Deakin guide to referencing - APA7

Learn about how and why we use sources in academic writing.

Referencing explained:

Did you miss an Orientation session on referencing? View the recording in UniStart.

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Before you browse the guide, first learn about how and why we use sources in academic writing

Referencing explained:

Did you miss an Orientation session on referencing? View the recording in UniStart.

Still have a question? Study Support can help.

Deakin guide to APA7

Different disciplines and units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Always check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use. Remember that this is a guide only – not a set of rules to be strictly obeyed. However, it is essential that you write in a referencing style that is clear and consistent, and act at all time with academic integrity.

Last updated: 24 October 2020

Deakin guide to APA7 (PDF, 1.5MB)


Just need a quick reminder? This short version of the guide covers the basics:

Quick guide to APA7 (PDF, 1.3MB)

Need to review some of the recent updates made to APA7?

Summary of changes in APA7 (PDF, 1.1MB)

Previous guide APA6 (PDF, 503.0KB)


APA7 explained

Select a topic

Overview

This guide to APA7 referencing provides a number of examples of print, electronic and media sources. If you cannot find the exact source you wish to reference here, use elements from different parts of this guide to create an appropriate reference. The important thing is to be consistent – and if in doubt, provide more detail rather than less.

The APA style of referencing consists of:

  1. In-text citations in the body of the paper that include the author, the date and often a page number.
  2. References at the end of the paper, giving full bibliographic details of all in-text citations.

This guide has been adapted using information provided in:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). (2020). American Psychological Association https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Further information and style guidelines can be found at https://apastyle.apa.org/

In-text citations

APA in-text citations consist of the author's family name and year of publication. In addition, page numbers should be included when quoting directly from a source. You are also encouraged to provide page numbers when paraphrasing (rephrasing a short passage). The author, year and page number within parentheses are separated by commas. An in-text citation can go at the beginning, within, or at the end of a sentence.

There are three ways to cite your sources
General reference

When you are making a general reference to an idea or information contained in a work, page numbers are not necessary.

Hughes et al. (2012) investigated the relationship between personality and the use of Facebook and Twitter for both information and social purposes.

Paraphrase

When paraphrasing (or rephrasing) information, it is useful to provide a page number to help the reader locate the source information, and also, to help you find it later. However, this is not mandatory.

Hughes et al. (2012, p. 567) suggest that this may be because the information sought from Facebook can be obtained socially, whereas the information sought on Twitter is more cognitively based, for example, of an academic or political nature.

Quote

To quote means to reproduce the exact words from a source. Details of the source and the page number(s) must be provided in text.

Short quotes (fewer than 40 words) should be incorporated into the text within double quotation marks.

Hughes et al. (2012, p. 563) hypothesised that “the short, quick fire nature of Twitter usage determined by the limit of 140 characters per ‘tweet’ may appeal to those high in conscientiousness as they can still partake in social networking without it becoming a temporal distraction”.

Longer quotes, known as “block quotes” (40 words or more):

  • start on a new line
  • are indented about 1.27cm from the left-hand margin
  • are double spaced
  • do not have quotation marks
  • begin with a colon
  • do not end with a full stop

… while others have supported this view:

We don’t do burden in the twenty-first century. We do entitlement. We do expectation and our politicians have learnt to give us what we want. In 2008, US presidential candidate Barack Obama caught the American people’s imagination with the phrase ‘hope you can believe in’. Kennedy sells sacrifice: Obama sells expectation. (Salt, 2011, p. 19)

The sense of entitlement …


There are two ways to include your in-text citation


You can emphasise the author:

Woodward (2010) states that what we buy and how we consume things once we have bought them reveals a great deal about the society we live in.

Or you can emphasise the information:

What we buy and how we consume things once we have bought them reveals a great deal about the society we live in (Woodward, 2010).

References

An important purpose of the references is to enable readers to locate your sources. Each in-text citation and the related reference list entry should be identical in spelling and year. A work is listed only once in the reference list, regardless of how many times it is cited in your work. All citations should be listed in the reference list, with the exception of personal communications and classical works.

The four basic elements of a reference list entry in APA style are:

  • author (who is responsible?)
  • date of publication (when was it published?)
  • title (what is it called?)
  • publication data (where can I find it?)

These elements are set out in the following order:

Author, Initials. (Date). Title. Publication data

The references should:

  • begin on a new page with a heading titled 'References' that is centred, and bold.
  • have entries arranged alphabetically by family name of the first-listed author or name of organisation
  • list works with no author under the first significant word of the title (disregarding ‘A’ or ‘The’)
  • use the hanging indent (0.5 in. = 1.27 cm) paragraph style for each new reference
  • use double spacing.

References

Borton, J. L. S., Markowitz, L. J., & Dietrich, J. (2005). Effects of suppressing negative self-referent thoughts on mood and self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 172–190.

Butt, SA., Lidegaard, Ø ., Skovlund, C., Hannaford, PC., Iversen, L., Fielding, S., & Morch, LS. (2018). Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer: A cohort study among premenopausal women. PLoS ONE, 13(10), 1-8. Article e0206358. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206358

Chapman, A. L., & Rosenthal, M. Z. (2016). Managing therapy-interfering behavior: Strategies from dialectical behavior therapy. American Psychological Association.

Department of Health. (2019). Commonwealth Home Support Programme Interaction with Home Care Packages [Fact sheet]. Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/commonwealth-home-support-programme-interaction-with-home-care-packages-fact-sheet

Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

Giovanetti, F. (2019, November 16). Why we are so obsessed with personality types. Medium. https://medium.com/the-business-of-wellness/why-we-are-so-obsessed-with-personality-types-577450f9aee9

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000

Malcom L. (Presenter). (2014, January 5). The music in your brain [Audio podcast]. http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/the-music-in-your-brain/5132382

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

DOIs and URLs

When should a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) be included?
  • For all print or online articles that have a DOI, include the DOI in the reference list entry, regardless of whether you used the online or print version.
  • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
When using a DOI:
  • use the following DOI format http://doi.org/xxxxx
  • Do not add a full stop after a DOI
  • Date of retrieval is not required.
  • It is acceptable to use default hyperlink displays OR leave as plain text

Phillips, A. (2019). Effective approaches to health promotion in nursing practice. Nursing Standard, 34(4), 43–50. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.2019.e11312

URL’s from a library database

Databases are searchable collections of published information that include journal articles, published books, newspapers and more.

