Deakin guide to referencing - Harvard

Learn about how and why we use sources in academic writing.

Referencing explained:

Did you miss an Orientation session on referencing? View the recording in UniStart.

Still have a question? Study Support can help.

Before you browse the guide, first learn about how and why we use sources in academic writing

Referencing explained:

Did you miss an Orientation session on referencing? View the recording in UniStart.

Still have a question? Study Support can help.

Deakin guide to Australian Harvard

Different disciplines and units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Always check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use.

Please be aware that different versions of the Harvard style of referencing are used by different universities and publishers. Check with your teacher, supervisor or publisher whether you are required to follow a version of the Harvard style that differs from the advice presented in this guide.

Last updated: 13 October 2020

Deakin guide to Australian Harvard (PDF, 816.6KB)


Just need a quick reminder? This short version of the guide covers the basics:

Quick guide to Australian Harvard (PDF, 396.9KB)

Need to review some of the recent updates?

Summary of 2020 updates to Harvard (PDF, 288.4KB)

Previous version of the Deakin guide to Harvard (PDF, 498.1KB)


Harvard explained

Select a topic

Overview

Australian Harvard is an author-date style of referencing.

In-text citations:

  • Provide the author and year of publication in the body of your writing.
  • In addition, provide a page number for quotes.
  • Page numbers can also be provided for paraphrases.

Reference list:

  • Create a list of all sources used in your in-text citations.
  • Order them alphabetically according the first-listed author's name of each source.

This guide has been adapted from advice provided in:

Digital Transformation Agency (2020) Author-date, Australian Government Style Manual, Commonwealth of Australia, accessed 8 October 2020.

In-text citations

For in-text citations in Harvard, provide:

  • the family name of the author(s) or the name of the organisation/department(s)
  • the year of publication
  • page numbers when quoting directly from a source (essential)
  • page numbers when paraphrasing a source (recommended)
  • a colon between the year and the page number (or other locator)
  • a corresponding entry in the reference list.

When using in-text citations, you can emphasise the author:

Wood (2002:64) believes that the ethical culture of an organisation does not develop from ‘company decree alone’.

Or the information:

The ethical culture of an organisation does not develop from ‘company decree alone’ (Wood 2002:64).

If the citation is from more than one page, include the page range in the in-text citation:

The ethical culture of an organisation does not develop from ‘company decree alone’ (Wood 2002:64–5).

Important: it is essential when citing sources to engage with your sources critically. Avoid writing paragraphs that lack your own commentary and analysis of sources.


There are three main ways to include sources in your work: summarising, paraphrasing or directly quoting.

1. Summarising your source

A summary of a work or section of a work, or a general reference to someone's theory or idea, always requires a citation.

Include the author(s) and the date:

Whelan and Fink (2016) observe that sustainable practices can lower operational costs.


2. Paraphrasing your source

A paraphrase accurately conveys the meaning of a brief and specific section of text from a source – and in roughly the same number of words.

  • Include the author(s) and the date.
  • We also recommend including a page number (or other locator if there are no page numbers, e.g. paragraph number).

Hughes et al. (2012:567) suggest the information sought from Facebook is more likely to be obtained socially, for example …


3. Quoting your source

A direct quote is the exact reproduction of someone’s words.

Only quote a source when it is essential that the reader sees the original wording – for example, it may be a memorable quote, a definition, regulation, legislation, a literary work or a controversial statement.

For further information on Direct quotes see the next topic.

Learn more about summarising, paraphrasing and quoting sources.

Direct quotes

Only directly quote a source when it is essential that the reader sees the original wording. For example, it may be a memorable quote, a definition, regulation, legislation, a literary work or a controversial statement.

Note: While it is more common to provide direct quotes in disciplines such as History, Literature and in disciplines where policy documents or regulations need to be cited, it is less common in the sciences.


Short quotes

For direct quotes of approximately less than 30 words:

  • include the author, the date, and the page number (or for web sources you may use another locator e.g. paragraph number or section title)
  • enclose the quote in single quotation marks
  • place the full stop inside the quote marks only if this is part of the original quote.

From this perspective, it appears that ‘our social structure too is oriented towards this model, in a form of electronic solidarity’ (Butler et al. 2009:18).


