ReachMD Channel for medical professionals; 2007 Mar 26 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/17469.html

Blog

For a blog or blog post, provide the:

  • author of the post and/or blog
  • medium as [Internet]
  • title of the post and the blog
  • publisher and place of publication, if known
  • date the blog began
  • date of the last revision/update
  • date the material was cited
  • URL (Note: no additional full stop after URL).

For blog posts where the author is also the owner of the blog, provide the author of the post.

Author Initials. Title of blog [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. first year of blog - . Title of post; year month day of post [cited year month day]; [estimated length]. Available from: URL

Smith SW. Dr. Smith's ECG blog [Internet]. Minneapolis: Dr Stephen W Smith. 2008 - . Hyperacute T-waves? Anterior STEMI? No, LVH with PseudoSTEMI pattern!; 2013 December 31 [cited 2014 Jan 9]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://hqmeded-ecg.blogspot.com.au/

Where the blog post is written by a contributor other than the blog owner, provide the author of the post and the owner/editor of the blog. In some cases this may be the same as the publisher.

Author Initials of post. Title of post. year month day of post [cited year month day]. In: Author or Editor of blog. Title of blog [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. first year of blog - [estimated length]. Available from: URL

Harwood A. Tourists enter the medical mix. 2011 June 7 [cited 2012 Aug 1]. In: Rural Health Workforce. Rural health – a life changing difference [Internet]. Melbourne: Rural Health Workforce. 2012 - [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://ruralchampions.govspace.gov.au/2011/06/07/tourists-enter-the-medical-mix/

Podcast

For podcasts, provide the:

  • author, if known
  • title of the individual podcast
  • medium as [podcast on the Internet]
  • place of production and the producer
  • full date of production or date of copyright
  • date cited
  • URL (note: no additional full stop after URL).

Title of podcast [podcast on the Internet]. Place of production: Producer; year month day [cited year month day]. Available from: URL

Improving patients' care in hospitals [podcast on the Internet]. Sydney: ABC Radio National; 2013 Dec 30 [cited 2014 Jan 31]. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/30-december-2013/5139908

Video

For a video published online, provide:

  • author, if known
  • title of the video
  • medium as [video on the Internet]
  • place of production and the producer
  • full date of production or date of copyright
  • date cited
  • URL (note: no additional full stop after URL).

Author Initials. Title of video [video on the Internet]. Place of production: Producer; year month day [cited year month day]. Available from: URL

Ryner J. Risking our kids [video on the Internet]. Sydney: Film Finance Corporation of Australia; c2008; [cited 2014 Feb 01]. Available from: http://edutv.informit.com.au/watch-screen.php?videoID=568045

Government, legal

Select a topic

Government overview

Cite government publications according to the source type (e.g. book, website) and also provide:

  • the name of the author or if not identified the name of all relevant authoring agencies/departments and the jurisdiction, if not evident from other publication details
  • titles should appear as they occur in the publication and capital letters in all titles are maintained.

Department of Health and Ageing. National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity User Guide. Canberra: AGPS; 2008.

Department of Health and Ageing, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Australian Food and Grocery Council. Department of Health [Internet]. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia; c2008. 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey - Main Findings. [cited 2014 Feb 3]; 58p. Available from: https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/8F4516D5FAC0700ACA257BF0001E0109/$File/childrens-nut-phys-survey.pdf

ABS

For Australian Bureau of Statistics releases accessed online, cite as you would other web pages, with the addition of the ABS catalogue number.

Australian Bureau of Statistics [Internet]. Canberra: ABS; year. Title of release. Catalogue number. [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available: URL

Australian Bureau of Statistics [Internet]. Canberra: ABS; 2011. Causes of death. Cat. 3303.0. [updated 2013 Mar 15; cited 2014 Feb 03]. Available: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/3303.0Contents2011?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3303.0&issue=2011&num=&view=

Legal sources

No specific information is provided by NLM on how to cite legal sources in the Vancouver style. The following examples are based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC). For more information on referencing legal sources, including legal abbreviations, see the Deakin referencing guide to AGLC.

Note that:

  • titles of Acts and cases are in italics
  • there are no full stops at the end of reference list entries.

Act of Parliament

Title of Act year (Jurisdiction) section number

Health Records Act 2001 (Vic) s. 25


Case (law report series organised by year)

Title of Case (year) Volume number Abbreviation of report series First page of case

Psalidis v Norwich Union Life Australia Ltd (2009) 29 VR 123


Case (law report series organised by volume)

Title of Case [year] Volume number Abbreviation of report series First page of case

Beattie v Ball [1999] 3 VR 1


Case (unreported judgement)

Title of case [year] Court abbreviation Judgement number (day month year) [paragraph]

Royall v Croydon Hospital Pty Ltd [2013] VSC 453 (26 Aug 2013) [27]

Report

To cite a government report published online, provide the:

  • government agency/department
  • medium as [Internet]
  • year of publication
  • date cited
  • catalogue number
  • place of publication and publisher
  • URL. No additional full stop after the URL.

Government Agency/Department. Title of report [Internet]. year [cited year month day]; catalogue number. Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cancer in Australia: an overview 2012 [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2013 Apr 23]; Cancer series no. 74. Cat. No. CAN 70. Canberra: AIHW. Available from: http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=60129542353

Other sources

Select a topic

Conferences

Conference paper published in proceedings

Author Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of publication. Proceedings of Title of Conference; date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication. page range.

Horrobin DF, Lampinskas P. The commercial development of food plants used as medicines. In: Prendergast HD, Etkin NL, Harris DR, Houghton PJ, editors. Plants for food and medicine. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Society for Economic Botany and the International Society for Ethnopharmacology; 1996 Jul 1-6; London. Kew (UK): Royal Botanic Gardens; 1998. p. 75-81.

Conference proceedings published online

Author Initials. Title of paper. In: Editor Initials, editor. Title of publication [Internet]. Proceedings of Title of Conference; date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher; [cited day month year]. page range [or estimate]. Available from: URL DOI

Goldschmidt L. Telehealth strategies and information technology transform patient care within the US Department of Veteran Affairs. In: He J, Liu X, Krupinski EA, Xu G, editors. Health Information Science [Internet]. Proceedings of the First International Conference, HIS 2012; 2012 April 8-10; Beijing. Heidelberg: Springer; [cited 2014 Jan 31]. 198 p. Available from: DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-29361-0

Unpublished conference paper

Author Initials. Title of paper. Paper presented at: Title of conference; year month day; Place of conference.

Bernhardt A, Weiss C, Breuer J, Kumpf M, Sieverding L. The clinical relevance of an elevated lactate level after surgery for congenital heart disease. Paper presented at: Myocardial cell damage and myocardial protection. 3rd International Symposium on the Pathophysiology of Cardiopulmonary Bypass; 2000 Dec 16; Aachen, Germany.

DVD, tapes, slides

For hardcopy audiovisual material, such as DVDs, CD-ROMs, audiotapes, videocassettes, slides or films, provide:

  • author
  • title
  • medium in square brackets
  • place of publication and the publisher
  • year of copyright.

Author Initials. Title [medium]. Place of publication: Publisher; year.

Anderson, SC, Poulsen, KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. 2nd version. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2002.

John Sabella & Associates Incorporated. Onboard first aid: immediate actions [DVD]. South Tom's River (NJ): Shipboard Video Express; c2005.

Heizer WD, Semrad CE, Sweeting JG. Clinical nutrition I [slides]. Bethesda (MD): American Gastroenterological Association; c2000.

Figure, table, appendix

When citing a figure, table or appendix from a source, include:

  • a descriptor e.g. Table/Figure/Appendix
  • the number
  • the title
  • the page number, if the source is paginated.

House MG, Choti MA. Palliative therapy for pancreatic/biliary cancer. Surg Clin N Am. 2005 Apr;85(2):359-71. Appendix 1, Principles guiding care at the end of life; p. 389-90.

Where there is no number or title, place the descriptor Table/Figure/Appendix and a descriptive title in square brackets.

Roth S, Semjonow A, Waldner M, Hertle L. Risk of bowel dysfunction with diarrhea after continent urinary diversion with ileal and ileocecal segments. J Urol. 1995 Nov;154(5):1696-9. [Figure, Resection of long ileal or ileocecal segments disturbs enterohepatic bile acid circulation]; p. 1697.

For web sources, place the relevant details after the date of publication, followed by the date cited, the page number and the URL.

Collins SR, Kriss JL, Davis K, Doty MM, Holmgren AL. Squeezed: why rising exposure to health care costs threatens the health and financial well-being of American families [Internet]. New York: Commonwealth Fund; 2006 Sep. Figure ES-1, Individual market is not an affordable option for many people; [cited 2006 Nov 15]; p. viii. Available from: http://www.cmwf.org/usr_doc/Collins_squeezedrisinghltcarecosts_953.pdf

News article

For news articles:

  • all major words are capitalised in news publication titles (but not article titles)
  • the name of newspaper section can be included, if applicable.

For news articles in print, provide:

  • the first page number of the article
  • the column number (col.), if applicable.

Author Initials. Title of article. Title of Newspaper. year month day;Section:first page (column number).

Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post. 2002 Aug 12;Sect. A:2 (col. 4).

For online news articles, include the:

  • medium as [Internet]
  • date last updated, if applicable
  • date cited
  • estimated length of the article in terms of print pages, screens, or paragraphs (if no pagination)
  • URL.

Author Initials. Title of article. Title of Newspaper [Internet]. year month day [cited year month day];Section:first page [or estimate]. Available from: URL

O'Connor T. When your heart lets you down. The Age. [Internet] 2013 Dec 2 [cited 2014 Jan 22];Pulse:40. Available from: http://docs.newsbank.com/s/InfoWeb/aggdocs/AUNB/14A6EB518A6E3E08/104B74501DCB01D3?p_multi=ASAB&s_lang=en-US

Carey B. Psychiatrists revise the book of human troubles. New York Times [Internet]. 2008 Dec 17 [cited 2013 Dec 19];Health:[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/18/health/18psych.html?_r=1&em

Personal communications

Personal communications include letters, emails, private social media posts, personal interviews and telephone conversations. It is always important to get the permission of the person concerned before referring to them in an assignment. No entry in the reference list is required. Provide all relevant information in text. Written permission should always be obtained from the person being cited. Such information can also be included in an acknowledgements section.

In an interview on 8 October 2013, J Robinson, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, confirmed ...

Dr A Smith (email, 8 January 2014) indicated ...

Thesis

Author Initials. Title of thesis [thesis type]. Place: University; year. Available from: URL/database/collection

Cohen E. Patient participation in symptom management in an acute oncology setting [PhD thesis]. Geelong: Deakin University; 2012. Available from: http://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30048429

Deakin guide to AGLC

Note: Different units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use.

Last updated: 31 October 2020

Deakin guide to AGLC (PDF, 517.2KB)


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AGLC explained

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Overview

The Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is a legal citation style used in Australia. It consists of:

  1. A superscript (raised) number in the body of the text that refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page.
  2. Footnotes provide the bibliographic details of a source and are numbered consecutively throughout a paper or chapter.
  3. A bibliography is a full list of sources cited and sources consulted in preparing a paper. The list is divided into sections by source type, and then ordered alphabetically according to the family name of the first-listed author.

This guide is based on the Melbourne University Law Review Association’s Australian Guide to Legal Citation (4th ed, 2018), which has further details on how to reference sources.

Footnotes

All sources must be acknowledged in footnotes. Footnotes should be used whenever ideas are discussed or when sources are summarised, paraphrased or quoted, unless the full source is already provided in text.

The superscript number should be placed at the end of the portion of text to which the corresponding footnote refers. The number should appear after any relevant punctuation, such as a full stop or a comma.

The control order process undermines the fundamental principle that a person's liberty should not be restricted unless there is a judicial finding of criminal guilt.1

_________________________

Nicola McGarrity, 'From Terrorism to Bikies: Control Orders in Australia' (2012) 37(3) Alternative Law Journal 166, 168.

The first time a source is cited, the footnote must provide full bibliographic details. Footnotes for subsequent references to the same source do not repeat all the details but use a shortened form – see the section below on repeat citations for further details.

In footnotes:

  • authors’ names should be exactly as they appear in the source
  • an author's given name should be provided before the family name
  • where there are two or three authors, the names of all the authors are included and the word 'and' separates the names of the last two authors
  • where there are more than three authors, include the family name of the first-listed author only, followed by 'et al'
  • authors’ initials are not spaced and there are no full stops after initials
  • all titles have the first letter of significant words capitalised
  • titles of journals, books, cases and Acts are formatted in italics
  • each footnote ends with a full stop. (Note that this is not the case with bibliography entries).

Aside from referencing, footnotes are also used to provide tangential or extraneous information outside the body of the text. They can be used to back up an argument or to acknowledge a source that has contributed to an argument: See AGLC rule 1.1.5.