  • URL links to database searches are not required in References as there are many ways a reader can access the source, and the database you used is just one option.
  • If there is no DOI, and the only link available is a database URL, format the source as a print source.

Savage, J. (2004). Researching emotion: The need for coherence between focus, theory and methodology. Nursing Inquiry, 11(1), 25–34.

When should I use a URL from a publisher?
  • If no DOI is provided for online articles, use the URL or homepage URL of the publisher if publicly available.
  • Use either the default display for hyperlinks (blue-underlined font) OR plain text without an underline.
  • The phrase “Retrieved from” precedes a URL, but is not used with a DOI.
  • Do not add a full stop after a URL

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995b).Temperament and response processing: Facilitatory and inhibitory consequences of positive and negative motivational states. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 59–84. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00926566

If no DOI is available and you have accessed the source from an academic or library database (i.e. the URL is not publicly available to all readers) reference like a print journal.

Silavera, D. H., Lavack, A. M., & Kropp, F. (2008). Impulse buying: The role of affect, social influence, and subjective wellbeing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25 (1), 23–33.

One author

In text citation

Joo (2019) OR (Joo, 2019)

References

Joo, K.R., (2019). Immunization Schedule Updates for Children, Adolescents, and Adults, Advances in Family Practice Nursing, 1, 211-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfpn.2018.12.006

Two authors

In text citation

Adelson and Eckert (2020) OR (Adelson & Eckert, 2020)

References

Adelson, P., & Eckert, M. (2020). Skin cancer in regional, rural and remote Australia; opportunities for service improvement through technological advances and interdisciplinary care. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37(2), 25-30. https://doi.org/10.37464/2020.372.74

Three or more authors

In text citation
  • For three or more authors, use only the first-listed author, followed by 'et al.' (meaning 'and others') for every citation.

Witten et al. (2011) OR (Witten et al., 2011)

Session et al. (2020) OR (Session et al., 2020)

References
  • Include all authors for sources with up to 20 authors.
  • Where there are over 20 authors, list the first 19 authors followed by an ellipsis (…) and then include the last author’s name.
  • Do not include an ampersand (&) in a reference of 20 or more authors.

Witten, I. H., Frank, E., & Hall, M. A. (2011). Data mining: Practical machine learning tools and techniques (3rd ed.). Morgan Kaufmann.

Reeve, W., Ardley, J., Tian, R., De Meyer, S., Terpolilli, J., Melino, V., Tiwari, R., Yates, R., O'Hara, G., Howieson, J., Ninawi, M., Zhang, X., Bruce, D., Detter, C., Tapia, R., Han, C., Wei, C., Huntemann, M., Han, J., … Kyrpides, N. (2014). Genome sequence of the Listia angolensis microsymbiont Microvirga lotononidis strain WSM3557 (T). Standards in Genomic Sciences, 9(3). 540 - 550.

Group authors

In-text citation

Sometimes the author is an organisation, government agency, association or corporate body. If the name of a group is long and the abbreviation is familiar to readers, cite the full name and provide the abbreviation in brackets in the first instance. Then use the abbreviation only in subsequent references.

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2013) provides practical and realistic recommendations for healthy eating…

Most Australians eat only about half the recommended quantity of fruit, although they drink excessive amounts of fruit juice (NHMRC, 2013).

References
  • Works are entered in the reference list alphabetically by name of authoring organisation.
  • Use the most specific agency when numerous government agencies are listed as author.

Department of Health. (2018). Commonwealth Home Support Programme (CHSP) Manual. Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/2020/07/commonwealth-home-support-programme-chsp-manual.pdf

No author

In-text citation


If no author is designated, cite the title of the work and the year of publication in your text. If the title is long, use the first few words of the title only.
Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter or webpage. Use italics and no quotation marks for the title of a journal, book, brochure or report.

… (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 2020).

...("Forgotten Melbourne", 2020).

Only if the author’s name is given as anonymous, use “Anonymous” in text as the author’s name.

… (Anonymous, 2017).

References

Works with no author are entered in the reference list under title.

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). (2020). American Psychological Association.

Works in which the author’s name is given as anonymous are listed in the reference list under “Anonymous”.

Anonymous. (1997). The art of non-doing. Los Angeles: Starlight.

No date

In-text citation

If no year of publication is provided for a source, use ‘n.d.’ (meaning 'no date') in parentheses after the author's name.

In a detailed analysis, Jones (n.d.) argues...

References

Jones, P. (n.d.). The hanging hypothesis. Metzger & Son.

No page numbers

When quoting or paraphrasing, a page number is usually required in the citation. However, some written works (e.g. web pages, websites and some e-books) do not contain page numbers. In such cases you have three options:


  • provide heading or section name

(Department of Social Services, 2019, Section 1)

  • provide a paragraph number

(Department of Social Services, 2020, para 2)

  • provide both

(Department of Social Services, 2019, Section 2, para. 3)

Citing multiple authors

When citing more than one source at the same point in the text, list the sources alphabetically in the same order in which they would appear in the reference list and separate each with a semicolon within the same parentheses.

There have been several studies on the links between personality and Facebook use (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010; Ross et al., 2009; Ryan & Xenos, 2011).

Note that the authors’ names can also be placed in the narrative.

Amichai-Hamburger and Vinitzky (2010), Ross et al. (2009) and Ryan and Xenos (2011) studied the links between personality and Facebook use.

When citing two or more sources by the same author at the same point, provide author name once and then include the dates for the subsequent sources, starting with the most recent. If using n.d., this precedes year of publication.

(Duff, 2008; 2017; 2019a; 2019b)

Repeat citations

In any one paragraph, if you cite an author or authors more than once in the narrative (i.e. the author's name does not appear in parentheses), then include the family name(s) and year the first time. In subsequent citations cite the family name(s) only, provided studies cannot be confused.