Long quotes

For longer quotes of more than approximately 30 words, format as a block quote:

  • indent the quote from main text
  • use a smaller font size
  • use 1.5 or double spacing
  • do not use quotation marks
  • place the in-text citation after the full stop in the original text.

Following the 1987 Wall Street crash, Australian industries were forced to reflect on ethical business practices:

The collapse of some financial institutions, and the prosecution, imprisonment, and public vilification of several powerful business figures, caused governments, businesses, and the public to examine openly the moral precepts upon which Australian business relationships were predicated. (Wood 2002:61)


Quote marks within quotes

When quoting directly from a source that already includes quote marks, use double quotation marks inside single quotation marks.

Domestic ambience ‘depends not so much on seeking “contact with other colours”; but rather on their being value free’ (Proto 2019:29–30).


Adding or removing text from direct quotes

You may add or remove text from a direct quote for clarification or to improve the flow of your sentence – as long as it does not change the intended meaning of the original text.

Use ellipses (…) to show where you have removed words.

It is ‘a future in which our every move, our every word … is trackable, traceable, and data-mineable by unprecedented collaborations between government and tech giants’ (Klein 2020:para.9).

Use text in square brackets to show where you have added words.

Easton (1996:22) claims that the constructions ‘by SES and its affiliates of the Muja Mine Office [in Western Australia] … rank as possibly the largest single rammed earth project since the Great Wall of China’.

Reference list

All in-text citations must have a corresponding entry in the reference list. This provides your reader with details on how to locate your sources. In each entry, you provide the:

  • author
  • year of publication (some sources also require the day and month)
  • title of the work
  • publication details (note: this varies for different source types)
  • date you accessed the source (for some online sources).

Note: some titles of works published online are hyperlinked to the URL. For further details, see the Harvard topics: URLs and DOIs and Web and video: Overview.

The entries in a reference list are alphabetically ordered:

  • by the family name of author or authoring organisation
  • by title where there is no author (disregarding 'A', 'An' or 'The').

Multiple entries by the same author
  • Provide a long dash in place of the author for subsequent entries.
  • Order entries by date.

Žižek S (2001) On belief, Routledge, London.

————(2008) Violence: six sideways reflections, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.


Multiple entries by the same author in the same year
  • Provide a long dash in place of the author's name for subsequent entries.
  • Add lower case letters following the year, i.e. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c.
  • Order entries alphabetically by the title of the work.

Žižek S (2001a) Enjoy your symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out, Routledge, London.

————(2001b) On belief, Routledge, London.


Group authors

Where you have used a shortened form for a group author (organisation, agency or government department) in an in-text citation, provide the reference list entry under the shortened form of the name, followed by the full name in brackets:

HREOC (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) (1997) Bringing them home: report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, HREOC, Sydney.

For further examples, see the Harvard topic Group authors and the section Government, NGO and legal.

Note: some specialised sources – for example, artworks or legal sources – may require their own list. These lists often have a title such as ‘List of artworks’ or ‘Legislation cited’. Check with your unit teaching staff if you are required to provide a list in addition to the main reference list.

Here is a sample reference list, with the title ‘References’ centred and in bold:

References

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2013) Industrial disputes, Australia, June 2013, catalogue number 6321.0.55.001, accessed 8 July 2019.

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2020) ‘Australia’s welfare 2019: data insights’, Australia’s Welfare Series 14, catalogue number AUS 226, AIHW, Australian Government, doi:10.25816/5d5e14e6778df

Ames-Lewis F (1987) Review of Mantegna by Lightbrown R in Renaissance Studies, 1(2):273–279.

Butler R, Clarke DB, Doel MA, Genosko G, Kellner D, Poster M, Smith RG and Wernick A (2009) 'Commentaries on Jean Baudrillard's "On disappearance"', in Clarke DB, Doel MA, Merrin W and Smith RG (eds) Jean Baudrillard: fatal theories, Routledge, Oxon.

Cansdale J, Kirk S, Gaita A, Goldman S, Haack P, Okuda D and Greenaway J (10 June 2020) VisualStudio: GitHub extension [source code], v2.11.104, GitHub, accessed 14 September 2020.