Quotation style

Use single quote marks for short quotes of less than three lines. Punctuation marks such as commas and full stops at the end of direct quotes should not be included within quote marks unless they form an important part of that sentence.

Note the broad definition of security arrangements by the Australian Law Reform Commission: 'an interest in property which is held by one person to ensure the performance of an obligation by another'.16

For quotes longer than three lines, do not use quotation marks. Start the quote on a new line, in a smaller font size and indent the quote about 1 cm from the left-hand margin of the page.

Hoffmann J concluded that:

The public interest requires a balancing of the advantages to the economy of facilitating the borrowing of money against the possibility of injustice to unsecured creditors. These arguments for and against the floating of charges are matters for Parliament rather than the courts and have been the subject of public debate in and out of Parliament for more than a century.21

For quotations within quotations, use:

  • double quote marks for short quotes
  • single quote marks within indented long quotes.

Bibliography

Check with your unit chair, lecturer or tutor to determine if you are required to compile a bibliography for your assignment.

In a bibliography, list all the works referred to both in footnotes and in the body of your assignment, as well as all works consulted in writing your assignment.

Sources should be presented under the following sections, where applicable:

A Articles/Books/Reports

B Cases

C Legislation

D Treaties

E Other

Sources under Other might include:

  • government documents, such as parliamentary debates, parliamentary committee reports or Royal Commission reports
  • newspaper articles
  • television or radio transcripts
  • press releases
  • legal encyclopedias
  • loose-leaf (or legal commentary) services
  • internet sources.

Note that details provided in the bibliography are almost identical to details provided in the footnotes, with the following exceptions:

  • List entries alphabetically under each section of the bibliography, disregarding 'A', 'An or 'The'.
  • Do not use a full stop at the end of bibliography entries (unlike footnotes which always end with a full stop).

The formatting of authors' names in bibliographic entries also differs from footnotes:

  • Order works alphabetically according to the family name of the first-listed author.
  • For works by a single author, begin with the author's family name first, followed by a comma and the given name or initials. (Note that in footnotes, the given name or initials appear first, followed by the family name.)
  • For works by two or three authors, begin with the first-listed author's family name, followed by a comma and the given name or initials. Second and third authors' names are provided in the correct order. Separate the last two authors with 'and'.
  • For works by four or more authors, begin with the first-listed author's family name, followed by a comma and the given name or initials, and then 'et al'.

Note:  the only examples of bibliography entries provided are in the following sample bibliography. All other examples in this guide are footnotes.

AGLC sample bibliography

A Articles/Books/Reports

Bell, Justine et al, 'Legal Frameworks for Unique Ecosystems: How can the EPBC Act Offsets Policy Address the Impact of Development on Seagrass?' (2014) 31(1) Environmental and Planning Law Journal 34

Boros, Elizabeth, 'Virtual Shareholder Meetings: Who Decides How Companies Make Decisions' (2004) 28(2) Melbourne University Law Review 265

Cryer, Robert et al, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Rooney, Greg, 'Mediation and the Rise of Relationship Contracting: A Decade of Change for Lawyers' (2002) 76(10) Law Institute Journal 40

Tooher, Joycey, and Bryan Dwyer, Introduction to Property Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2008)

Weerasooria, WS, Bank Lending and Securities in Australia (Butterworths, 1998)

B Cases

Breen v Williams (1995) 186 CLR 71

Hospital Products Ltd v United States Surgical Corporation (1984) 156 CLR 41

Uniting Church in Australia Property Trust (NSW) v Mimer (Ion 145) Pty Ltd (1991) 24 NSWLR 510

Victoria Park Racing and Recreation Grounds Co Ltd v Taylor (1937) 58 CLR 479

C Legislation

Banking Act 1959 (Cth)

Supreme Court Act 1986 (Vic)

D Treaties

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, opened for signature 1 July 1968, 729 UNTS161 (entered into force 5 March 1970)

E Other

The Financial Ombudsman Service, 'Insurance Policy Excesses and Financial Difficulty' (2010) 3 Circular Edition <http://fos.org.au/circular3/Excesses.html>

Internet Patent News Service, Patent Database, Patenting Arts and Entertainment <http://www.patenting-art.com/database/dbase1-e.htm>

'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne, 6 June 2005) 4

Whinnett, Ellen, 'Industry Poll Reverses Greens' Survey Forestry Offensive', The Mercury (Hobart, 25 September 2004) 3

Repeat citations

When a particular source is cited more than once in a paper, the full bibliographic details should only be provided in the first instance.

The terms 'Ibid' and 'n' are used for repeat citations of the same work.

Using 'Ibid'

Use 'Ibid' in a footnote where the immediately preceding footnote refers to the same work. The exception to this rule is if a footnote lists more than one source (in this case use 'n').

If a footnote is to the same work and to the same pinpoint reference, simply use 'Ibid'. The pinpoint reference does not need to be repeated in this instance.

If a footnote is to the same work but to a different pinpoint reference, use 'Ibid' followed by the pinpoint reference.

1 Joycey Tooher and Bryan Dwyer, Introduction to Property Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2008) 38.

2 Ibid.

3 Ibid 52–3.

Using 'n'

Use 'n' to refer to a source that has been cited in a previous footnote other than the immediately preceding footnote. (However, 'n' is required when referring to an immediately preceding footnote that lists more than one source.)

Include 'n' and its number in a round bracket.

Shortened form of case name (n number of first footnote) pinpoint (if different from first citation).

Dallas Buyers Club LLC v iiNet Ltd (2015) 245 FCR 129 (‘Dallas Buyers Club’).

Dallas Buyers Club (n 4) 132 [7].

When multiple works by the same author are being referred to, a shortened form of the title can be used in subsequent footnotes.

Author's Surname, 'Shortened Title' (n number of first footnote) pinpoint (if different from first citation).

48 Kim Rubenstein, 'Meanings of Membership: Mary Gaudron's Contributions to Australian Citizenship' (2004) 15 Public Law Review 305.

...

62 Rubenstein, 'Meanings of Membership' (n 48) 307–11.

Brackets

Volumes of law report series use either square or round brackets around the year.

Square brackets are used where law report series are organised by year.

34  Beattie v Ball [1999] 3 VR 1.

If the law report series is organised by volume number, the year in which the decision was handed down (or often the year in which the case was reported) is provided in round brackets.

91 Hollis v Vabu Pty Ltd (2001) 207 CLR 21.

For further information on the use of brackets in reported decisions, see  AGLC rule 2.2.1.

Note that square brackets are also used for:

  • additions and alterations to quotes in text
  • pinpoint references of paragraphs
  • distinguishing cases where there is more than one hearing of the same matter (see AGLC rule 2.1.13).

Group author

For sources authored by a body (for example a non-government organisation or a government department), place the name of the body in the author position.

If a government department is the author and the jurisdiction is not evident by the name, the abbreviated jurisdiction should be included in parentheses.

See AGLC rule 3.1.3 for a list of abbreviations.

5 Department of Defence (Cth), 'Highest East Timorese Honour for Army Officers' (Media Release, MSPA 172/09, 22 May 2009).

If an individual on behalf of the body is the author, both the individual and the body should be included.

17 Gillian Triggs, Australian Human Rights Commission, Human Rights, Refugees and Asylum Seekers, 2013.

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference within a footnote directs the reader to a particular place in the cited work. For sources such as cases, books or journal articles, a pinpoint reference might refer the reader to a particular chapter, page or paragraph. For legislative materials, pinpoint references can also refer to parts, sections, clauses or divisions. A pinpoint reference can be provided at the end of both footnotes and bibliography entries.

See AGLC Appendix C for a full list of abbreviations used in pinpoint references for legislative materials.

Pages

Pages are indicated by the page number only (do not use 'p.' or 'pp.').

Victoria Park Racing and Recreation Grounds Co Ltd v Taylor (1937) 58 CLR 479.

William Gough, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990) 220, 223.

3 Joycey Tooher and Bryan Dwyer, Introduction to Property Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2008) 91–2.

Paragraphs

Paragraphs are indicated by the paragraph number in square brackets.

4 Cartwright v Cartwright [2007] NTSC 32, [10].

Sections

Sections are indicated by an 's' followed by a space and the section number. A sub-section is indicated by 'sub-s'.

Banking Act 1959 (Cth) s 5.

Chapters

Chapters are indicated by 'ch' followed by a space and the chapter number.

6 James Edelman and Elise Bant, Unjust Enrichment in Australia (Oxford University Press, 2006) ch 4.

Multiple pinpoint references are separated by commas. Consecutive pinpoint references are separated by a dash.

7 Fair Trading (Reinstatement of Regulations) Act 2008 (Tas) ss 4(2)(a)–(b), 5(b).

For further information on pinpoint references see AGLC rules 1.1.61.1.7; 3.1.4

Legal abbreviations

Legal abbreviations provide a short-hand way to cite and identify legal publications and courts.

In the AGLC see the following rules on abbreviations used in citations:

  • Law report abbreviations – 2.2.3 and Appendix A
  • Unique court identifiers (for medium neutral citations) – 2.3.1 and Appendix B
  • Jurisdictions – 3.1.3
  • Abbreviations used in pinpoint references – 3.1.4 and Appendix C.

This Deakin Library guide to legal abbreviations provides a list of the most commonly used abbreviations for law reports, journal titles and medium neutral citations.

Cases

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Reported

For reported cases, include the:

  • Case name: Full name of case in italics.
  • Year: Volumes of law report series are organised either by year or by volume number. For volumes of law report series organised by year, square brackets are used around the year. If the law report series is organised by volume number, the year in which the decision was handed down (or often the year in which the case was reported) is provided in round brackets.
  • Volume number
  • Abbreviation of report series: Report series have abbreviations that are used in citations. For instance, Commonwealth Law Reports will always appear as CLR in a citation.
  • First page of the case
  • Pinpoint: If required, refer to the page or paragraph number.

Case Name (year) or [year] Volume number Abbreviation of report series First page of case, pinpoint.

17 Uniting Church in Australia Property Trust (NSW) v Mimer (Ion 145) Pty Ltd (1991) 24 NSWLR 510.

23 Breen v Williams (1995) 186 CLR 71, 113.

34 Beattie v Ball [1999] 3 VR 1.

Unreported – medium neutral

Medium neutral citation is a citation system that does not depend on the publisher or the medium of the source. This style is allocated by the court.

Cite unreported cases only if no reported version is available.

  • Case name: Full name of case in italics.
  • Year: Place in square brackets.
  • Unique court identifier: See AGLC rule 2.3.1 and Appendix B for a list of unique court identifiers.
  • Judgement number
  • Pinpoint: If required, refer to the paragraph number.

Case name [year] Unique court identifier Judgement number, [pinpoint].

13 Director of Consumer Affairs Victoria v Gibson [2017] FCA 240, [120].

For more information about decisions with medium neutral citations, see AGLC rule 2.3.1.

For information about unreported cases without a medium neutral citation, see AGLC rule 2.3.2.

Legislative materials

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Acts

  • The year of the Act appears in italics following the title.
  • The jurisdiction abbreviation is included in brackets. See AGLC rule 3.1.3 for jurisdiction abbreviations.
  • For more information on abbreviations used in pinpoint references, see AGLC rule 3.1.4.

Title of Act year (Abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint.

3 Transfer of Land Act 1958 (Vic) s 74.

5 Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) sch 2.

38 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005 (Cth) pt 3A div 2.

Citing individual parts of legislative materials
  • A short title may be given for a portion of an Act, piece of delegated legislation or Bill.
  • The short title is provided in brackets at the end of the first citation. This short title is then used in subsequent references.
  • Pinpoints following the short title in subsequent references refer only to items within that portion of the Act.

For further information, see AGLC rule 3.1.7.

12Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth) sch 1 (‘Criminal Code’).

13 Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) sch 2 (‘Australian Consumer Law’).
….

25 Criminal Code (n 12) s 80.2(5).

26 Australian Consumer Law (n 13) s 3.

Bills

  • Bills are cited in similar way to Acts, but the title is not italicised.
  • For information on how to refer to a portion of a Bill, see advice in this guide under ‘Acts’.
  • Pinpoints are often to clauses or subclauses.

For more information on abbreviations used in pinpoint references see AGLC rule 3.1.4.

Title of Bill year (Abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint.

51 Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83.

Explanatory memoranda

Explanatory memoranda are also known as explanatory statements or explanatory notes in different jurisdictions and should be cited appropriately for each jurisdiction.

Pinpoints are usually to pages, or pages and paragraphs.

Explanatory Memorandum/Statements/Notes, Citation of Bill pinpoint.