Hughes et al. (2012) observe that Facebook and Twitter appear to be used for different purposes by different users. They found that people who seek and spread information on Facebook do not use Twitter in the same way and vice versa. Hughes et al. suggest that this may be because …

When the name of the author(s) and year are in parentheses in any one paragraph, the year is always included in subsequent citations in that same paragraph.

Facebook and Twitter appear to be used for different purposes by different users (Hughes et al., 2012). The researchers found that people who seek and spread information on Facebook do not use Twitter in the same way and vice versa. Hughes et al. (2012) suggest that this may be because …

Secondary sources

Sometimes you read one author (secondary) who cites another (primary). A good habit of academic research and writing is to find the primary source, read it, and cite it directly. However, in some case you will need to cite the secondary source.

In the example that follows, you have read Savage who refers to a publication by Lupton, but you have not read Lupton yourself. Use the phrase “as cited in”.

In-text citation

If the year is known for the primary source:

(Lupton, 2001, as cited in Savage, 2004)

If the year is not known for the primary source:

Lupton (as cited in Savage, 2004) distinguishes between "emotional labour" and "emotional work".

References

Reference only the source that you have read.

Savage, J. (2004). Researching emotion: The need for coherence between focus, theory and methodology. Nursing Inquiry, 11, 25-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1800.2004.00196.x

Same author, same year

In-text citation


If an author (or authors listed in the same order) have published two or more works in the same year, use the lower case letters a, b, c … after the year to distinguish between the works. Letters are assigned according to the alphabetical order of the title.

Reed and Derryberry (1995b) examined …

According to Reed and Derryberry (1995a) …

References

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995a). Temperament and attention to positive and negative trait information. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 135–147.Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01918869

Reed, M. A., & Derryberry, D. (1995b). Temperament and response processing: Facilitatory and inhibitory consequences of positive and negative motivational states. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 59–84. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00926566

Annotated bibliography

  • Always check and follow your task instructions regarding expected content and formatting of assignments.
  • Format and order references in an annotated bibliography in alphabetical order (as with reference lists).
  • Each annotation should be a new paragraph below the reference entry with a 1.27cm Indent from the left margin (the first line of the annotation should not be indented).
  • If annotation spans multiple paragraphs, indent the first line of the second and any subsequent paragraphs 1.27cm.

Books

Select a topic

Overview

See APA7 explained for how to cite multiple authors and including page numbers.


In-text citation

Gardner (1983) developed a radically different and pluralistic view of mind, proposing seven intelligences.

or

Intelligence is not a single, monolithic ability that can be measured only by IQ tests (Gardner, 1983).

References
  • See APA7 explained > Overview for the general formatting requirements of APA7 references
  • Include all publishers listed
  • If publisher is the author, do not repeat the publisher name
  • Italicise the title and capitalise only the first letter of the first word of a book title (as well as any proper nouns, acronyms or intialisms). If there is a subtitle, capitalise the first letter.
  • Do not include a URL from a library database – see DOI’s and URL’s
  • Do not include a ‘retrieved from’ date
With DOI


Author, Initials. (year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher. DOI

Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000

Without DOI


Author, Initials. (year). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher.

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

Chapter in an edited book

In-text citation

If citing from a particular chapter in an edited book (collection of articles/chapters written by different authors), only cite the author(s) of that chapter.

The study by Marelich and Holt (2006) confirmed previous research that people’s jealous reactions in relationship threatening situations can be attributed to the need to maintain their sense of self.

References
  • Provide the reference list entry under the name of the chapter authors.
  • If the edited book chapter includes a DOI, include the chapter DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
  • If the edited book chapter does not have a DOI, the entry is the same as for a print edited book chapter.
With DOI

Author, Initials. (year). Title of chapter. In Initials. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Publisher. Chapter DOI

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. F. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345–359). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000120-016

Without DOI

Author, Initials. (year). Title of chapter. In Initials. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx-xx). Publisher

Dillard, J. P. (2020). Currents in the study of persuasion. In M. B. Oliver, A. A. Raney, & J. Bryant (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (4th ed., pp. 115–129). Routledge.

Dictionary, encyclopedia

  • In general, citing Wikipedia entries is not recommended.
  • Note that in some units, citing dictionaries is not acceptable. Consult your unit guide for details.
In-text citation

Where the author is identified for entries in print or online encyclopedias or other reference works, provide the author and year as for other authored sources.

Low and Jin (2012) comment that urging someone to do their best does not appear to be as effective as involving the person in setting specific and relatively difficult goals…

Where the author is not identified, provide the title of the entry in the book.

Field theory is defined as “a systematic approach describing behaviour in terms of patterns of dynamic interrelationships between individuals and the psychological, social and physical situation in which they exist” (“Field theory”, 2007, p. 375).

References

Online dictionary encyclopedia with author identified

Author, Initials. (year). Title of entry. Title of encyclopedia (edition if not the first.). Publisher name. https://URL

Low, R., & Jin P. (2012). Achievement motivation and learning. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 47–51). https://doi:10.1007/078-1-4419-1428-6

Online dictionary or encyclopedia  with no author identified

Author, Initials. (year). Title of encyclopedia .Publisher name.

Field theory. (2007). In G. R. VandenBos (Ed.), APA dictionary of psychology (p. 375). American Psychological Association.

Print dictionary

Author. (year). Title of entry. In Title of dictionary (edition if not the first., p. x).

American Psychological Association. (2015). Mood induction. In APA dictionary of psychology (2nd ed., p. 667).

Journals

Select a topic

Overview

Guidelines for references entries for both online and print articles in journals:

  • See APA7 explained > Overview for the general formatting requirements of APA7 references.
  • See APA7 explained for information on how to reference multiple authors.
  • Capitalise only the first letter of the first word in the title of an article (as well as the subtitle). Proper nouns, initialisms and acronyms are also capitalised.
  • Capitalise the first letter of every main word in the journal title.
  • Format the journal title and the issue number in italics.
  • Include the volume, issue number and page range if available.
  • For journal articles that have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), include the DOI in the reference list entry.
  • See DOIs and URLs for more information
In-text citation

Hughes et al. (2012) investigated the relationship between personality and the use of Facebook and Twitter for both information and social purposes.