Ekwall A, Gerdtz M and Manias E (2008) ‘The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(6):800–809, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x

Howell J (28–30 September 2016) ‘Making connections: enhancing program outcomes via stakeholder partnerships' [conference presentation], WIL 2020: Pushing the boundaries, Macquarie University, Sydney, accessed 1 February 2020.

HREOC (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) (1997) Bringing them home: report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, HREOC, Sydney.

Russell EK and Carlton B (in press) ‘Counter–carceral acoustemologies: sound, permeability and feminist protest at the prison boundary’, Theoretical Criminology.

Whelan T and Fink C (21 October 2016) ‘The comprehensive business case for sustainability’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27 August 2020.

Wood G (2002) ‘A partnership model of corporate ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 40(1):61–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019990724275

WorkSafe Victoria (2017) Guide to the occupational health and safety regulations 2017, Worksafe Victoria, Victoria State Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Žižek S (2001a) Enjoy your symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out, Routledge, London.

————(2001b) On belief, Routledge, London.

————(2008) Violence: six sideways reflections, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Number of authors

In-text citations

For sources with a single author, provide the family name, or organisation/agency name, and the date.

Australia ranks 23 in Afghanistan’s principal export destinations (DFAT 2020).

The ethical culture of an organisation does not develop from ‘company decree alone’ (Wood 2002:64).

For sources with two authors, provide the family names of the authors in the order they appear in the publication.  Use the word ‘and’ – not the ‘&’ symbol.

Whelan and Fink (2016) observe that sustainable practices can lower operational costs.

It has been suggested that sustainable practices can lower operational costs (Whelan and Fink 2016).

For sources with three or more authors, use only the family name of the first-listed author in publication, followed by ‘et al.’ (meaning 'and others').

Ekwall et al. (2008) found that the impact of interpersonal relationships that occur at triage can …

From this perspective, it appears that ‘our social structure too is oriented towards this model, in a form of electronic solidarity’ (Butler et al. 2009:18).


Reference list

Provide the names of all the authors in the order that they appear in the publication.

Butler R, Clarke DB, Doel MA, Genosko G, Kellner D, Poster M, Smith RG and Wernick A (2009) 'Commentaries on Jean Baudrillard's "On disappearance"', in Clarke DB, Doel MA, Merrin W and Smith RG (eds) Jean Baudrillard: fatal theories, Routledge, Oxon.

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: Afghanistan, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Ekwall A, Gerdtz M and Manias E (2008) ‘The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(6):800–809, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x

Whelan T and Fink C (21 October 2016) ‘The comprehensive business case for sustainability’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27 August 2020.

Wood G (2002) ‘A partnership model of corporate ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 40(1):61–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019990724275

Group author

In-text citations

An author may be an organisation, a government agency/department or a corporate body.

  • Only use a shortened form of an organisation/department/agency if it is in common use.
  • Spell out the full name of an organisation/department/agency the first time you use it, then use the shortened form from that point on.

The report (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission [HREOC] 1997) traces the history of foster arrangements during the long period of racial segregation and assimilation in Australia.

The HREOC (1997) …

According to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT 2020), Australia ranks 23 in Afghanistan’s principal export destinations.

DFAT (2020) states …


Reference list

If you use a shortened form in your text, provide the reference list entry under the shortened form of the name, followed by the full name in brackets.

Shortened Form (Full Name) (year) …

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: Afghanistan, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

HREOC (Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission) (1997) Bringing them home: report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families, HREOC, Sydney.

For further examples of Government sources, see the Harvard section: Government, NGO and legal.

No author

Note that sometimes where it appears there is no author, the author is in fact an organisation or government department.

For sources that do not name a specific author or have an authoring organisation, you can begin the citation with:

  • the name of the publication (e.g. the name of the news site or blog)
  • the title of the work (e.g. the title of the book), or descriptive title (e.g. an artwork with no title).
In-text citations

The media often draw on popular culture to provoke audience interest in astronomical events and observations (ABC News 2020).


Reference list

Government department (year) …

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: Afghanistan, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

News site (day month year) …

ABC News (1 September 2020) ‘NASA scientists zoomed in a million times on a far away galaxy and found a shape similar to Darth Vader's TIE fighter’, ABC News, accessed 2 September 2020.