13 Explanatory Memorandum, Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Bill 2006 (Vic).

Books

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Overview

For book sources:

  • Author names should be provided as they appear in the publication.
  • Author Initials are not spaced and there are no full stops after initials.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each word in titles except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and) and prepositions (by, for, with).
  • Italicise book titles and place chapter titles within single quote marks.
  • Provide the publisher, the edition number (other than the first edition) and the year together in round brackets.
  • Pinpoints are usually to chapters, pages or paragraphs.
  • If an e-book is also available in print, cite as a print book source. If an e-book is not available in print, then cite as you would other internet sources.

Whole book

One to three authors

First Author, Second Author and Third Author, Title of Book (Publisher, edition number, year) pinpoint.

WS Weerasooria, Bank Lending and Securities in Australia (Butterworths, 1998) 230.

31 Edward I Sykes and Sally Walker, The Law of Securities (Lawbook, 5th ed, 1993) 39.

49 ELG Tyler, PW Young and Clyde Croft, Fisher and Lightwood's Law of Mortgage (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2nd Australian ed, 2005).

Four or more authors
  • Provide the name of the first-listed author only, then 'et al'.

First Author et al, Title of Book (publisher, edition number, year) pinpoint.

14 Robert Cryer et al, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (Cambridge University Press, 2007) 87.

Chapter

For a chapter in a book by a single author or group of authors, cite as you would a whole book. There is no need to cite an individual chapter.

For a chapter in an edited book, a book of collected works by different authors:

  • Begin the footnote with the author of the chapter.
  • Also provide the name of the editor(s) of the book.

Author, 'Title of Chapter' in Editor (ed), Title of Book (publisher, edition number, year) first page of chapter, pinpoint.

12 William Gough, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990) 220, 223.

Legal dictionary

Online

Dictionary Title (online at date of retrieval) ‘entry title’ (definition number, if relevant).

3Encyclopaedic Australian Legal Dictionary (online at 22 January 2020) ‘quiet enjoyment’.

Print publication

Dictionary Title (edition number, year) ‘entry title’ (definition number, if relevant).

2LexisNexis Concise Australian Legal Dictionary (5th ed, 2015) ‘repudiation’ (def 2).

Legal encyclopedia

For encyclopedias, provide paragraph pinpoints.

Online
  • Provide the date of retrieval.

Publisher, Title of Encyclopedia (online at Date of retrieval) Title number Name of Title, ‘Chapter number Name of Chapter’ [paragraph].

38 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (online at 1 June 2018) 90 Constitutional Law, '6 Limitations on Legislative Powers' [90-2226].

Print
  • Include date of chapter update, if provided.

Publisher, Title of Encyclopedia, volume number (at Full date) Title number Name of Title, 'Chapter number Name of Chapter' [paragraph].

38 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia, vol 4 (at 11 February 2018) 75 Charities, '1 Charitable Purposes' [75-1].

Journal articles

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Overview

For journal articles:

  • Author names should be provided as they appear in the publication.
  • Initials are not spaced and there are no full stops after initials.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each word in titles except articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and) and prepositions (by, for, with).
  • Italicise journal titles, and place titles of articles within single quote marks.
  • Both the volume and issue number should be included.
  • Issue number is in round brackets immediately after the volume number.
  • Provide the first page of the article.
  • Pinpoint references are usually to pages.
  • If an article is available in both print and online formats, cite the print version. If citing the online version, the date of retrieval is not given.

Article

One to three authors

First Author, Second Author and Third Author, 'Title of Article' (year) volume(issue) Journal Title first page of article, pinpoint.

48 Sharon Rodrick, 'Forgeries, False Attestations and Impostors: Torrens Systems Mortgages and the Fraud Exception to Indefeasibility' (2002) 7(1) Deakin Law Review 97, 106.

62 Penny Carruthers, Kate Galloway and Natalie Skead, 'Teaching Property Law in Australia in the Twenty-First Century: What We Do Now, What Should We Do in the Future?' (2012) 21(1) Australian Property Law Journal 57.

Four or more authors

Cite the first-listed author only, followed by 'et al'.

First Author et al, 'Title of Article' (year) volume(issue) Title of Journal first page of article, pinpoint.

1 Judy Allen et al, 'Privacy Protectionism and Health Information: Is there any Redress for Harms to Health?' (2013) 21(2) Journal of Law and Medicine 473, 474.

Online article

Articles appearing in journals that are only available online should, to the extent possible, be cited the same way as hard copy journal articles.

Note that:

  • A date of retrieval is not required.
  • A URL is not required.

Author, 'Title of Article' (year) volume(issue) Title of Journal first page of article, pinpoint.

4 Kate Lewins, 'What's the Trade Practices Act Got to Do with It? Section 74 and Towage Contracts in Australia' (2006) 13(1) eLaw Journal: Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law 58, 59.

Where it not possible to include a volume number, issue number or starting page, another identifier (such as an article number) may be used.

If the article is only online and in PDF or similar format, include the page range of the article after any article number/identifier.

Author, 'Title of Article' (year) volume(issue) Title of Journal Article number/identifier: page range of article, pinpoint.

22 Azzurra Annunziata et al, ‘European Consumers Interest Toward Nutritional Information on Wine Labelling: A Cross-Country Analysis’ (2015) 5 BIO Web of Conferences 04003: 1-5, 4.

Government documents

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Law reform commission report

  • The type of publication (‘Report’, ‘Issues Paper’ etc.) should be included, where appropriate, as the document type.
  • Where reports contain multiple volumes, include the volume number in the pinpoint reference.
  • Pinpoint references should be to page numbers where available. Paragraph numbers may be referred to in addition to page numbers or where page numbers are not available.

Name of Law Reform Commission, Title (document type and number, month year) pinpoint.

12 Victorian Law Reform Commission, Civil Justice Review (Report No 14, March 2008).

41 Australian Law Reform Commission, For Your Information: Australian Privacy Law and Practice (Report No 108, May 2008) vol 1, 339.

Parliamentary commission report

  • Where a committee is from one chamber and this is not evident, then the name of the chamber is added before the committee name, as in the addition of 'Senate' in the example below.
  • Pinpoint references should be to page numbers where available.
  • Paragraph numbers may be referred to in addition to page numbers or where page numbers are not available.

Committee, Legislature, Title (year) pinpoint.

11 Law Reform Committee, Parliament of Victoria, Inquiry into Alternative Dispute Resolution and Restorative Justice (2009) 26.

39 Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Parliament of Australia, Administration and Operation of the Migration Act 1958 (2006) 280–1 [9.30]–[9.38].

Parliamentary debate

For parliamentary debates (or 'Hansard'), speakers' titles such as 'Senator' need not be included; however, if the position of the speaker within the ministry or shadow ministry is relevant, it may be included.

Jurisdiction, Parliamentary Debates, Chamber, day month year of debate, pinpoint (Name of Speaker).

2 Commonwealth, Parliamentary Debates, Senate, 18 June 2008, 2642–4 (Bob Brown).

78 Victoria, Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Assembly, 4 May 2006, 1289–95 (Rob Hulls, Attorney-General).

Royal commission report

  • No jurisdiction is included in the citation.
  • Where reports contain multiple volumes, include the volume number in the pinpoint reference.
  • Pinpoint references should be to page numbers where available. Paragraph numbers may be referred to in addition to page numbers or where page numbers are not available.

Name of Royal Commission (document type, month year) pinpoint.

12 Royal Commission into Trade Union Governance and Corruption (Final Report, December 2015) vol 2.

Other sources

Select a topic

Internet

  • A source should be cited as an internet source only if it does not exist in print form.
  • An author should only be cited if indicated on the webpage being cited, such as on a blog post. Where the author and web page are identical, the author should not be included.
  • Include the document type: ‘Blog Post’, ‘Forum Post’ etc. Where the type is not clear, use ‘Web Page’.
  • Where available, the full date of the last update of the webpage should be included. Where the full date is not provided, include as much of the full date as available.
  • The date of retrieval is not included in the citation.
  • Where the full URL is very long, and as long as the document can be easily located, you may provide the URL of the home page

Author, 'Document Title', Web Page Title (Document Type, day month year, if provided) pinpoint <URL>.

1 ‘James Edelman’, High Court of Australia (Web Page) <http://www.hcourt.gov.au/justices/current/justice-james-edelman>.

2 Owen Hayford, ‘Back to the Past for Dodgy Construction Payment Adjudications: Probuild and Maxcon’, Opinions on High (Blog Post, 23 February 2018) <https://blogs.unimelb.edu.au/opinionsonhigh/2018/02/23hayford-probuild-and-maxcon/>.

Media release

  • The author and body releasing the document should be identified. Where the author is the same as the body, the body should be omitted.
  • Release type should be as on the document (e.g. Media Release, Press Statement). If there is no release type on the document, use ‘Media Release’.
  • Only include a document number if it appears on the release. It may be abbreviated, but without full stops.

Author (jurisdiction), 'Title' (Document type and Number, Body, day month year) pinpoint.

5 Department of Defence (Cth), 'Highest East Timorese Honour for Army Officers' (Media Release, MSPA 172/09, 22 May 2009).

6 Australian Securities and Investments Commission, ‘ASIC Releases Consultation Paper on Reform of Fees and Costs Disclosure for Superannuation and Managed Investment Schemes’ (Media Release 19-002MR, 8 January 2019).

A URL may be included where it assists with retrieval.

Author (Jurisdiction), 'Title' (Media Release, Document Number if provided, day month year) pinpoint <URL>.

12 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, 'ACCC Accepts a Variation to the Digital Radio Access Undertakings' (Media Release, 19 December 2013) <http://www.accc.gov.au/media-release/accc-accepts-a-variation-to-the-digital-radio-access-undertakings>.

News article

Author, 'Title of Article', Newspaper (Place of Publication, day month year) pinpoint.

8 Jamie Walker and Rachel Baxendale, 'Outlaw Bikies Face Nationwide Curbs', The Australian (Sydney, 31 October 2013) 5.

  • If an article appears in a named section of a newspaper and the section is independently paginated, the name of the section should be included in italics before the title of the newspaper.
  • Where there is no listed author, begin with the title of the article.

10 'Little Corporate Appeal in Green Bottom Line', Business, The Age (Melbourne, 6 June 2005) 4.

Articles accessed online
  • Electronic newspaper articles should only be cited where an identical print edition of the newspaper or the article cited does not exist.
  • A date of retrieval is not required.


Author, 'Title of Article', Newspaper (online, day month year) pinpoint <URL>.

56 Farrah Tomazin, 'Kinder Wages Breakthrough', The Age (online, 19 May 2009) <http://www.theage.com/au/national/education/kinder-wages-breakthough-20090519.bcwh.html>.

TV and other media

Television, radio and podcasts
  • The full date should be included based on the time zone from which the podcast or radio segment originates. See AGLC rule 7.14.4.
  • A URL may be added to aid retrieval.
  • Pinpoint may be used, specifying the hour/minute/second of the episode.

‘Episode title’, Series or podcast title (version details, Studio/Production company/Producer day month year) pinpoint

33 'States Legislators Vying to Pass Same-Sex Marriage Laws', The Law Report (ABC Radio National, 29 October 2013) 00:06:20.

108 ‘Dan Dresner on “The Ideas Industry”’, The Lawfare Podcast (Lawfare Institute, 17 June 2017).

Social media posts
  • For Twitter accounts, ‘@’ should be included in the username.
  • Where the social media post does not have a title, it should be omitted.

Username, ‘Title’ (social media platform, day month year, time) <URL>.

16 @s_m_stephenson (Scott Stephenson) (Twitter, 17 July 2017, 9:37pm AEST) <https://twitter.com/s_m_stephenson/status/887169425551441921> archived at <https://perma.cc/7A63-G2RT">.

Deakin guide to Oxford

Different units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Always check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use.

Note: There are a number of interpretations of the Oxford style referencing used by different publishers and universities. Check with your teacher, supervisor or publisher whether you are required to follow a variant of Oxford that differs from the advice presented in this guide.

Last updated: 13 October 2020

Deakin guide to Oxford (PDF, 493.7KB)


Select a topic

Oxford explained

Select a topic

Overview

The Oxford style of referencing consists of:

  1. A superscript (raised) number in the body of the text that refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page.
  2. Footnotes provide the bibliographic details of a source and are numbered consecutively throughout a paper or chapter.
    Endnotes are an alternative to footnotes. They appear at the end of a paper or chapter.
  3. A bibliography is a full list of sources cited, sources consulted in preparing a paper, and other sources thought to be of interest to the reader. The list is ordered alphabetically according to the family name of the first author.
Recent changes to the Deakin guide to Oxford

In October 2020, a number of updates were made to this guide, including:

  • All main words in all titles begin with a capital letter.
  • “op.cit” and “ibid” are no longer used for repeat citations.
  • The year of publication, place and publisher name are placed in brackets.
  • “p.” and “pp.” are no longer used for page numbers.
  • In most cases, there is no need to include a URL for e-books nor for journal articles.
  • Where possible, a DOI should be provided for journal articles:
    e.g. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800
  • No need to include the name of Library database where an article has been sourced, nor a database URL.