According to Reed and Derryberry (1995), …

References
With DOI

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers, DOI

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185

Reeve, W., Ardley, J., Tian, R., De Meyer, S., Terpolilli, J., Melino, V., Tiwari, R., Yates, R., O'Hara, G., Howieson, J., Ninawi, M., Zhang, X., Bruce, D., Detter, C., Tapia, R., Han, C., Wei, C., Huntemann, M., Han, J., … Kyrpides, N. (2014). Genome sequence of the Listia angolensis microsymbiont Microvirga lotononidis strain WSM3557 (T). Standards in Genomic Sciences, 9(3). 540 - 550.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. https://URL

Stegmeir, M. (2016). Climate change: New discipline practices promote college access. The Journal of College Admission, (231), 44–47. https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NACAC/nacac_jca_spring2016/#/46

From academic database or print version

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Baker, B. C., Buckenmaier, C., Narine, N., Compeggie, M. E., Brand, G. J., & Mongan, P. D. (2007). Battlefield anesthesia: Advances in patient care and pain management. Anesthesiology Clinics, 25(1), 131–134.

Borton, J. L. S., Markowitz, L. J., & Dietrich, J. (2005). Effects of suppressing negative self-referent thoughts on mood and self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 172–190.

Journal article with an article number / eLocator

If the journal article has an article number, include the word “Article” and then the article number instead of the page range.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), Article article number or locator. https://URL

Butt, SA., Lidegaard, Ø ., Skovlund, C., Hannaford, PC., Iversen, L., Fielding, S., & Morch, LS. (2018). Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of pancreatic cancer: A cohort study among premenopausal women. PLoS ONE, 13(10), 1-8. Article e0206358. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206358

Advance online publication

Advance online publication can refer to a work that has not yet been assigned a volume, issue or page numbers. It can also refer to a work that has been peer reviewed but not yet copyedited or formatted for final production.

In-text citation

Trezise et al. (2014) studied working memory in adolescent males…

References

Author, Initials. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi

Trezise, K. L., Gray, K. M., Taffe, J., & Sheppard, D. M. (2014). Working memory in adolescent males with Down syndrome and males with autism and intellectual disability: Implications for the classroom. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability. Advance online publication. https://doi:10.3109/13668250.2013.874550

In press

Use the term in press to refer to a peer-reviewed article accepted for publication in a future issue of a journal

Pachur , T., & Scheibehenne, B. (in press). Unpacking buyer-seller differences in valuation from experience: a cognitive modelling approach. Psychonomic Bulleting & review

Review in a journal

In-text citation

Though Shafak’s memoir draws on the struggles of women for creative expression in male-dominated cultures, she largely characterises her own depression as an internal conflict (Juchau, 2014).

References

Reference the review author, but include details of the material under review in square brackets.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title of article. [Review of the book Title of book by Initials. Author] Title of journal, volume(issue), page numbers

Juchau, M. (2014, January 18). The maternal and a mystery [Review of the book Black milk: On motherhood and writing by E. Shafak, Trans. H. Zapsu]. The Age, Life & Style, p. 27.

Web and video

Select a topic

Overview

Different digital sources require differently formatted in-text and reference entries. Please view the relevant topic on the side menu for further information.

  • See APA7 explained > Overview for the general formatting requirements of APA7 references
  • Note that for online sources:
  • a date of retrieval is not usually included
  • no full stop is placed after a URL

Website and web document

In-text citation

Websites and web documents should be cited according to the name of the author, which is often a group or an organisation.

The Australian Psychological Society (2014) provides nine strategies for communicating better about issues of violence, peace and social justice.

If no author is provided for a webpage or web document, cite by title.

Cite page numbers where provided. Where no page numbers are provided, cite the chapter number, section heading or paragraph number.

See See APA7 explained >No page numbers.

The Australian Psychological Society (2014, “Why is it so difficult”, para. 3) suggests...

References
  • For a page from an organization’s website without individual authors, use the name of the organization as the author
  • Provide as specific a date as possible for the webpage
  • Some online works note when the work was last updated. If it is clear that this date refers to the specific content (and not the whole website), then use the updated date in the reference
  • Do not include a date of last review in a reference because the content has not necessarily been changed
  • Italicize the title of the webpage
  • Provide the site name in the source element of the reference
  • End the reference with the URL
  • When citing multiple webpages from the same website, create a reference entry for each
Webpage with individual authors
  • When individual author(s) are credited on the webpage, list them as the author in the reference.

Author, Initials. (Full date available). Title of webpage or web document. Site name. URL

Giovanetti, F. (2019, November 16). Why we are so obsessed with personality types. Medium. https://medium.com/the-business-of-wellness/why-we-are-so-obsessed-with-personality-types-577450f9aee9

Wilkins, A. (2018, June 28). NZ Govt yet to address single-use plastic bags, despite Australia’s progress. Newshub. https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2018/06/nz-govt-yet-to-address-single-use-plastic-bags-despite-australia-s-progress.htm

Webpage with organisational group author
  • When the author of the webpage and the site name are the same, do not repeat the site name.

Group author. (Full date available). Title of webpage. https://URL

Nursing and Midwifery board. (2016). Registered nurse standards for practice. https://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional-standards/registered-nurse-standards-for-practice.aspx

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

General information from a website
  • When referring to a website generally i.e. without including specific information or a specific page from that site, do not include a reference entry or in-text citation. Provide the name of the website and the URL in parentheses.

We created our survey using Qualtrics (https://www.qualtrics.com)

Document from a website
  • When referencing a document from a webpage, follow the guidelines for citing a webpage and include a link to the document if available

Author, Initials / group author name. (year). Title of web document. [document type]. Site name. https://URL

Department of Health. (2019). Commonwealth Home Support Programme Interaction with Home Care Packages [Fact sheet]. Australian Government. https://www.health.gov.au/resources/publications/commonwealth-home-support-programme-interaction-with-home-care-packages-fact-sheet

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2017). Nursing shortage fact sheet [Fact sheet]. http://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/News/Factsheets/Nursing-Shortage-Factsheet-2017.pdf

Social media

In all cases you need to consider whether social media sources are appropriate and acceptable to include in your assignment. If you are uncertain, check your unit guide or with your unit chair or lecturer.