Newspaper (day month year) …

The Argus (10 January 1880) ‘The unfairness of the advocates of the plebiscite’, Trove, National Library of Australia, accessed 23 June 2020.

Descriptive title of artwork in collection (year) …

Gay liberation badge, UK (c.1984) [brass, enamel] (registration number 1984,0210.1), The British Museum Collection Online, accessed 3 September 2020.

No date

When you cannot find a date for a source, use:

  • n.d. (meaning 'no date') instead of a date
  • c. (short for ‘circa’) if the date can be reliably estimated.

In-text citations

Others in the field have come to similar conclusions (Grossi and Custance n.d.).

It has been suggested that The seven deadly sins (Bosch c.1500) is less characteristic of his style.


Reference list

Bosch H (c.1500) The seven deadly sins [oil on wood], ARTstor Digital Library, accessed 4 March 2020.

Grossi and Custance (n.d.) Language and learning in the age of covid, Pass the Salt Press, Melbourne.

Titles

Capitalisation

  • For most titles, capitalise the first letter of the first word and the first letter of proper nouns.
  • However, for journal titles, and some government sources and legislation, retain the capitalisation used in the original title.

Quote marks

  • For titles of chapters, articles and blog posts, enclose the title in single quote marks.

Italics

  • Format titles of books, web pages, journals and newspapers in italics .

Hyperlinks

  • Only hyperlink titles to URLs of web sources that are freely available to the public.
  • There is no need to hyperlink to sources with DOIs.

A+B blog (31 March 2020) ‘Collaborative tiny home project unveiled’, A+B blog, Deakin University, accessed 31 August 2020.

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83

Eades D (2013) Aboriginal ways of using English, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra.

Wood G (2002) ‘A partnership model of corporate ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 40(1):61–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019990724275

For further details on how to format titles, look at the examples provided for specific source types.

No page numbers

Some sources, such as websites and some e-reader editions of e-books, do not have page numbers.

In-text citations

For sources with no page numbers, you may include another locator in your in-text citation, such as a:

  • paragraph number (para.)
  • section heading
  • chapter heading.

It is potentially a future where everything we do ‘is trackable, traceable, and data-mineable’ (Klein 2020:para.9).

Herodotus (2002:‘Book one’) gives his take on the Phoenician and Persian accounts.


Reference list

Herodotus (2002) The histories, Kindle edn, (Rawlinson G trans), Alfred A Knopf, New York.

Klein N (9 May 2020) ‘Screen new deal’, The Intercept, accessed 12 August 2020.

Multiple citations

In-text citations

Citing multiple sources at the same point:

When citing more than one source at the same point in your writing:

  • order the sources by date, from the earliest date to most the recent
  • separate each source with a semicolon
  • if sources have the same date of publication, order them alphabetically by author name.

Many agree that Wallace's work critiques an ironic mode of postmodernism (Zeffirelli 2000; Fraser 2006; Goerlandt 2006; Dulk 2012).


Citing the same source multiple times in one paragraph:

Ensure that it is clear which part of your text is linked to each citation.

According to Hopkins (2019:29), little attention has been given to the way curators might resolve this. While there has been much discussion around cuts to funding (Barikin 2018; Lovelace 2020), Hopkins (2019:33) argues that management practices need to be investigated.

Important: In addition to citing your sources it is essential to comment on and analyse your sources.

Same author

In-text citations

When citing more than one work by the same author at the same point in your writing:

  • provide the author and dates
  • order citations by date, from the earliest to the most recent
  • separate the dates with commas.

On this point, he has been consistent (Ali 2008, 2010, 2011).

When citing more than one work by the same author in the same year:

  • use the lower case letters (a, b, c etc.) after the date to distinguish between sources
  • the lower case letters are assigned to the dates according to the alphabetical order of the titles (see reference list below).

Genome research confronts us with ‘the ongoing decoding of the human body’ (Žižek 2001b).

Reference list

Multiple entries by the same author:

  • Provide a long dash in place of the author for subsequent entries.
  • Order entries by date.

Ali T (2008) The duel: Pakistan on the flight path of American power, Simon and Schuster, London.

———(2010) The Obama syndrome: surrender at home, war abroad, Verso, London.

———(2011) On history: Tariq Ali and Oliver Stone in conversation, Haymarket, Chicago.