Students can access the previous version of the Deakin guide to Oxford until early 2021:

Archive of previous Deakin guide to Oxford (PDF, 443.0KB)

This guide is based on the New Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: OUP, 2016).

First citations

Sources need to be cited wherever ideas from those sources are discussed, summarised, paraphrased or quoted.


Footnotes

The first time a source is cited in a paper or chapter, the footnote should provide the full bibliographic details of the source, including the author, title, year of publication and other publication details.

  • For quotes and paraphrases, provide a page number or alternative marker (e.g. section, paragraph), where possible, in the footnote.
  • For summaries or general references to works, you do not have to provide a page number, but you may wish to provide one in order to direct the reader to a specific passage in the text.

In all footnotes, regardless of the source type:

  • Two or three authors
    – use an ampersand ‘&’ between the last two authors.
  • More than three authors
    – include the family name of the first-listed author only, followed by ‘et al.’
  • All titles
    – all main words begin with a capital letter.
  • Titles of publications
    – e.g. books, journals and websites – are formatted in italics
  • Titles of works within publication
    – e.g. articles, chapters, web pages – are placed within single quote marks

Here is an example of a first citation from a book:

Kostof notes, 'Ggantija is a wholly manmade form, which is to say it is thought out and reproduceable'.1


1. S. Kostof, A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (2nd edn, New York: OUP, 1995), 35.

Here is an example of a first citation from a journal article:

…while others provide ethical guidance in the relationship between researchers and participants.23


23. L. Allemann S. Dudeck, ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Arctic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 899, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800


Bibliography

Sources cited in footnotes require corresponding entries in the bibliography:

Allemann, L. Dudeck, S., ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Arctic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 890–906, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800

Kostof, S., A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (2nd edn, New York: OUP, 1995).


How do bibliography entries differ from footnotes?

In a bibliography:

  • The entry begins with the family name of the first author
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the family names of authors.
  • A hanging indent style of paragraph is used.
  • Specific page numbers or sections of text cited is not given.
  • The full page range of book chapters and journal articles is included.

Subsequent citations


Footnotes

When sources are referred to more than once in a paper or chapter, full bibliographic details do not need to be given after the initial footnote.

For subsequent citations of the same work, provide the:

  • family name only
  • shortened (but accurate) title of the article, book or other source
  • relevant page numbers specific to each citation.

5. S. Kostof, A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (2nd edn, New York: OUP, 1995), 35.

6. Kostof, A History of Architecture, 41–45.

7. H. Gardner, Gardner's Art through the Ages (6th edn, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975), 31.

8. Kostof, A History of Architecture, 38.

Where you need to cite the same source multiple times in a single paragraph, cite using only a single footnote. However, if it cannot be made clear which text in your work is being cited, then you may need to use multiple footnotes to the same source in a single paragraph.


Bibliography

Each source cited requires a corresponding entry in the bibliography:

Gardner, H., Gardner's Art through the Ages (6th edn, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975).

Kostof, S., A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (2nd edn, New York: OUP, 1995).

Bibliography

A bibliography is an alphabetically ordered list at the end of paper or chapter that includes:

  • all the sources cited in the paper
  • other sources consulted in preparing the paper
  • other sources that might be of interest to the reader.

Sample Bibliography

Allemann, L. & Dudeck, S., ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Artic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 890–906, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800

Arakawa, Y., Zen Painting, tr. J. Bester (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1970).

Arnau, E. et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), 15–17, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081

Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘Industrial Disputes, Australia, June 2013’, cat. no. 6321.0.55.001, (5 Sep 2013), https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/6321.0.55.001Main+Features1Jun%202013, accessed Mar 2020.

Crafti, S., 'Winning Design Moored in Spain', The Age, Business Day (25 Aug. 2010), 16.

Gardner, H., Gardner's Art through the Ages (6th edn, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975).

Goldthwaite, R.A., 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 977–1012, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

Gombrich, E.H., 'The Early Medicis as Patrons of Art', in E.F. Jacob, ed., Italian Renaissance Studies (London: Faber & Faber, 1960), 279–311.

Martin, S.K., ‘Tracking Reading in Nineteenth-Century Melbourne Diaries’, Australian Humanities Review, 56 (May 2014), http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org, accessed 23 June 2020.

Porter, R., ‘Lion of the Laboratory’, review of G.L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton, 1995), in TLS (16 June 1995), 3–4.

Rutten, E., Fedor J., & Zvereva, V., eds., Memory, Conflict and New Media: Web Wars in Post-Socialist States (Milton Park: Routledge, 2013).

Specter, M., ‘The Dangerous Philosopher’, The Graduate Forum NYU (2 Apr. 2001), http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf, accessed 3 Feb. 2020.


How do entries in the bibliography differ from footnotes?

In a bibliography:

  • The entry begins with the family name of the first author
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the family names of authors.
  • A hanging indent style of paragraph is used.
  • Specific page numbers or sections of text cited is not given.
  • The full page range of book chapters and journal articles is included.

Otherwise, the same rules apply to both footnotes and the bibliography:

  • Two or three authors – use an ampersand ‘&’ between the last two authors.
  • More than three authors – include the family name of the first-listed author only, followed by ‘et al.’
  • All titles – all main words begin with a capital letter.
  • Titles of publications – e.g. books, journals and websites – are formatted in italics
  • Titles of works within publication – e.g. articles, chapters, web pages – are placed within single quote marks.

Note: There is no need to divide a bibliography into subsections unless you have been instructed to do so (e.g. into sections for primary and secondary sources).

Number of authors

Footnotes
  • Authors’ names should be in the order they appear in the publication
  • An author can be an organisation.

One author

21. R.A. Goldthwaite, 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 978, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

Two to three authors

  • Separate the final two authors with an ampersand ‘&’.

23. L. Allemann & S. Dudeck, ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Arctic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 899, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800

Four or more authors

  • Include only the family name of the first-listed author, followed by ‘et al.’ (meaning 'and others').

36. E. Arnau et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), 16, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081


Bibliography

Allemann, L. & Dudeck, S., ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Arctic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 890–906, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800

Arnau, E. et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), 15–17, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081

Goldthwaite, R.A., 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 977–1012, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

Group author

Sometimes the author is an organisation, government agency, association or corporate body.

  • Cite the full name of the organisation.
  • If the publisher is identical to the author, there is no need to repeat the publisher’s name.

Footnotes

1. Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Proposed Common Use Infrastructure on Christmas Island (Canberra: Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 2002), 52.

2. Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995), 41.


Bibliography

The entry is listed alphabetically under the name of the organisation (excluding ‘The’).

Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995).

Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Proposed Common Use Infrastructure on Christmas Island (Canberra: Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 2002).

No author

  • For works that do not provide the name of an author, the citation should begin with the title of the work.

For example, here is an online encyclopaedia entry with no author:


Footnotes

5. ‘Gunpowder Plot’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249505/Gunpowder-Plot, accessed 5 Aug. 2020.


Bibliography

‘Gunpowder Plot’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249505/Gunpowder-Plot, accessed 5 Aug. 2020.

No date

  • If a source has no publication date, use the latest copyright date.
  • If no date can be found, use ‘n.d.’ in place of a date.
  • If there is no date because the source is a forthcoming journal article, see the topic in this guide: In-press.

Footnotes

23. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. and World Population Clock (U.S. Department of Commerce, n.d.), https://www.census.gov/popclock, accessed 9 Aug. 2020.


Bibliography

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. and World Population Clock (U.S. Department of Commerce, n.d.), https://www.census.gov/popclock, accessed 9 Aug. 2020.

No page numbers

If your source has no page numbers (for example, some e-books and online articles are not paginated) then cite another locator within the source, such as a chapter, sub-heading or paragraph number.

For example, here is a citation of an online journal article with no page numbers where a sub-heading has been used as a locator.


Footnotes

Author, ‘Title of Article’, Title of Journal, issue/volume (Month Year), Title of Sub-heading, DOI

8. E. Arnau et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), The EC Thesis and Cognitive Approaches, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081


Bibliography

Author, A., ‘Title of Article’, Title of Journal, issue/volume (Month Year), DOI

Arnau, E. et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081

Source within a source

Footnote

When citing an author (who you have not read) who has been cited by another author (who you have read):

  • provide the full bibliographic details of both works in the footnote.
  • use the phrase ‘cited in
  • include the page number of the work that you have read.

In the example below, the student has read a book by Brown, in which is cited a book by Smith, but the student has not read Smith.

10. A. Smith, Italian Architecture (Melbourne: Penguin, 2000) cited in D. Brown, Renaissance Italy (London: Faber & Faber, 2002), 45.


Bibliography
  • Provide only the details of the source you have read.

Brown, D., Renaissance Italy (London: Faber & Faber, 2002).

Quotation style

Before quoting your source, first consider whether it would be more appropriate to paraphrase your source. We recommend using quotes sparingly.

Whether you are summarising, paraphrasing or quoting sources, include a citation.

In addition, quotes and paraphrases should always be accompanied by your commentary and analysis – and clearly support your response to the assessment task.

Use single quotation marks for short quotes.

Kostof notes that ‘Ggantija is a wholly manmade form, which is to say it is thought out and reproduceable’.1 This can be interpreted as …

For longer quotes:

  • do not use quotation marks
  • start the quote on a new line
  • indent the quote on the both the left and the right
  • use a font one size smaller.

Morley-Warner suggests that students should focus on how journal articles in their subject are written and structured. She describes another benefit of this process:

You will also gain a sense of the complexity of being an apprentice writer in an academic culture, or rather cultures, where expectations may vary from discipline to discipline, even subject to subject and where you can build a repertoire of critical thinking and writing skills that enable you to enter the academic debates, even to challenge.24

However, Morely-Warner fails to address how students might…

Books

Select a topic

Overview

  • In most cases, e-books are cited the same way as print books. There usually is no need to include a URL, database name or date of access. Learn more in the topic: e-books.
  • Include the following elements for book sources, where available and relevant.

Footnotes

Author

Authors’ names should be in the order they appear in the publication

A. Author & B. Author, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page.

1. S. Piggin & R.D. Linder, The Fountain of Public Prosperity: Evangelical Christians in Australian History 1740–1914 (Melbourne: Monash University Press, 2018), 31.

An author can be an organisation. If this organisation is also the publisher, do not include twice in the footnote.

Organisation, Title of Book (Place, year), page number.

3. Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995), 36–8.


Place of publication, publisher and year

After the title, the place of publication, publisher and year is placed in brackets

A. Author, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page number.

5. J. Pilger, Distant Voices (London: Vintage, 1994), 523.

If the publisher is also the author, or the publisher’s name is in the book title, there is no need to include twice.

2. M. Dibdin, ed., The Picador Book of Crime Writing (London, 1993), 85–6.


Edition

  • Include the edition number of a book before the place of publication and inside the brackets.
  • This is not necessary for a first edition.

A. Author, Title of Book (edition, Place: Publisher, year), page number.

9. H. Gardner, Gardner's Art through the Ages (6th edn, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975), 126–8.


Volumes

  • Use roman numerals for volume numbers (e.g. i, ii, iii, iv).
  • Include the volume title if there is one.

A. Author, Title of Book, number of volume: Title of Volume (Publisher, year), page number.

10. J. Hocking, Gough Whitlam, i: A Moment in History (Melbourne: MUP, 2008), 201.


Translators, revisers and editors

  • Other contributors to the publication are placed after the title.
  • Use tr., rev., ed. and eds. before the name of the translator, reviser, editor or editors.

A. Author, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book, tr. A. Translator (Place: Publisher, year), page number.

4. E. Galeano, Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, tr. C. Belfrage (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973), 38.


Bibliography

Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995).

Dibdin, M., ed., The Picador Book of Crime Writing (London, 1993).

Galeano, E., Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, tr. C. Belfrage (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973).

Hocking, J., Gough Whitlam, i: A Moment in History (Melbourne University Publishing, 2008).

Piggin, S. & Linder, R.D., The Fountain of Public Prosperity: Evangelical Christians in Australian History 1740 – 1914 (Melbourne: Monash University Press, 2018).

e-book

Footnotes

In most cases, e-books citations:

  • are the same as forprint books (with the addition of a DOI, if available)
  • do not require a URL, database name, or date of access.

For example, here is a footnote that refers to an e-book accessed via a Deakin database. Note how this citation has the same elements as citation for a print book.

3. G.L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton University Press, 1995), 85.

e-reader editions

However, for special e-reader editions that have differing page numbers, it may sometimes be useful to provide further information about the edition.

For e-books editions that do not have page numbers, you may cite a chapter or section in the footnote.