Social networking accounts can either be open to the public or restricted to nominated readers or participants. Posts that are public should be cited in-text and in the references. Posts from a private Facebook page, blog, email or wiki are treated as Personal communication. The following examples deal with public social media posts only.

  • Present the name of the individual or group author the same as you would for any other reference. Then provide the social media handle (beginning with the @ sign) in square brackets, followed by a full stop.
  • Provide the specific date of the post.
  • Provide the first 20 words of the post as the title. Count a URL, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word each, and include them in the reference if they fall within the first 20 words.
In-text citation

Include the author and year of the post.

Michael Carr-Gregg (2014) compared anxiety to a rocking chair: “It gives you something to do, but it doesn’t get you very far”.

References

Only public social media accounts should be included in the reference list. The author’s real name is provided first, followed by the username/screen name in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, provide without brackets.

Facebook
  • Use the page title in the reference (e.g., “Home,” “About,” “Reviews”).
  • Include the notation “[Facebook page]” in square brackets.
  • If a post includes images, videos, thumbnail links to outside sources, or content from another post (such as when sharing a link), indicate that in square brackets.
  • Describe the post type (e.g., “[Status update],” “[Video]”) in square brackets after any description of attached content.

Post
  • Describe the post type (e.g., “[Status update],” “[Video]”) in square brackets after any description of attached content.

Author, Initials [screen name]. (year, month day). Up to first 20 words of post/update [Status update]. Facebook. https://url

News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/?type=3&theater

Page
  • Include the notation “[Facebook page]” in square brackets.
  • Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.

Author, Initials [screen name]. (year, month day). Up to first 20 words of post/update [Facebook page]. Month day, year from https://URL

National Park Service. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. January 12, 2020, from https://www.facebook.com/nationalparkservice/

Twitter
  • If the tweet includes an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image with a link, indicate that in brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with link attached].
  • Include the description “[Tweet]  [Moment] or [Twitter profile]” in square brackets after the title
  • Credit Twitter as the site name in the source element and then provide the URL of the tweet.

Author, Initials [@ screen name]. (year, month day). Text of twitter post [Twitter description]. Twitter. https://url

APA Databases [@APA_Databases]. (2019, September 5). Help students avoid plagiarism and researchers navigate the publication process. More details available in the 7th edition @APA_Style table [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/APA_Databases/status/1169644365452578823

Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it’s difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/1170305718425137152

Instagram
  • Include a description of the post (e.g., “[Photo],” “[Video]” [Instagram profile] [Instagram highlight]) in square brackets after the title.
  • Credit Instagram as the site name in the source element and then provide the URL of the photo.

Philadelphia Museum of Art [@philamuseum]. (2019, December 3). “It’s always wonderful to walk in and see my work in a collection where it’s loved, and where people are [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B5oDnnNhOt4/

APA Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2019, June 14). Male depression is serious, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Different men have different symptoms, but [Video]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BysOqenB1v7/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link

Blog

In-text citation

Rutledge (2013) comments that balance is important in the use of…

References

Provide the title of the blog post, not the title of the blog. Cite the author(s) of the blog post (be aware that this is not always the owner of blog).

Posts
  • Blog posts follow the same format as journal articles.
  • Italicize the name of the blog, the same as you would a journal title.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title of Blog post. Blog Site Name. https://url

Ouellette, J. (2019, November 15). Physicists capture first footage of quantum knots unraveling in superfluid. Ars Technica. https://arstechnica.com/science/2019/11/study-you-can-tie-a-quantum-knot-in-a-superfluid-but-it-will-soon-untie-itself/

Comments
  • Cite the person who left the comment as the author using the format that appears with the comment (i.e., a real name or a username). The example shows a username.
  • Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment; then write “Comment on the blog post” and the full title of post on which the comment appeared (in quotation marks and sentence case, enclosed within square brackets).
  • Link to the comment itself if possible. Otherwise, link to the blog post.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title or up to the first 20 words of the comment [Comment on the blog post “full title of post”].Blog Site Name. https://url

joachimr. (2019, November 19). We are relying on APA as our university style format - the university is located in Germany (Kassel). So I [Comment on the blog post “The transition to seventh edition APA Style”]. APA Style. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/transition-seventh-edition#comment-4694866690

YouTube or streaming video

Online videos may be available from a number of different sources on the web and in different formats – downloadable video files, streaming videos, or video podcasts. The format below can also be used for other sites that host user-generated videos, including Vimeo. Cite the source that you have accessed.

In-text citation

You may cite a producer, writer, presenter or speaker. Their role may be specified in-text and it must be specified in the reference list entry.

Cain (2010) argues that introverts should be encouraged and celebrated.

…(Beyond Blue, 2013).

References
  • You may cite a variety of roles, e.g. producer, writer, presenter, speaker. This may depend on who you are citing and the publication information available. It is important to ensure that the source is easily retrievable by your reader.
  • In the case of YouTube and other user-publisher video platforms, always provide information about the person who has uploaded the video.
  • Your source may be available in more than one place. Cite the source that you have accessed.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Video file], [Video podcast].
  • If the video is from a URL that is highly likely to change over time, you may provide the homepage URL rather than the full URL.
  • Include the date that the video was uploaded.
YouTube video:

The “producer” of a YouTube (or similar platform) video is the person who has uploaded the video. Provide their real name and then the screen name/username in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, provide this without brackets.

  • Indicate the medium as [Video]

Producer, Initials. [screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. URL

Beyond Blue [beyondblueofficial]. (2013). I am anxiety [Video file]. http://www.youtube.com/user/beyondblueofficial

TED [TalkDocumentary’s channel]. (2013, September 10). Susan Cain: The power of introverts: TED talks: documentary, lecture, talks [Video file]. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c0KYU2j0TM4

Streaming video from database via Deakin Library:
  • Provide the homepage URL of video database (not the full URL).