Multiple entries by the same author in the same year:

  • Provide a long dash in place of the author's name for subsequent entries.
  • Add lower case letters following the year, i.e. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c.

Order entries alphabetically by the title of the work.

Žižek S (2001a) Enjoy your symptom!: Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out, Routledge, London.

———(2001b) On belief, Routledge, London.

Source within a source

In-text citations

When citing a source that you have not read directly but which has been quoted within a source that you have read, provide:

  • the name of both authors in text
  • a citation for the source you have read.

In this example, you have read Cotterall and Cohen, who are citing Donato – but you have not read Donato directly. Nevertheless, you would like to cite Donato.

Donato (cited in Cotterall and Cohen 2003:158) explains the concept of scaffolding, which supports learners as they extend their competence and skills.


Reference list

Provide only the details of the source you have read.

Cotterall S and Cohen R (2003) 'Scaffolding for second language writers: producing an academic essay', ELT Journal, (57)2:158–166.

URLs and DOIs

DOIs

A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique identifier that is available for most academic journal articles and some e-books.

  • A DOI is a more stable identifier than a URL, so where a DOI exists, cite this rather than a URL.
  • There is no need to provide the date you accessed a source with a DOI.
  • Do not place a full stop at the end of a DOI.

You can usually find the DOI on the first page of an article in the header or footer. They also appear in library records. DOIs typically appear in one of these formats:

https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2019.2106

doi:10.1089/ast.2019.2106

Here are two reference list examples of articles with DOIs.

Ekwall A, Gerdtz M and Manias E (2008) ‘The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(6):800–809, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x

Wood G (2002) ‘A partnership model of corporate ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics, 40(1):61–73, http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019990724275


URLs

In reference list entries, URLs are provided for some online sources, such as web pages, web documents, blog posts and online videos – and for online articles that do not have a DOI.

Note: in most cases, there is no need to provide a URL for an e-book nor for an article published in an academic journal. Instead, they are usually cited in the same way as print publications (with the addition of a DOI, if there is one).

When including a URL:

  • hyperlink the title of the work to the URL of the source.
  • provide the date you accessed the URL.
  • do not include the URL of a library database or any other URL that is not freely available to the public.
How do I hyperlink a title?

If you are using Microsoft Word:

  1. Select the title you want to hyperlink.
  2. Click CTRL + K (PC) or COMMANDK (Apple).
  3. Paste the URL into the address.
  4. Save.
  5. Check that your link is correct.

Web document:

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: Afghanistan, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Blog post:

A+B blog (31 March 2020) ‘Collaborative tiny home project unveiled’, A+B blog, Deakin University, accessed 31 August 2020.

Online article with no DOI:

Whelan T and Fink C (21 October 2016) ‘The comprehensive business case for sustainability’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27 August 2020.

Translation

In-text citations

Cite the original author, not the translator.

Intergenerational poverty ‘is not written in the stars; underdevelopment is not one of God's mysterious designs’ (Galeano 1973:7).


Reference list

Include the name and role of the translator in brackets after the title of the work.

Galeano E (1973) Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent (Belfrage C trans), Monthly Review Press, New York.

Books

Select a topic

Overview

In-text citations

The concept of race 'bears the traces of its origins in the biological discourse of social Darwinism' (Barker and Jane 2016:247).

Controlling is one of the four managerial functions that can be utilised to help describe what managers do (Williams et al. 2020).


Reference list
  • Provide as much detail as is available. If a detail is not given, for example an edition or place of publication, simply leave it out.
  • For the most part, the same information is provided for both print books and e-books.
  • For older books (for example, when citing classical literature), the original year can be included as well as the year of the edition. See the Shakespeare example below.
  • An e-reader edition of an e-book may need to be noted, as it may be a unique edition. For further details, see the Harvard topic: e-books.
  • DOIs should be provided, where available. If provided there is no need to include a place of publication. For further details, see the Harvard Explained topic: DOIs and URLs.

Provide the following bibliographic details, where available, for both print books and e-books:

Author (year) Title of book: subtitle of book, edition, volume, (Editor/Reviser/Translator/Compiler), Publisher, Place of publication, DOI

Barker C and Jane EA (2016) Cultural studies: theory and practice, 5th edn, Sage, London.