Author, Title of Book, rev. A Reviser, tr. A. Translator (e-book edition, Publisher, year), ‘Title of Chapter’.

28. Herodotus, The Histories, rev. J. Marincola, tr. A. Selincourt (Kindle edn, Penguin, 2002), ‘Book Seven’.

Author, Title of Book (e-book edition, Publisher, year), chapter, section, paragraph.

29. M. Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success (Kindle edn, New York: Little, Brown & Company, 2008), ch. 1, section 2, para. 5.

Digitised books

For digitised print books, you may want include further information to direct your reader to the source, such as the: URL and the date you accessed the website.

18. J. Maritain, An Introduction to Philosophy, tr. E.I. Watkin (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1937),170, https://archive.org/details/introductiontoph0000mari, accessed 20 June 2020.

19. L. Carroll, Alice in Wonderland (Project Gutenberg, 2008) http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11, accessed 13 Feb. 2020.


Bibliography

Carroll, L., Alice in Wonderland (Project Gutenberg, 2008), http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11, accessed 13 Feb. 2020.

Geison, G.L., The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton University Press, 1995).

Gladwell, M., Outliers: The Story of Success (Kindle edn, New York: Little, Brown & Company, 2008).

Herodotus, The Histories, rev. J. Marincola, tr. A. Selincourt, (Kindle edn, Penguin, 2002).

Maritain, J., An Introduction to Philosophy, tr. E.I. Watkin (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1937), https://archive.org/details/introductiontoph0000mari, accessed 20 June 2020.

Chapter

If citing a chapter in a book by a single author or single set of authors, there is no need to cite a specific chapter. Cite the whole book. See the Oxford Book topics: Overview and e-books.

However, if the chapter is from an edited collection, a book of collected works by different authors, then also include the:

  • author of the chapter
  • title of the chapter
  • editor of the book.


Footnotes

A. Author, 'Title of Chapter', in A. Editor, ed., Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page.

9. E.H. Gombrich, 'The Early Medicis as Patrons of Art', in E.F. Jacob, ed., Italian Renaissance Studies (London: Faber and Faber, 1960), 280.


Bibliography

Include the page range of the chapter.

Author, A., 'Title of Chapter', in A. Editor, ed., Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page range.

Gombrich, E.H., 'The Early Medicis as Patrons of Art', in E.F. Jacob, ed., Italian Renaissance Studies (London: Faber and Faber, 1960), 279–311.

Journal articles

Select a topic

Overview

For academic journal articles:

  • Include the volume number and issue number.
  • Some journals use the month in addition to, or instead of, a volume and issue number.
  • Some online journals use an article number instead of a volume and issue number.
  • Most journal articles sourced online or from a Library database are cited the same way as print articles – in most cases you do not need to include a URL nor a date accessed.
  • Include a DOI if the article has one.
  • Note that news articles are cited differently to journal articles. See Other sources.

Footnotes

A. Author, 'Title of Article', Title of Journal, volume/issue (year), page. DOI

13. R.A. Goldthwaite, 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 999, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

14. A. Haebich, ‘Neoliberalism, Settler Colonialism and the History of Indigenous Child Removal in Australia’, Australian Indigenous Law Review, 19/1 (2015), 26–7.

Online article – no DOI and no page numbers

  • If an online article is available on a web page only and there is no DOI, provide the URL and date accessed.
  • If an online article has no page numbers, provide paragraph references.

A. Author, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume/issue (Month year), paragraph, URL, accessed date.

16. S.K. Martin, ‘Tracking Reading in Nineteenth-Century Melbourne Diaries’, Australian Humanities Review, 56 (May 2014), para. 6, http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org, accessed 23 June 2020.


Bibliography

Provide the page range of the article.

Goldthwaite, R.A., 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 997–1012, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

Haebich, A., ‘Neoliberalism, Settler Colonialism and the History of Indigenous Child Removal in Australia’, Australian Indigenous Law Review ,19/1 (2015), 20–31.

Martin, S.K., ‘Tracking Reading in Nineteenth-Century Melbourne Diaries’, Australian Humanities Review, 56 (May 2014), http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org, accessed 23 June 2020.

In press

  • Use the term “in press” to refer to a peer-reviewed article accepted for publication in a future issue of a journal.
  • Use the term “advance online publication” to refer to a peer-reviewed article that has not yet gone to print.
  • If a DOI not yet is available, provide the URL of the journal home page.
  • If the issue, volume or page number is not confirmed, do not guess. Simply leave out this information.

Footnote

A. Author & B. Author, 'Title of Article', Title of Journal, in press, (year).

2. E. K. Russell,  & B. Carlton, ‘Counter–Carceral Acoustemologies: Sound, Permeability and Feminist Protest at the Prison Boundary’, Theoretical Criminology, in press, (2018).


Bibliography

Russell, E. K. & Carlton, B., ‘Counter–Carceral Acoustemologies: Sound, Permeability and Feminist Protest at the Prison Boundary’, Theoretical Criminology, in press, (2018).

Review

  • Include the title of the review only if it has a title different from the name of the book being reviewed.
  • In addition to details of the review and the journal, include the publication details of the book being reviewed.

Footnote

A. Reviewer, review of B. Author, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), in Title of Journal, issue/volume (year), page.

13. F. Ames-Lewis, review of R. Lightbrown, Mantegna (Oxford: Phaidon, 1986), in Renaissance Studies, 1 (1987), 276.

14. R. Porter, ‘Lion of the Laboratory’, review of G.L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton University Press, 1995), in TLS (16 June 1995), 3.


Bibliography

Include the page range of the review.

Ames-Lewis, F., review of R. Lightbrown, Mantegna (Oxford: Phaidon, 1986), in Renaissance Studies, 1 (1987), 273–9.

Porter, R., ‘Lion of the Laboratory’, review of G.L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton, 1995), in TLS (16 June 1995), 3–4.

Web and video

Select a topic

Overview

There are endless sources of information to be found on the internet, but not all of it is appropriate to contribute to your academic writing.

  1. What is the purpose of your writing task? Which sources will support your response to the task?
  2. Use your set unit readings as a starting point. Look at the citations in those readings.
  3. Then use the Deakin Library databases and Resource Guides to find further sources.
  4. Always ask yourself: Is this a credible and reliable source of information?
  5. Seek advice from teaching staff in your unit.
  6. You can also get help from the Deakin Library and Study Support.

Do I always need to include a URL and date of access?

In the Oxford style of referencing, online sources that can be updated by the publisher require the full URL and the date you accessed, for example:

  • Websites
  • Documents published online
  • Online news reports
  • Blog posts
  • Online videos e.g. YouTube
  • Podcasts.

However, note that most e-books and online journal articles, including those sourced from Library databases, are mostly cited the same way as print books and articles. In general, these sources do not require the name of the database, nor a URL, nor a date of access.

Likewise, citations of Films or TV episodes accessed via a digital streaming platform do not require the name of the platform e.g. Netflix, nor a URL.


Ask yourself: Is this source available to the general public?

Sources that are not available to the general public, such as private social media posts, wikis and email messages, should be treated as Personal communications. If you are not sure whether it is appropriate to cite social media or personal communications in your assessment, seek clarification from your teachers in your unit.

Web page

When citing a web page:

  • do not cite an entire website in general – always cite a specific webpage and include the full URL
  • provide all available details of the date of publication or last date updated e.g. Day Month Year
  • include the date that you accessed the source
  • if there are no page numbers, and the text is very long, provide the paragraph number or section.

Footnotes

Author, ‘Title of Web Page’, Title of Website (Day Month year), section number and title, URL, accessed date.

8. Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘The Suspension and Reinstatement of the RDA and Special Measures in the NTER’, Australian Human Rights Commission (12 Dec. 2011), 4. The 2010 Welfare Reform Act, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/suspension-and-reinstatement-rda-and-special-measures-nter-0, accessed 17 Mar. 2020.

Citing multiple sections from a single web page

In the first footnote, provide the full publication details.

In subsequent footnotes, provide only the:

  • author
  • web page title
  • section number/title or paragraph number.

8. Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘The Suspension and Reinstatement of the RDA and Special Measures in the NTER’, Australian Human Rights Commission (12 Dec. 2011), 4. The 2010 Welfare Reform Act, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/suspension-and-reinstatement-rda-and-special-measures-nter-0, accessed 17 Mar. 2020.

9. Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘The Suspension and Reinstatement of the RDA and Special Measures in the NTER’, 2. The Proposed Change in the 2009 Welfare Reform Bill.


Bibliography

Author, ‘Title of Web Page’, Title of Website (Day Month year), URL, accessed date.

Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘The Suspension and Reinstatement of the RDA and Special Measures in the NTER’, Australian Human Rights Commission (12 Dec. 2011), https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/suspension-and-reinstatement-rda-and-special-measures-nter-0, accessed 17 Mar. 2020.

Web document

When citing a document (e.g. a PDF) from a website:

  • if the author is the same as the website title, include the author name only
  • provide all available details of the date of publication (e.g. Day Month Year) and place of publication, if available
  • include the full URL of the document – if this not accessible, provide the URL where the document is hosted
  • include the date you accessed the source.

Footnotes

if there are no page numbers, and the text is very long, provide the paragraph number or section.

A. Author, ‘Title of Document’, Title of Website (Place, Day Month Year), page/paragraph, URL, accessed date.

10. M. Specter, ‘The Dangerous Philosopher’, The Graduate Forum NYU (2 Apr. 2001), para. 12, http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf, accessed 3 Feb. 2020.

12. Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO), ‘Respect Women: Preventing Violence Against Women’, World Health Organization, (Geneva, 2019), 14–15, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/312261/WHO-RHR-18.19-eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed 16 June 2020.


Bibliography

Author, A., ‘Title of Document’, Title of Website (Place, Day Month Year), URL, accessed date.

Specter, M., ‘The Dangerous Philosopher’, The Graduate Forum NYU (2 Apr. 2001), http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf, accessed 3 Feb. 2020.

Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO), ‘Respect Women: Preventing Violence Against Women’, World Health Organization, (Geneva, 2019), https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/312261/WHO-RHR-18.19-eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed 16 June 2020.

Blog post

  • Note that an author of a blog post is sometimes different to the author/publisher of a blog.
  • If the blog has no named author, begin with the title.
  • Include the medium as [blog post], unless obvious from the title of the blog.

Footnotes

If the post is lengthy, you may provide details about the paragraph or section heading.

A. Author, ‘Title of Post’, Title of Blog [blog post] (Day Month Year), paragraph, URL, accessed date.

16. C. Raddato, ‘The Acts of the Arval Brethren of AD 120 (#Hadrian1900)’, Following Hadrian [blog post] (16 Jan. 2020), para. 8, https://followinghadrian.com/2020/01/16/the-acts-of-the-arval-brethren-of-ad-120-hadrian1900/, accessed 3 May 2020.

17. S. Morris, ‘Hilary Mantel and Shakespeare: Fiction Versus Fact’, The Shakespeare Blog (4 July 2017), http://theshakespeareblog.com/2017/07/hilary-mantel-and-shakespeare-fiction-versus-fact/, accessed 29 May 2020.


Bibliography

Author, A. ‘Title of Post’, Title of Blog [blog post] (Day Month Year), URL, accessed date.

Morris, S., ‘Hilary Mantel and Shakespeare: Fiction Versus Fact’, The Shakespeare Blog (4 July 2017), http://theshakespeareblog.com/2017/07/hilary-mantel-and-shakespeare-fiction-versus-fact/, accessed 29 May 2020.

Raddato, C., ‘The Acts of the Arval Brethren of AD 120’, Following Hadrian [blog post], (16 Jan. 2020), https://followinghadrian.com/2020/01/16/the-acts-of-the-arval-brethren-of-ad-120-hadrian1900/, accessed 3 May 2020.

Social media

Before citing a social media source, ask yourself:

  • Is this a credible and reliable source of information?
  • Is it acceptable to cite social media for an assessment in this unit?
  • Is the social media account/post public or private? Posts from private social media accounts should be treated as Personal communications. All the following examples are public social media posts.

Provide the:

  • author name (which may be a username)
  • text from the beginning of the post
  • full date of the post
  • full URL and the date accessed.

Footnotes

A. Author/username, ‘First part of post/comment/update…’ [Social media post] (Day Month Year), URL, accessed date.

13. J. Goodall, ‘What I’m doing now is my job, trying to wake people up…’ [Facebook post] (23 Apr. 2020), https://www.facebook.com/janegoodall/, accessed 29 Apr. 2020.

17. R. Dawkins, ‘Fairy tales, as well as charming, can be good training in critical thinking…’ [Twitter post] (4 June 2014), https://twitter.com/richarddawkins/status/474420845428109312, accessed 9 June 2019.


Bibliography

Dawkins, R., ‘Fairy tales, as well as charming, can be good training in critical thinking…’ [Twitter post] (4 June 2014), https://twitter.com/richarddawkins/status/474420845428109312, accessed 9 June 2019.