Producer, Initials. (year). Title of video [Video file]. Homepage URL of database

VEA. (2011). Anxiety disorder [Video file]. http://vlearn.vea.com.au

YouTube channel
  • YouTube channel pages begin on the “Home” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Videos,” “Playlists”), use the name of that tab rather than “Home” in the title element of the reference (as in the Walker example).
  • Italicize the title of the channel.
  • Include the description “[YouTube channel]” in square brackets after the title.
  • Provide a retrieval date because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.

APA Publishing Training. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://www.youtube.com/user/PsycINFO/

Walker, A. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/user/DjWalkzz/playlists

Podcasts & online audio

Podcasts and audio files may be available from a number of different online sources. Only cite the source that you have accessed.

If citing a transcript and not the recording itself, see Transcript.

In-text citation

You may cite a producer, writer, presenter or speaker. Their role may be specified in text and must be specified in the reference list entry.

Cummins (2010) argues that...

References
  • You may cite a variety of roles, e.g. producer, writer, presenter, speaker. This may depend on who you are citing and the publication information available. It is important to ensure that the source is easily retrievable by your reader.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Audio podcast].

Author, Initials. (Producer/Writer/Speaker). (year, month day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. URL

Malcom L. (Presenter). (2014, January 5). The music in your brain [Audio podcast]. http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/allinthemind/the-music-in-your-brain/5132382

Providing the homepage URL

If the podcast is from a URL that is highly likely to change over time, it is best to provide just the homepage URL rather than the full URL.

Cummins, R. (Writer & presenter), & Deakin University (Producer). (2012, September 17). Happiness and wellbeing [Audio podcast]. http://itunes.apple.com

Recording from album

  • Provide the copyright year, not the year of the recording.
  • Indicate the medium that you have accessed, e.g. [CD], [MP3], [Record], [Cassette].
  • If appropriate, indicate the recording artist after the title of the recording.

Songwriter/Composer, Initials.  (copyright year). Title of recording [Recorded by Initials. Artist]. On Title of album [medium].Record label.

Iglesias, A. (2002). Cucurrucucu paloma [Recorded by C. Veloso]. On Talk to her original soundtrack [CD].  Milan Music.

If accessed online, provide the appropriate medium type, and replace the city and record label with the homepage URL of the distributor.

Iglesias, A. (2002). Cucurrucucu paloma [Recorded by C. Veloso]. On Talk to her original soundtrack [MP3]. https://itunes.apple.com/

Film, DVD, Video

In-text citation

A beautiful mind (Howard & Grazer, 2001) depicts...

References
  • Provide the name of the producer and director.
  • Indicate the medium in brackets, e.g. [Motion picture], [DVD], [Video]. Only cite the source that you have accessed.

Producer, Initials. (Producer), & Director, Initials. (Director). (year). Title of film [medium]. Country of origin: Studio.

Howard, R., & Grazer, B. (Producers), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [DVD]. United States: Imagine Entertainment.

For films accessed online:

  • provide the medium as [Video file].
  • Instead of the country of origin and studio name, provide the homepage URL of the distributor.

Producer, Initials. (Producer), & Director, Initials. (Director). (year). Title of film [Video file]. URL

Howard, R., & Grazer, B. (Producers), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind [Video file]. http://www.amazon.com/

  • See also you Tube or streaming video.

Televsion

In-text citation


Provide the title of the film in-text in italics and provide writer, director and/or producer in the citation.

In The Manus solution, Thompson & Michelmore (2014) provide a comprehensive account of the Manus riot…

References
  • Provide the names of the writer, director or producer. For current affairs series, provide the names of the reporter and producer.
  • If not accessed online, provide the city of production and name of TV studio instead of the URL.
  • You do not need to provide the full URL.
Single TV episode

Writer/Reporter, Initials. (Writer/Reporter) & Director/Producer, Initials. (Director/Producer). (year). Title of episode. [Television series episode]. In Initials. Producer (Executive producer). Title of series. https://URL

Thompson, G. (Reporter), & Michelmore K. (Producer). (2014, April 29). The Manus solution [Television series episode]. In S. Spencer (Executive producer), Four corners. http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/

Entire TV series

Producer/Creator, Initials. (Producer/Creator). (years aired). Title of series [Television series]. https://URL

Bernstein, M., & Gilligan, V. (Producers). (2008–2013). Breaking bad [Television series]. http://www.tv.com/

See also YouTube or streaming video

Data sets

  • When you have retrieved data from publicly available archives, and have analysed data (secondary analysis), provide an in-text citation and a reference list entry with the archive name as author e.g. Australian Bureau of Statistics
  • If you are referring to data that has been published in a journal article, report, webpage etc., cite the source and author of the published material, rather than the data itself and use the writer of the text as author
  • Use the bracketed description [Data set]

O’Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36966.v1

Images and figures

Select a topic

Overview

Understanding when to provide a citation for an image, map, diagram or infographic, and when you need to include a copyright statement, depends on how you are using the image:

  1. If you have reproduced the image or figure in your paper (you can visually see the image in your assignment), then you will need to include a copyright statement.
  2. If you are only referring to the image or figure but have not included the actual image in your paper, then you just need a citation.

Reproducing figures and tables

When you make a copy of an image or table in your work (or an adapted version of a figure/table) this requires not just a citation, but also a copyright statement. Note that some images are copyright-free, and may not require this level of information - but it will not hurt to include it! For further information about copyright and student assessments, see the Copyright modules for students 3: Copyright for your studies.

See also these Deakin Library guides to using Creative Commons, finding copyright-free images and finding image resources in the Library.

As a student, you may reproduce (copy or adapt) figures or tables in your assessments, without seeking copyright permission, as long as you:

  • always ensure that full credit is given to the author and publisher as copyright holder (see details below)
  • can be sure that this work will be used for assessment purposes only – for example, if you think the work may later become available to the public in any way, you may need to obtain copyright permission.

Each figure (image, map or diagram) or table in your work needs to be identified with a number and a title, e.g. Figure 2 Accuracy in Experiment 1 for each type of feedback.

Immediately following this, you should provide a copyright statement. For example, if you were reproducing an image from a book you would include:

From / Adapted from Title of Book (any edition or volume information, p. xxx), by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [year] by Name of Copyright Holder.