Galeano E (1973) Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent (Belfrage C trans), Monthly Review Press, New York.

Hocking J (2008) Gough Whitlam: a moment in history: the biography, vol 1, Melbourne University Publishing, Carlton.

Maddison S and Denniss R (2013) An introduction to Australian public policy: theory and practice, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107255920.007

Shakespeare W (1600/1967) The merchant of Venice (Moelwyn W ed), Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Williams C, McWilliams A, Lawrence R and Waheduzzaman W (2020) MGMT4, 4th edn, Cengage Learning Australia, South Melbourne.

e-books

In-text citations

For e-books that do not have page numbers, you may cite:

  • a chapter (‘Chapter title’)
  • section title (‘Title of section’)
  • paragraph number (para.).

Herodotus (2002:‘Book one’) gives his take on the Phoenician and Persian accounts.


Reference list

In most cases, reference list entries for e-books:

  • are the same as for print books (with the addition of a DOI, if available)
  • do not require a URL, a database name, nor a date of access.

For further details, see the Harvard Explained topic: DOIs and URLs.

For example, here is a reference list entry for an e-book accessed via a Deakin database. Note how it has the same details as for a print book.

e-book with no DOI:

Barker C and Jane EA (2016) Cultural studies: theory and practice, 5th edn, Sage, London.

e-book with DOI:

Maddison S and Denniss R (2013) An introduction to Australian public policy: theory and practice, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107255920.007

Marmot M and Wilkinson R (eds) (2009) Social determinants of health, 2nd edn, Oxford Scholarship Online, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565895.001.0001

e-reader editions:

For e-reader editions of e-books that have differing (or no) page numbers (e.g. Kindle editions), provide the edition.

Herodotus (2002) The histories, Kindle edn, (Rawlinson G trans), Alfred A Knopf, New York.

Edition

Reference list
  • Place the edition of the book after the title.
  • If the book is a first edition, there is no need to note an edition number.

Author (year) Title of book, edition, Publisher, Place of publication.

Williams C, McWilliams A, Lawrence R and Waheduzzaman W (2020) MGMT4, 4th edn, Cengage Learning Australia, South Melbourne.

Note that ‘edition’ can refer also to an e-reader edition of an e-book – but note too that most e-books are not different editions and correspond to the equivalent print edition.

Author (year) Title of book, e-reader edition, (Translator trans), Publisher, Place of publication.

Herodotus (2002) The histories, Kindle edn, (Rawlinson G trans), Alfred A Knopf, New York.

Editors, translators

Reference list

The names of the editor (ed), editors (eds), compiler (comp), reviser (rev) or translator (trans) can be included in two ways:

  • after the title (in brackets)
  • or if these roles are of primary importance, they can be placed in the author position (in brackets).

Author (year) Title of book (Translator trans), Publisher, Place of publication.

Galeano E (1973) Open veins of Latin America: five centuries of the pillage of a continent (Belfrage C trans), Monthly Review Press, New York.

Compiler (comp) (year) Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Smith JA (comp) (1969) The Faber book of children's verse, Faber and Faber, London.

Editors (eds) (year) Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Becker WE, Watts M and Becker SR (eds) (2006) Teaching economics: more alternatives to chalk and talk, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Editors (eds) (year) Title of book, edition, Publisher, DOI

Marmot M and Wilkinson R (eds) (2009) Social determinants of health, 2nd edn, Oxford Scholarship Online, doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565895.001.0001

Place

Reference list
  • The first-listed city of publication is placed after the publisher's name.
  • If a DOI is provided there is no need to include a place of publication. For further details, see the Harvard Explained topic: DOIs and URLs.

Author (year) Title of book, edition, Publisher, Place of publication or DOI

Barker C and Jane EA (2016) Cultural studies: theory and practice, 5th edn, Sage, London.

Maddison S and Denniss R (2013) An introduction to Australian public policy: theory and practice, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107255920.007

The state or country of publication can be added for lesser known cities or where two cities might be confused.

Cambridge, MA

Cambridge, UK

Milton, Qld.

Chapter

Note: When citing a chapter from a book written by a single author or single set of authors, cite as you would a whole book – there is no need to include the chapter title in the reference list entry.