Goodall, J. ‘What I’m doing now is my job, trying to wake people up…’ [Facebook post] (23 Apr. 2020), https://www.facebook.com/janegoodall/, accessed 29 Apr. 2020.

Podcast

Depending on who you are citing, you can begin the citation of a podcast with the:

  • main interviewee
  • presenter or producer
  • or the title of the episode if there is no named speaker/producer.

Include the medium in square brackets [podcast], if this is not obvious from the title of the podcast series.

Note: you can use elements of this format if you need to cite broadcast radio.


Footnotes

A. Interviewee, interview with A. Presenter, ‘Title of Episode’ [podcast], Title of Show (Day Month Year), Publisher/Broadcaster, URL, accessed date.

16. M. Kingwell, interview with J. Gelonesi, ‘The Hipster Philosopher’ [podcast], The Philosophers’ Zone (5 Jan. 2014), ABC Radio National, https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/philosopherszone/the-hipster-philosopher/5017288 accessed 9 June 2020.

‘Title of Episode’ [podcast], Title of Show (Day Month Year), Publisher/Broadcaster, URL, accessed date.

18. ‘The Last Sound’ [podcast], Invisibilia (3 Apr. 2020), NPR, https://www.npr.org/2020/03/25/821648089/the-last-sound, accessed 6 May 2020.


Bibliography

Kingwell, M., interview with J. Gelonesi, ‘The Hipster Philosopher’ [podcast], The Philosophers’ Zone (5 Jan. 2014), ABC Radio National, https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/philosopherszone/the-hipster-philosopher/5017288 accessed 9 June 2020.

‘The Last Sound’ [podcast], Invisibilia (3 Apr. 2020), NPR, https://www.npr.org/2020/03/25/821648089/the-last-sound, accessed 6 May 2020.

Online video

Depending on who you are citing, you can begin the citation of a video with the:

  • interviewee/speaker/presenter
  • producer/director (which in some cases may be the user who uploaded the video)
  • or the title of the video if there is no named speaker, producer or director.

Include the medium in square brackets [video].


Footnotes

Video on social media platform (e.g. YouTube)

The date of publication refers to the date uploaded.

A. Interviewee, ‘Title of Video’ [video], Social Media Platform (Day Month Year), URL, date accessed.

21. H. Mantel, ‘Hilary Mantel: The Waterstones Interview - Wolf Hall Trilogy’ [video], YouTube (24. Feb. 2020), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsZrYQ2Ud_c, accessed 6 May 2020.

The producer of the video can also be provided in brackets before the date.

A. Speaker, ‘Title of Video’ [video], Social Media Platform (Producer, Day Month Year), URL, date accessed.

22. S. Fitzpatrick, ‘The Russian Revolution of 1917 and World History: A Centenary Reflection’ [video], YouTube (Schwartz Media, 7 Apr. 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyH1NF_kh-s, accessed 23 May 2020.

For clips of previously released videos, films or episodes that may only be available now in an online platform, include the original date in addition to the date uploaded.

See also the topics in this guide: TV episodes and Film.

A. Director (dir.), ‘Title of Video’ [video], Social Media Platform (recorded Year, uploaded Day Month Year), URL, date accessed.

23. J. Pilger (dir.), ‘John Pilger: Palestine is Still the Issue’ [video], YouTube (recorded 1977, uploaded 21. Nov. 2015), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYF0td7Ykus, accessed 6 May 2020.

Video on producer website

A. Speaker, ‘Title of Video’ [video], Producer (Day Month Year), URL, date accessed.

31. L. Lagerstrom, ‘Einstein’s Miracle Year’ [video], TED-Ed (Jan. 2015), https://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lagerstrom_einstein_s_miracle_year, accessed 8 Aug. 2020.


Bibliography

Fitzpatrick, S., ‘The Russian Revolution of 1917 and World History: A Centenary Reflection’, [video], YouTube (Schwartz Media, 7 Apr. 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyH1NF_kh-s, accessed 23 May 2020.

Lagerstrom, L., ‘Einstein’s Miracle Year’ [video], TED-Ed (Jan. 2015), https://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lagerstrom_einstein_s_miracle_year, accessed 8 Aug. 2020.

Mantel, H., ‘Hilary Mantel: The Waterstones Interview - Wolf Hall Trilogy’ [video], YouTube (24. Feb. 2020), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsZrYQ2Ud_c, accessed 6 May 2020.

Pilger, J. (dir.), ‘John Pilger: Palestine is Still the Issue’ [video], YouTube (recorded 1977, uploaded 21. Nov. 2015), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYF0td7Ykus, accessed 6 May 2020.

TV episode

  • Begin the citation with the director. If it not relevant/available, begin the citation with the title of the episode.
  • Include the medium in square brackets [video].
  • Whether a TV episode has been accessed via a TV broadcast, Netflix, via a Deakin Library database, or on DVD is irrelevant. Therefore, do not include information about the platform or distributor i.e. how you accessed the episode.
  • Include the name of the producer/broadcaster (this is different to a distributor or platform provider or format, but note that in some cases this may be the same organisation).
  • Include numbers of the episode and season, if relevant.
  • Note: IMDb (the International Movie Database) is a reliable source of information on TV series and episodes.

Footnotes

There is no need to provide a URL if you have all of the other relevant production/broadcast details:

‘Title of Episode [video], Title of TV Program (Producer, Day Month Year of original broadcast/release).

24. ‘Trapped in the Volcano’ [video], Four Corners (ABC TV, 27 Apr. 2020).

However, you may choose to include a URL to a publicly available site if you think it would assist your reader to locate your source. Here is the same footnote as above, but with a URL provided:

24. ‘Trapped in the Volcano’ [video], Four Corners (ABC TV, 27 Apr. 2020), https://www.abc.net.au/4corners/trapped-in-the-volcano/12189154, accessed 8 May 2020.

Here is an example of an episode produced by Netflix – but remember, Netflix is only listed here as the producer of the TV series, not as the platform it was accessed on.

A. Director (dir.), ‘Title of Episode’ [video], Episode, Season, Title of TV Series (Producer, Day Month Year of original broadcast/release).

25. D. DiMauro (dir.), ‘Slumlord Millionaire’ [video], Episode 3, Season 2, Dirty Money (Netflix, 11 March 2020).


Bibliography

DiMauro, D., (dir.), ‘Slumlord Millionaire’ [video], Episode 3, Season 2, Dirty Money (Netflix, 11 March 2020).

‘Trapped in the Volcano’ [video], Four Corners (ABC TV, 27 Apr. 2020), https://www.abc.net.au/4corners/trapped-in-the-volcano/12189154, accessed 8 May 2020.

Film

  • The citation can begin with the director, where relevant. If not available, begin the citation with the title of the film.
  • Whether a film has been accessed via Netflix, the Deakin Library or on DVD is irrelevant. Therefore, do not include information about the platform/distributor or format.
  • Include the name of the producer (this is different to a distributor / platform provider, but note that in some cases this may be the same organisation).
  • IMDb (the International Movie Database) is a reliable source of information on films.

Footnotes

A. Director (dir.), Title of Film [film], (Production Company, Day Month Year of original release).

26. S. Bognar (dir.), American Factory [film], (Higher Ground Productions, 2019).

31. M. Blackwood (dir.), Art in our Time: Toward a New Museum of Modern Art [film], (Michael Blackwood Productions, 2001).


Bibliography

Blackwood, M. (dir.), Art in our Time: Toward a New Museum of Modern Art [film], (Michael Blackwood Productions, 2001).

Bognar, S. (dir.), American Factory [film], (Higher Ground Productions, 2019).

Other sources

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ABS

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) web pages, reports and publications are cited much the same way as other web pages or documents, but with the addition of an ABS catalogue number, where available.
  • Always cite the full URL.

Footnotes

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Title of Publication, catalogue number (day month year), URL, accessed date.

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Industrial Disputes, Australia, June 2013, cat. no. 6321.0.55.001 (5 Sep. 2013), https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/6321.0.55.001Main+Features1Jun%202013, accessed 8 Oct. 2019.


Bibliography

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Industrial Disputes, Australia, June 2013, cat. no. 6321.0.55.001 (5 Sep. 2013), https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/6321.0.55.001Main+Features1Jun%202013, accessed 8 Oct. 2019.

Conference paper

Cite conference papers according to the format in which they are published, e.g. book chapter, web page or web document.

Here is an example of a conference paper published as a web document (note: URL is to a landing page where document can be accessed):


Footnotes

A. Author, ‘Title of Paper', paper presented to Name of Conference, Place (Dates of conference), page, URL, accessed date.

22. A. Fenton, 'Using a Strengths Approach in Collaborative Education', paper presented to the ACEN National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong (29 Oct. – 2 Nov. 2012), 75–6, http://acen.edu.au/resource-type/conference-proceedings/, accessed 23 Dec. 2019.


Bibliography

Author, A. ‘Title of Paper', paper presented to Name of Conference, Place (Dates of conference), page range, URL, accessed date.

Fenton, A., 'Using a Strengths Approach in Collaborative Education', paper presented to the ACEN National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong (29 Oct. – 2 Nov. 2012), 71-6, http://acen.edu.au/resource-type/conference-proceedings/, accessed 23 Dec. 2019.

Course materials

Please note: in some units it is not acceptable to cite course materials (e.g. class presentations and slides). Cite only if you have been given permission to do so.

Cite in a footnote only; do not provide an entry in the bibliography.

A. Lecturer, Descriptive Title including Course Code and Title, University [class lecture/slides/notes], day month year.

5. L. Doolan, Week 2 Phenomenology PHP367, Deakin University [class slides], 13 Apr. 2018.

Dictionary or encyclopaedia

Discuss with your unit staff whether is acceptable to cite a dictionary or encyclopaedia, and which sources they would recommend.

Please note: while Wikipedia can be a good starting point for gleaning general information before you begin your research, a site such as Wikipedia can be updated at any point and by multiple authors, so it cannot be relied on as a source for an academic assignment.

  • Consider whether your source is a book, e-book or website, and cite accordingly.
  • If there is no named author, begin with the title of the entry.

Here is an example of an online encyclopaedia entry with no named author:


Footnotes

'Title of Entry’, Title of Encyclopaedia (year), URL, date accessed.

13. ‘Gunpowder Plot’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249505/Gunpowder-Plot, accessed 5 Aug. 2020.


Bibliography

Title of Entry’, Title of Encyclopaedia (year), URL, date accessed.

‘Gunpowder Plot’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249505/Gunpowder-Plot, accessed 5 Aug. 2020.

Government sources

  • Consider whether your source is a book, website or web document and cite accordingly.
  • Include the jurisdiction (e.g. Commonwealth or State) after the name of the government department/ministry/commission, if this is not clear from other bibliographic details provided.
  • See also the topic Media release.

Footnotes

Government Commission (Jurisdiction), Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page.

6. Commission of Enquiry into Poverty (Commonwealth of Australia), Poverty in Australia, First Main Report (Canberra: AGPS, 1975), 13.

Government Department, ‘Title of Web Page’, Title of Website (Day Month year), URL, accessed date.

25. Australian Border Force, ‘Operation Sovereign Borders: Fact sheet: Operational update 20 June 2014’, ABF Newsroom (20 June 2014), https://newsroom.abf.gov.au/channels/Operation-Sovereign-Borders/releases/operational-update-20-june, accessed 5 Oct. 2020.


Bibliography

Australian Border Force, ‘Operation Sovereign Borders: Fact sheet: Operational update 20 June 2014’, ABF Newsroom (20 June 2014), https://newsroom.abf.gov.au/channels/Operation-Sovereign-Borders/releases/operational-update-20-june, accessed 5 Oct. 2020.

Commission of Enquiry into Poverty (Commonwealth of Australia), Poverty in Australia, First Main Report (Canberra: AGPS, 1975).

Media release

  • Include the jurisdiction (e.g. Commonwealth or State) after the name of a government department/ministry/commission, if this is not clear from other bibliographic details provided.
  • Include the medium as [media release] after the title.

Footnotes

Author, Title [media release] (Day Month Year), URL, accessed date.

34. National Archives of Australia, Digital Countdown to Save the Things We Want to Keep [media release] (6 Nov. 2019), https://www.naa.gov.au/about-us/media-and-publications/media-releases/digital-countdown-save-things-we-want-keep, accessed 3 Aug. 2020.

Government Department (Jurisdiction), Title [media release] (Day Month Year), paragraph, URL, accessed date.

33. Department of Education (Commonwealth of Australia), National School Chaplaincy and Student Welfare Program High Court Judgment [media release] (19 June 2014), para. 3, http://education.gov.au/news/national-school-chaplaincy-and-student-welfare-program-high-court-judgment, accessed 20 June 2020.