Adapted from Managing Therapy-Interfering Behavior: Strategies From Dialectical Behavior Therapy (p. 172), by A. L. Chapman and M. Z. Rosenthal, 2016, American Psychological Association. Copyright 2016 by the American Psychological Association.

And this copyright statement would also require a corresponding reference entry:

Chapman, A. L., & Rosenthal, M. Z. (2016). Managing therapy-interfering behavior: Strategies from dialectical behavior therapy. American Psychological Association.

If you were reproducing an image from a website, you would provide:

From / Adapted from “Title of Web Document,” by A. N. Author and C. O. Author, year, http://URL. Copyright [year] by Name of Copyright Holder.

From “Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: Data, Trends and Maps. Alabama Indicator Details Percent of Adults Aged 18 Years and Older Who Are Obese,” by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015 http://nccd.cdc.gov/NPAO_DTM/DetailedData.aspx?indicator=29&statecode=30 . In the public domain .

And this copyright statement would also require a corresponding reference entry:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Nutrition, physical activity and obesity: Data, trends and maps. Alabama indicator details percent of adults aged 18 years and older who are obese. http://nccd.cdc.gov/NPAO_DTM/DetailedData.aspx?indicator=29&statecode=30

Citing only

When simply referring to a part of a work, such as a table, figure or appendix (but not reproducing it in your assignment), provide details of the part in-text in addition to the author name, year and page number.

In-text citation

Eunson (2008, Table 10.3, p. 324) sets out eight reframing strategies that can be used by individuals or groups to resolve issues, create new perspectives and eliminate counterproductive language.

References

Reference the source where the table, chart, figure or appendix is located and cite accordingly.

Eunson, B. (2008). Communicating in the 21st century (2nd ed.). Milton, Qld: John Wiley and Sons.

Artwork

Artwork from a museum or museum website

Use the following guidelines to cite all artworks found in museums:

  • The artist is the author and a description of the medium is included in brackets e.g. [Painting] or a specific description if available or relevant [Oil painting]
  • Include the name and location of the museum
  • If available, include a link to the museum website

van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/vincent-van-gogh-the-starry-night-1889/

Other sources

Select a topic

Brochure or pamphlet

  • Brochures, pamphlets, or flyers follow the same format as report references.
  • Include the description “[Brochure]” in square brackets after the title of the brochure.
In-text citation

Staying connected: A guide for parents on raising an adolescent daughter provides suggestions for helping a daughter deal with the challenges of adolescence (The American Psychological Association, 2017).

References

Online brochure

Author, Initials. (year). Title [Brochure]. URL

American Psychological Association. (2001). Staying connected: A guide for parents on raising an adolescent daughter [Brochure]. http://www.apa.org/pubs/info/brochures/staying-connected.pdf

Cedars-Sinai. (2015). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and oropharyngeal cancer [Brochure]. https://www.cedars-sinai.org/content/dam/cedars-sinai/cancer/sub-clinical-areas/head-neck/documents/hpv-throat-cancer-brochure.pdf

Print brochure

Author, Initials. (year). Title [Brochure]. Publisher.

Quit Victoria (2011). Quit because you can [Brochure].

Conference paper

In-text citation

Duckworth et al. (2012) conclude that …

References

Published proceedings in a journal

Author, Initials. (year). Title of paper. Proceedings of Title of conference, country, vol(no), pages. https://DOI

Duckworth, A. L., Quirk, A., Gallop, R., Hoyle, R. H., Kelly, D. R., & Matthews, M. D. (2019). Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 116(47), 23499–23504. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910510116

Paper presentation

Presenter(s). (year, date range of conference). Title [Type of presentation]. Conference Name, Location. https://DOI or URL

Proudfoot, F. (2015, February 18–20). Understanding cultural differences at the frontline [Paper presentation]. Australasian Housing Researchers Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. http://ahrc2015.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Fiona%20Proudfoot.pdf

Course materials

You should always check with unit staff to determine if citing course materials is appropriate and acceptable in your unit. Where possible, find, read and cite the original source used in the course materials.
Some units advise that it is not acceptable to cite from course materials. Cite only if you have been given permission to do so. Note that Course materials available only on unit sites and not available to the general public should be cited as personal communication in-text. Do not provide an entry in the reference list.

Lectures and lecture notes

Some units advise that it is not acceptable to cite from lectures or accompanying notes provided by the lecturer. Cite only if you have been given permission to do so. Cite lectures in text as you would other personal communication. Do not provide an entry in the reference list.

…(Lecturer, Course code and title, Deakin University, lecture, 8 March 2014).
or
…(Lecturer, Course code and title, Deakin University, PowerPoint slides, 8 March 2014).

Government publication

In-text citation

The Australian Government Department of Human Services (2011) has outlined their direction and priorities for workforce diversity and inclusion.

If the name of a department or agency is long and the abbreviation is familiar to readers, cite the full name and provide the abbreviation in brackets in the first instance. Use the abbreviation in subsequent references.

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC, 2013) provides practical and realistic recommendations for healthy eating…


Most Australians eat only about half the recommended quantity of fruit, although they drink excessive amounts of fruit juice (NHMRC, 2013).

References
  • When numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author of a work, name the most specific agency as the author in the reference.
  • The names of Parent agencies not present in the author position should appear after the title as the publisher.
  • If the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher name.
  • If a report number is available, place after the title.
  • See Reports
Online document

Author, Initials. (year). Title. (Report no., if available). https://URL

Australian Government Department of Human Services. (2011). Workplace diversity and inclusion strategy 2011–15. http://www.humanservices.gov.au/spw/corporate/publications-and-resources/resources/workplace-diversity-inclusion-strategy.pdf

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

Print document

Author, Initials. (year). Title. (Report no., if available). Publisher (if different from author).

Victorian Government Department of Health and Community Services. Primary Care Division. (1994). Victorian families.

Media release

  • The author is the organisation or media group that published the press release.
  • Include the description “[Press release]” in square brackets after the title.
  • Omit publisher name if same as the author.

Author, Initials. (year, month day). Title [Press release]. https://URL

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2019, November 15). FDA approves first contact lens indicated to slow the progression of nearsightedness in children [Press release]. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-contact-lens-indicated-slow-progression-nearsightedness-children

Newspaper article

In-text citation

Nader (2009) highlights the increasing incidence of mental health issues among children.

References
  • Provide the full date (year, month day)
  • Include page numbers from print versions
  • Italicise the title of the newspaper
  • If from a database, do not include database information. Include volume, issue and page numbers if available, If not, finish with title of newspaper

Author, Initial. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. https://URL

Carey, B. (2019, March 22). Can we get better at forgetting? The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html

Stobbe, M. (2020, January 8). Cancer death rate in U.S. sees largest one-year drop ever. Chicago Tribune.

News website without daily or weekly newspapers

Author, Initial. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. https://url

Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/09/10/health/nap-heart-health-wellness-intl-scli/index.html

Personal communication

In-text citation


Personal communications refer to material that cannot be retrieved by the readers, and can include letters, emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations, private Facebook messages, university lectures, online chats or other course materials not available to the public.  It is important to get the permission of the person referred to in your assignment and it could be appropriate to indicate the role of the person.

Use the initial(s) and surname of the speaker, and provide an exact date

J. Robinson (personal communication, May 11, 2010) indicated...

OR

...(L. Frazer, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, interview, June 4, 2009).

References

Personal communications are not included in the reference list.

Report

In-text citation

Sydney Water (2013) states…

References

Format corporate, government, research or technical reports as you would books or web documents, with the addition of a report number (if available). A description of the report may also be given if the report’s title does not adequately describe the document. If provided, include a report number as well as the publisher. If the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher

The following format can be used for print and online reports.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Publisher.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Publisher. https://url

Individual authors within organisations or government
  • Include the organisation responsible for the report as the publisher

Baral, P., Larsen, M., & Archer, M. (2019). Does money grow on trees? Restoration financing in Southeast Asia. Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/in-depth-research-reports/report/does-money-grow-on-trees-restoring-financing-in-southeast-asia/

Stuster, J., Adolf, J., Byrne, V., & Greene, M. (2018). Human exploration of Mars: Preliminary lists of crew tasks (Report No. NASA/CR-2018-220043). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20190001401.pdf

Report by organisations (including governments)
  • The organisation or working group responsible for the report appears as the author. The names of parent agencies appear in the source element as the publisher.

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf

Company annual report

Sydney Water. (2013). Sydney Water annual report 2013 (Report No. SW 103 10/13). http://www.sydneywater.com.au/web/groups/
publicwebcontent/documents/document/zgrf/mdu1/~edisp/dd_055996.pdf

Research particpants

  • When quoting research participants, follow the guidelines for quoting in the topic APA7 explained > ‘In-text citations’.
  • As this content forms part of our own research, do not include an entry in the References. State within the text that the quotations have come from research participants.

Standards

If a standard number is not available, provide alternative identifying information including editions or volume numbers

In-text citation

Standards Australia (2008, p. iv) recommends "the adoption of a quality management system should be a strategic decision by the organization."

The holding temperature of milk must not exceed 4 degrees C after the cooling process, according to the current Australian Standard for Farm milk cooling and storing systems (Standards Australia, 1996, p. 6).

Print

Standard Name. (Year). Title of standard (Standard number). Publisher.

Standards Australia. (2004). Risk management (AS/NZS 4360-2004). Standards Australia; Standards New Zealand.

Online or database

Standard Name. (Year). Title of standard (Standard number). https://URL or database

Standards Australia. (1996). Farm milk cooling and storage systems (AS 1187-1996). http://www.saiglobal.com/online/autologin.asp

Australian College of Perioperative Nurses Ltd (ACORN). (2018). Standards for Perioperative Nursing in Australia (15). https://www.acorn.org.au/standards

Thesis

  • If the thesis is unpublished, provide the description “[Unpublished doctoral dissertation]” or “[Unpublished master’s thesis]” in square brackets, followed by the name of the institution.
  • If the thesis is published, include the name of the awarding institution within the square brackets, and include either the database or if not in a database, the URL.
In-text citation

Harris (2014) demonstrates…

References

Unpublished

Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.

Published

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Miranda, C. (2019). Exploring the lived experiences of foster youth who obtained graduate level degrees: Self-efficacy, resilience, and the impact on identity development (Publication No. 27542827) [Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University]. PQDT Open. https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/2309521814.html?FMT=AI

Transcript

In-text citation

...(Seega & Swan, 2014).

References

Use this format for transcripts of audio or video files (podcasts, interviews, speeches). Note that files that are not retrievable by the general public (e.g. interviews and speeches that have not been published or are published on private or closed-group channels) should be cited as personal communication.

  • You may begin the citation with the details of a producer, interviewee or speech giver.
  • Provide the medium, e.g. [Interview transcript], [Audio Podcast transcript], [Speech transcript] etc.

Seega B. (Producer). (2014, May 5). Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis [Podcast transcript]. http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-for-psychosis/5430430

Cornish, A. (Host). (2017, May 17). This simple puzzle test sealed the fate of immigrants at Ellis Island [Audio podcast transcript]. In All things considered. NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=528813842

For interviews, begin the citation with the interviewee’s name and provide the interviewer’s name after the title.

Interviewee, Initials. (year, month day). Title of work (Initials. Interviewer, interviewer) [Interview transcript]. https:// URL

McWilliams, N. (2013, November 7). A psychodynamic understanding of personality structure (D. Van Nuys, interviewer) [Interview transcript]. http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/376.pdf

Translated work

In-text citation
  • Include both the date of the original work and the date of translation
  • Separate the years with a slash, including the earlier year first

Piaget (1970/1972) observed that intellectual evolution of...

References
  • Follow the formatting for the source type, but include the translator details and the year the translated work was published without a full stop or comma (Initial. Translator, Trans)
  • Include the date of the original work in parentheses at the end (Original work published year)

Piaget, J. (1972). Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood (J. Bliss & H. Furth, Trans.). Human development, 15(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1159/000271225 (original work published 1970)

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