Bibliography

Department of Education (Commonwealth of Australia), National School Chaplaincy and Student Welfare Program High Court Judgment [media release] (19 June 2014), http://education.gov.au/news/national-school-chaplaincy-and-student-welfare-program-high-court-judgment, accessed 20 June 2020.

National Archives of Australia, Digital Countdown to Save the Things We Want to Keep [media release] (6 Nov. 2019), https://www.naa.gov.au/about-us/media-and-publications/media-releases/digital-countdown-save-things-we-want-keep, accessed 3 Aug. 2020.

News article

  • If the author is not known, begin with the title.
  • Include the publication day, month and year.

Footnotes

Online news article

Provide paragraph references for long articles with no page numbers.

A. Author, ‘Title of Article’, Title of News Site (Day Month Year), paragraph, URL, accessed date.

4. M. Smith, ‘Museums Should Become Known as Sites of Cultural Revival, Not Scientific Racism’, The Guardian (31 Oct. 2019), para. 7, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/31/museums-should-become-known-as-sites-of-cultural-revival-not-scientific-racism, accessed 14 May 2020.

5. N. Klein, ‘Screen New Deal’, The Intercept (9 May 2020), para. 12, https://theintercept.com/2020/05/08/andrew-cuomo-eric-schmidt-coronavirus-tech-shock-doctrine/, accessed 12 May 2020.


Archived newspaper article

For archived sources, include the name of the repository and any further details that will help your reader locate the source.

‘Title of Article’, Title of Newspaper (Day Month Year), page number, Name of repository, URL, accessed date.

7. ‘The Unfairness of the Advocates of the Plebiscite’, The Argus (10 Jan. 1880), 9, Trove, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/title/13, accessed 23 June 2020.


Bibliography

Klein, N., ‘Screen New Deal’, The Intercept (9 May 2020), https://theintercept.com/2020/05/08/andrew-cuomo-eric-schmidt-coronavirus-tech-shock-doctrine/, accessed 12 May 2020.

Smith, M., ‘Museums Should Become Known as Sites of Cultural Revival, Not Scientific Racism’, The Guardian (31 Oct. 2019), https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/31/museums-should-become-known-as-sites-of-cultural-revival-not-scientific-racism, accessed 14 May 2020.

‘The Unfairness of the Advocates of the Plebiscite’, The Argus (10 Jan. 1880), Trove, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/title/13, accessed 23 June 2020.

Personal communication

Personal communications include interviews or discussions that you have conducted in your research.

  • Details about personal communications are included in-text, but are not included in the bibliography.
  • It is important to first obtain permission from the person you will be citing.
  • You might also provide further details of the communication in an appendix. A reference to the appendix can be provided in text or in a footnote.

Footnotes

A. Interviewee, description of communication, Day Month Year.

2. J. Robinson, interview with author, 11 May 2019.

11. V. Grossi, interview with author, 3 Apr. 2020. See Appendix B.

Thesis

Include a URL if the thesis is available online.


Footnotes

A. Author, ‘Title’, Degree, Institution, Place, year, page, URL, date accessed.

38. R. Lee, 'Mary De Garis: Progressivism, Early Feminism and Medical Reform', PhD thesis, Deakin University, Geelong, 2010, 93–4, https://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30033056, accessed 13 October 2020.


Bibliography

Author, A. ‘Title’, Degree, Institution, Place, year, URL, date accessed.

Lee, R., 'Mary De Garis: Progressivism, Early Feminism and Medical Reform', PhD thesis, Deakin University, Geelong, 2010, https://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30033056, accessed 13 October 2020.

Chicago referencing

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About

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About

Before using the Chicago style of referencing you should first consult your unit guide, which may specify variations on this style. If you are still unsure, please check with your unit chair, lecturer or tutor.

Quick guide

The Chicago style citation quick guide is freely available online.

Comprehensive guide

To access the full 17th Chicago Manual of Style Online via the Deakin Library, you will need to enter your student username and password.

  • See section 14 for the guide to the Chicago Notes and Bibliography system of referencing.
  • See section 15 for the guide to the Chicago Author-Date system of referencing.
    Note: if using the Author-Date system, you will still need to refer to section 14 for information on how to format sources in a bibliography.

Deakin guide to IEEE

Note: Different units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use.

Deakin guide to IEEE (PDF, 365.0KB)

Last updated: 31 October 2020


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IEEE explained

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Overview

The IEEE style consists of:

  1. In-text citations in the form of numbers in square brackets, e.g. [9]. Citations are numbered according to the order of their first appearance in the body of the paper. The same number is used for each work throughout a paper.
  2. A reference list at the end of the paper. This provides full bibliographic details of all in-text citations. The references are ordered numerically.

The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) referencing style is used widely in electrical, electronic and computing publications.

The information in this guide is based on the IEEE Reference Guide.

In-text citations

Works are cited in the body of the text, in square brackets and inside punctuation marks.

One to five authors

… as shown by Jones [4],

As Schenk and Chan stated [2] ...

Six or more authors

Where there are six or more authors, provide the names of the first-listed author followed by "et. al."

Wu et al. [9] describe the ...

They can also be included in the narrative, where the citation acts like a noun.

… as demonstrated in [3]; according to [4] and [6]–[9].

Repeat Citations

When repeating an in-text citation, use the original number as first cited. In the example below, Salzmann et al. [1] is cited in the first and last sentence.

Salzmann et al. [1] explore the established misconception that digital web-based languages are out of date before even being used. Another common opinion is that XML mark-up will be obsolete within five years [2]. However, many studies [1] [3] [4] have since challenged these opinions …

Reference list

  • List only the works that contributed directly to your research.
  • Reference numbers are enclosed in square brackets. They are set flush left and the reference list entries.
  • Do not combine two sources into one reference. There must be only one source per reference number.
  • Use the required abbreviations as summarised below.
  • In all references, the given name of the author or editor is abbreviated to the initial and precedes the last name. Use commas around Jr., Sr., and III in names.
  • List the names of all authors up to the first five authors. If there are six or more names listed, use "et al." after the first-listed author.
  • Format book and journal titles in italics; article titles are in double quotation marks.
  • When citing IEEE Transactions, if the issue number or month is not available, research IEEEXplore to update the information.
  • When referencing a patent, include the day and month.

Sample reference list

[1] A. Bensky, "Communication systems," in Electrical Engineering: Know It All, C. Maxfield et al., Eds. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Science, 2011, pp. 735-836.

[2] P. Laplante, Ed., Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering, 2nd ed. London, UK: Taylor and Francis, 2005.

[3] J. Iovine, "Telepresence robot," in Robots, Androids, and Animatrons: 12 Incredible Projects You Can Build, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002, ch. 9, pp. 201-212.

[4] S. Chapman, A. St. George, K. Waller, and V. Cakic, "The pattern of complaints about Australian wind farms does not match the establishment and distribution of turbines: support for the psychogenic, 'communicated disease' hypothesis," PLOS One, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1-11, Oct., 2013.

[5] T. Do, E. Kijak, L. Amsaleg, and T. Furon, "Enlarging hacker's toolbox: deluding image recognition by attacking keypoint orientations," presented at the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Kyoto, Japan, 2012, pp. 1817-1820.

[6] H. I. Smith, "Fabrication techniques for surface-acoustic-wave and thin-film optical devices," Proc. IEEE, vol. 62, pp. 1361-1387, 1974.

[7] B. Badwin, Your Career as an Engineer. London, UK: Smith and Co., n.d.

[8] Engineers Without Borders Australia. (2014). EWB: Our History [Website]. Available: http://www.ewb.org.au/about/our-story

Primary sources

In some referencing styles, it is common to cite a source that has been cited in another source (a secondary source). However, the IEEE style requires you to cite the primary source.

For example, if you have read about Einstein's theory of special relativity (1905) in a book by Eric Badwin (2010), you must consult and cite the original (primary) source – Einstein's 1905 article. You do not cite Badwin.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations must be used for:

  • Months: e.g. Jan., Feb., Mar., etc
  • Standard IEEE terminology: e.g. statist. automat.
  • Journal titles: e.g. IEEE Journal on Technology in Computer Aided Design = TCAD
  • Conference proceedings: e.g. Proceedings of the IEEE = Proc. IEEE

For further details see:

IEEE. (2018). IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines [Online]. Available: http://ieeeauthorcenter.ieee.org/wp-content/uploads/Magazine-Titles-and-Abbreviations.pdf

No author

If the name of the author is not provided, begin the reference list entry with the title of the work.

[1] Encyclopaedia of Electrical Engineering, New York, Smith and Co., 1998.

No date

If no date is provided, place "n.d." in place of the date.

[1] B. Badwin, Your Career as an Engineer, London, Smith and Co., n.d.

Books

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Whole book

  • If a DOI is available, provide the DOI.
  • If no DOI is available, provide the full URL or homepage URL.

A. Author, Title of e-book [e-book]. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, Date of original publication. Available: URL or DOI.

[1] S. Restivo, Ed., Science, Technology, and Society [e-book]. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 12- 14. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780195141931.001.0001.

[2] J. L. Brewer and K. C. Dittman, Methods of IT project management [e-book]. Indiana: Purdue University Press, 2013. Available: http://www.ebscohost.com/

If there is no DOI and no URL available, provide only the following detail.

A. A. Author, Title of the Book. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, year.

[1] D. Blockley, Engineering: A Very Short Introduction. New York: OUP, 2012.

[2] M. T. Simpson, Hands-on Ethical Hacking and Network Defence. Boston: Course Technology, Cengage Learning, 2011.

Chapter in a book

Use the following format for books where there is single author or single set of authors.

A. A. Author and B. B. Author, "Title of chapter," in Title of Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xx–xx.

[1] R. C. Dorf and R. H. Bishop, "The performance of feedback control systems," in Modern Control Systems,10th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2005, ch. 5, sec. 5.9, pp. 267–276.

[2] J. Iovine, "Telepresence robot," in Robots, Androids, and Animatrons: 12 Incredible Projects You Can Build, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002, ch. 9, pp. 201-212.

Chapter in an edited book

Use the following format where a book contains chapters written by various authors.

A. A. Author et al., "Title of chapter," in Title of Book, xth ed., A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, Eds. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xx–xx.

[1] A. Bensky, "Communication systems," in Electrical Engineering: Know It All, C. Maxfield et al., Eds. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Science, 2011, pp. 735-836.

Dictionary or encycopedia

Format the dictionary or encyclopedia according to the source type (e.g. book, e-book, website) and provide the relevant details.


Whole publication

[1]  P. Laplante, Ed., Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering, 2nd ed. London: Taylor and Francis, 2005.

[2]  J. A. Angelo, Jr., The Dictionary of Space Technology, 2nd ed. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999. Available: http://www.ebscohost.com/

Chapter or entry in a publication

[3]  S. Restivo, Ed.,"Physics and astronomy" in Science, Technology, and Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 12-14. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780195141931.001.0001

e-book

  • If a DOI is available, provide the DOI.
  • If no DOI is available, provide the full URL or homepage URL.

[1]   A. Author, Title of e-book [e-book]. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, Date of original publication. Available: URL or DOI.

[2]   J. L. Brewer and K. C. Dittman, Methods of IT project management [e-book]. Indiana: Purdue University Press, 2013. Available: http://www.ebscohost.com/

[3]   S. Restivo, Ed., Science, Technology, and Society [e-book]. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 12- 14. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780195141931.001.0001.

Journals

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Article

Titles of journals are often abbreviated in IEEE style. For further details see:

IEEE. (2018). IEEE Journal Titles and Reference Abbreviations [Online]. Available: http://ieeeauthorcenter.ieee.org/wp-content/uploads/Journal-Titles-and-Abbreviations.pdf


Print article

[1]   A. A. Author and B. B. Author, "Title of article," Abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xx-xx, month, year.

[2]   S. Chapman, A. St. George, K. Waller, and V. Cakic,  "The pattern of complaints about Australian wind farms does not match the establishment and distribution of turbines: support for the psychogenic, 'communicated disease' hypothesis," PLOSOne, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1-11, Oct., 2013.

Online article with DOI

It is preferable to use this format for online articles and include the DOI.

[1]  A. A. Author and B. B. Author, "Title of article," Abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xx-xx, month, year. DOI

[2]   Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, "On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection syst. and the inform. rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, pp. 799-809, Mar. 2012. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2012.020612.090300X

Online article with no DOI
  • Only use this format where no DOI is available.
  • Note that this format differs in use of punctuation, placement of date, absence of quotation marks around the title, and the formatting of the journal number and issue.
  • Provide the full date, if available.

[1]   A. A. Author. (year, month day). Title of article, Abbrev. Title of Journal [Online]. vol.(no.), pp. xx-xx. Available: URL

[2]  R. J. Vidmar. (1992, Aug.). On the use of atmospheric plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. [Online]. 21(3), pp. 876–880. Available: http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/21ps03-vidmar

Other sources

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Conference

  • If the year is given in the conference title, it may be omitted from the end of the reference.
  • For some common abbreviations in references, see  the IEEE Reference guide

Paper presented at a conference

[1]  A. A. Author, "Title of paper," presented at the Abbreviated name of conference, City of Conference, State, year.

[2]  J. G. Kreifeldt, "An analysis of surface-detected EMG as an amplitude-modulated noise," presented at the 1989 Int. Conf. Medicine and Biological Engineering, Chicago, IL.


Published conference proceedings
  • Providing the city of the conference is optional.

[1]  A. A. Author, "Title of paper," in Abbreviated name of conference, City of conference, year, pp. xx-xx.

[2]   G. R. Faulhaber, "Design of service systems with priority reservation," in Conf. Rec. 1995 IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., pp. 3-8.

[3]  T. Do, E. Kijak, L. Amsaleg, and T. Furon, "Enlarging hacker's toolbox: deluding image recognition by attacking keypoint orientations," presented at the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Kyoto, Japan, 2012, pp. 1817-1820.

Patent

[1]  A. A. Author, "Title of patent," Patent authority xxxx, month, day, year.

[2]  W. Sheppard, "Improved liquid soap," U.S. Patent 49561, Aug., 22, 1865.

News article

[1]  A. A. Author. "Title of newspaper article," Title of Newspaper: Title of section, pp. xx-xx, month date, year.

[2]  P. Hannam. "Wind farms in NSW to face more red tape," The Sydney Morning Herald: Environment, p. 8, Mar., 20, 2014.

Report

[1]  A. A. Author, "Title of report", Abbreviated name of company or institution, City of company or institution, Rep. xxxxx, year, vol. x.

[2]  R. E. Haskell and C. T. Case, "Transient signal propagation in lossless isotropic plasmas," USAF Cambridge Res. Labs, Cambridge, MA, Rep. ARCRL-66-234 (II), 1994, vol. 2.

Standards

If the year of the standard is included in the Standard reference number, then you do not have to add the year again. For an example of this, see the AS/NZS citation below.

[1]  Title of Standard, Standard number, year.

[2]  Quality Management Systems – Requirements, AS/NZS ISO 9001:2008.

[3]  Standard Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials, ASTM E23 – 12c, 2013.

Website or web document

Provide the full date, if available.

[1]  A. A. Author (year, month day). Title of Webpage or Web Document (edition) [Medium]. Available: URL

[2]  Engineers Without Borders Australia. (2014). EWB: Our History [Website]. Available: http://www.ewb.org.au/about/our-story

[3]  R. Crow and Open Society Institute (2004, Aug.). A Guide to Institutional Repository Software (3rd ed.) [Online]. Available: http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/openaccess/pdf/OSI_Guide_to_IR_Software_v3.pdf

Deakin guide to Numbered Citation

Note: Different units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use.

Last updated: 14 July 2014

Deakin guide to Numbered Citation (PDF, 411.5KB)


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Numbered citation explained

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Overview

The numbered citation style used by the Royal Society of Chemistry consists of the following elements:

  1. In-text references in the form of consecutive superscript numbers that follow the relevant section of the text. The same number is used throughout a paper for a single work.
  2. A numerically ordered reference list at the end of the paper giving full details of each source cited in text.

You must reference all material you use from sources each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding from someone's work.

It is necessary to cite a source each time you:

  • summarise, explain or discuss another writer's ideas or findings in your own words
  • paraphrase (closely re-word what someone has said)
  • quote (reproduce an author's exact words).

No quotation marks are required if you are summarising or paraphrasing. Place direct quotes within quote marks.

For all sources cited in the body of the paper, provide a superscript number (with no space) after the relevant text. The superscript number is placed after a full stop or other punctuation marks at the end of a sentence.

The structural and dynamic properties of polymers have been studied by comparing the behaviour of linear and ring polymers in dilute solution.1

These numbers refer to a numerically ordered reference list at the end of the paper.

The same number is used for a source throughout a paper. This number is determined by the first citation of the source. For example, if a work is the fourth source cited in a paper, it will be referred to by the superscript number, such as 4 ,throughout that paper.

This guide is based on the Royal Society of Chemistry referencing style, which is used in a range of scientific disciplines. The guide draws examples and explanations from:

K. Lim, Chemistry Style Manual, Deakin University, Geelong, rev. edn., 2010.

Multiple citations

  • When two or more references appear at the same point in the text, the relevant superscript numbers are separated by commas.
  • Three or more consecutive citations are joined by a hyphen.

Homonuclear metal cluster complexes have been extensively studied, with the chemistry of the triosmium clusters and organic substrates being the most well-established.1, 2 The synthesis and chemistry of homonuclear metal cluster complexes have been reported. 2-4

Group author

In the reference list entry, place the institution responsible for the work in the author position.

Royal Society of Chemistry, Common Journal Abbreviations, <http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/ReSourCe/AuthorGuidelines/AuthoringTools/JournalAbbreviations>, 2010 (accessed 3 June 2020).

Reference list

The reference list includes only the works cited in the paper. It appears at the end of the paper and provides the full bibliographic information of the sources cited. Only one reference list entry should be provided for each work cited. The reference list is ordered numerically according to the order of the first citation of a work.

  • The reference number does not have a full stop after it and the reference entry is indented from the number.
  • Include the names of all authors in the order they are listed in the publication.
  • Authors' and editors' initials precede their family names. Names are separated by commas with 'and' between the last two names, e.g. P. S. Francis, R. A. Russell and N. W. Barnett.
  • Titles of books and journals are italicised.
Sample reference list
  1. U. Klabunde, Inorg. Synth., 1974, 15, 82-84.
  2. K. F. Lim, Parabola, 1981, 17 (1) 17-23.
  3. S. J. Davies, J. A. K. Howard, M. U. Pilotti and F. G. A. Stone, J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans., 1989, 1855-1863.
  4. G. H. Aylward and T. J. V. Findlay, S.I. Chemical Data, Wiley, Milton (Qld), 6th edn., 2008.
  5. W. H. Miller (ed.), Dynamics of Molecular Collisions, Plenum Press, New York, 1976.
  6. P. C. Jurs, in Reviews in Computational Chemistry, ed. K. B. Lipkowitz and D. B. Boyd, VCH Publishers, New York, 1990, vol. 1, pp. 169-212.
  7. P. Corradini and G. Guerra, in Macmillan Encyclopedia of Chemistry, ed. J. J. Lagowski, Simon & Schuster Macmillan, New York, 1997, vol. 4, pp. 1538-1543.
  8. W. L. Hase, R. J. Duchovic, X. Hu, A. Komornicki, K. F. Lim, D. H. Lu, G. H. Peslherbe, K. N. Swamy, S. R. Vande Linde, A. Varandas, H. Wang and R. J. Wolf, Quantum Chem. Program Exchange Bull., 1996, 16 (4) 43.
  9. R. G. Gilbert, M. J. T. Jordan and S. C. Smith, Program package UNIMOL: Calculation of rate coefficients for unimolecular and recombination reactions, University of Sydney, 1990.
  10. Royal Society of Chemistry, Common Journal Abbreviations, <http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/ReSourCe/AuthorGuidelines/AuthoringTools/JournalAbbreviations>, 2010 (accessed 3 September 2020).

Books and articles

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Book

In the reference list entry:

  • Book titles should be italicised and all major words should be capitalised.
  • If the city of publication is not well known, then the state or the country should also be included.
  • Edition number is provided only for second or later editions.
  • E-books should be cited as print books, unless the e-book is a special edition or only available online – in this case, provide a URL and date accessed as you would other online sources.

Initials. Author/Editor, Title of Book, Publisher, City (state or country, if city not well known), edition number if not the first, year, volume number.

G. H. Aylward and T. J. V. Findlay, SI Chemical Data, Wiley, Milton (Qld), 6th edn., 2008.

K. B. Lipkowitz and D. B. Boyd (eds), Reviews in Computational Chemistry, VCH Publishers, New York, 1990, vol. 1.

Chapter

When you refer to a specific article, report or chapter in an edited book containing individual contributions by various authors, you need to acknowledge the particular author whose work you are citing. In the reference list entry, provide the name of the author cited plus information about the book in which the work appears.

  • The title of the book section or chapter is not identified but the book title is preceded by the word 'in' to indicate that the cited work is part of an edited collection.
  • The first page of the chapter (or first page of the article) has to be identified. Where possible, cite the range of pages.
  • Use p. or pp. for page number(s) of articles or chapters in books. (Note that journal articles do not use p. or pp.)

Initials. Author of section/chapter, in Title of Book, Editor(s), Publisher, City, year, volume number (if applicable), page numbers or chapter number.

P. C. Jurs, in Reviews in Computational Chemistry, ed. K. B. Lipkowitz and D. B. Boyd, VCH Publishers, New York, 1990, vol. 1, pp. 169-212.

When referring to the entire book and not to a specific section or chapter by a particular author, the work is listed under the editor's name.

W. H. Miller (ed.), Dynamics of Molecular Collisions, Plenum Press, New York, 1976.

Journal article


Continuous pagination

Continuous pagination (used by many journals) continues the sequence of page numbers through all the issues that make up a volume. It is not necessary to indicate issue numbers, as page numbers are sufficient to indicate the location of articles in volumes that use continuous pagination.

Initials. Author, Abbreviated journal title, year, volume number, page range.

U. Klabunde, Inorg. Synth., 1974, 15, 82-84


Separate pagination

Some journals do not number pages continuously through the issues that make up a volume; each issue begins at page 1.  Provide the issue number in brackets after the volume number.

Initials. Author, Abbreviated journal title, year, volume number (issue number) page range.

K. F. Lim, Parabola, 1981, 17 (1) 17-23.


Volumes numbered by year

Some journals use only the year to indicate each volume; there is no dedicated volume number.

Initials. Author, Abbreviated journal title, year, page range.

S. J. Davies, J. A. K. Howard, M. U. Pilotti and F. G. A. Stone, J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans., 1989, 1855-1863.

Encyclopedia

It is not recommended to use articles from general reference books like the Encyclopaedia Britannica. You may want to get an overview from a general encyclopedia article before you research a complex and difficult topic, but do not cite such a source in your assignment.

If you use an article from a specialist encyclopedia, cite it as you would a chapter in an edited book.

Initials. Author, in Title of Encyclopedia, ed. Initials. Editor, Publisher, City, year, vol. number, page range.

P. Corradini and G. Guerra, in Macmillan Encyclopedia of Chemistry, ed. J. J. Lagowski, Simon & Schuster, Macmillan, New York, 1997, vol. 4, pp. 1538-1543.

Other sources

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Web sources

Material from the web must always be checked for reliability, accuracy and appropriateness. Anonymous content should not be used because the accuracy cannot be checked. For guidelines on evaluating materials from the web, see:

'Appendix G: Reliability of World Wide Web Reference Materials' in: K. Lim, Chemistry Style Manual, Deakin University, Geelong, rev. edn., 2010.

Note the following when referencing sources from websites (not including journal articles accessed online nor e-books):

  • A web citation should provide the author, title of document/webpage, the URL, the year of publication, and the full date the material was accessed.
  • If there is no identifiable author, list the institution responsible for the website.
  • If you have to break a web address across a line, do so after a slash or before a full stop. Do not add a hyphen at the line break.

Author, Title of Webpage or Web Document, <URL>, year (accessed day month year).

Royal Society of Chemistry, Common Journal Abbreviations, <http://www.rsc.org/
Publishing/ReSourCe/AuthorGuidelines/AuthoringTools/JournalAbbreviations>, 2010 (accessed 3 September 2020).

Computer program

Computer programs that are released through a program library, e.g. the Quantum Chemistry Program Exchange or the Computer Physics Communications Library, are referenced as journal articles, based on the announcement of the program's release.

W. L. Hase, R. J. Duchovic, X. Hu, A. Komornicki, K. F. Lim, D. H. Lu, G. H. Peslherbe, K. N. Swamy, S. R. Vande Linde, A. Varandas, H. Wang and R. J. Wolf, Quantum Chem. Program Exchange Bull.,1996, 16 (4) 43.

Computer programs that are released through an institution or a commercial publisher should be referenced like a book, except that the title of the computer program is not italicised.

R. G. Gilbert, M. J. T. Jordan and S. C. Smith, Program package UNIMOL: Calculation of rate coefficients for unimolecular and recombination reactions, University of Sydney, 1990.

Thesis

  • The title is not included.
  • The thesis type is the name of the degree for which the thesis has been submitted.
  • Theses should only be cited when the information has not been published elsewhere.

Initials. Author, Thesis type, University, year.

T. C. Brown, MSc thesis, Australian National University, 1982.

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