When citing a chapter from an edited collection (a book of collected works by different authors), provide the author of the chapter (or preface, foreword or introduction) in the in-text citation.


In-text citations

Watts (2006:168) concludes that ...


Reference list

When citing a chapter from an edited collection, include the following:

  • author of the chapter (or preface, foreword, introduction)
  • title of chapter
  • editor(s) of the book.

Author (year) 'Chapter title', in Editor (ed) Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.

Watts M (2006) 'Team term papers and presentations', in Becker WE, Watts M and Becker SR (eds) Teaching economics: more alternatives to chalk and talk, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.

Journal articles

Select a topic

Overview

A journal article in the context of academic study often refers to an article published in a peer-reviewed academic publication, but the term can apply more broadly to a range of articles that you may find online.

Be aware that some news and magazine sites may not always be credible sources of information for the purposes of your assessment. Discuss this further with the teaching staff in your unit. Learn more about evaluating sources.

The best way to find journal articles is via the Deakin Library:

See also the Harvard topic: News articles.

Most academic journal articles (whether in print or online) have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). DOIs can usually be found on the first page of the article or in the entry on the Library catalogue. Note that there are different formats for DOIs. Use the format provided in the article.

For further details, see the Harvard Explained topic: DOIs and URLs.


In-text citations

Whelan and Fink (2016) observe that sustainable practices can lower operational costs.

Benford et al. (2013:68–9) explore how user discomfort can be managed carefully and ethically to foster emotional engagement of computer users.

For longer online articles with no page numbers, you can use paragraph numbers or section headings.

It is ‘a future in which our every move, our every word … is trackable, traceable, and data-mineable’ (Klein 2020:para.9).


Reference list

Provide as much detail as is available. If a detail is not given, for example a journal issue number, simply leave it out.

  • Place article titles in single quote marks, and only capitalise the first letter of the first word and any names.
  • Format journal titles in italics, and use capital letters as they are used in the publication.
  • Place the journal issue number in brackets after the volume number.
  • Include a colon between the issue and the page range.
  • Provide a DOI, where available. Do not place a full stop after a DOI.
  • Do not include the name of the library database where you sourced the article, nor a library database URL.

Author (year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume(issue):page range, DOI

Denmark D, Ward I and Bean C (2012) 'Gender and leader effects in the 2010 Australian election', Australian Journal of Political Science, 47(4):563–578, https://doi.org/10.1080/10361146.2012.731485

Benford S, Greenhalgh C, Giannachi G, Walker B, Marshall J and Robben T (2013) 'Uncomfortable user experience', Communications of the ACM, 56(9):66–73, doi:10.1145/2500889

Online article - no issue, volume number or DOI:

  • Provide the full date, where available.
  • Hyperlink the title to the URL of the article, if it is freely available to the public.
    Note that Library database URLs are not freely available to the public. Never link to a downloaded copy of the article.
  • Include the date you accessed the article.

Author (day month year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, accessed date.

Klein N (9 May 2020) ‘Screen new deal’, The Intercept, accessed 12 August 2020.

Whelan T and Fink C (21 October 2016) ‘The comprehensive business case for sustainability’, Harvard Business Review, accessed 27 August 2020.

Online article with article number:

Some journals use article numbers rather than volume, issue and page numbers.

Author (year) 'Title of article', Title of Journal, article number, DOI

Chou CL, Teherani A and Masters D (2014) 'Workplace learning through peer groups in medical school clerkships', Medical Education Online, article no. 25809, doi:10.3402/meo.v19.25809

Article in press

  • Use the term in press to refer to a peer-reviewed article accepted for publication in a future issue of a journal.
  • Leave out any details that cannot be confirmed, for example, the year, issue, volume, DOI or page number. Never guess any of the details.

In-text citations

Russell and Carlton (in press) reported similar results.


Reference list

Russell EK and Carlton B (in press) ‘Counter–carceral acoustemologies: sound, permeability and feminist protest at the prison boundary’, Theoretical Criminology.

Review

In-text citations

Include the name of the reviewer.

It is this sort of ‘archaeological precision’ (Ames-Lewis 1987) that tends to overlook the broader context of the artist’s work and world.


Reference list
  • In addition to details of the review and the journal it was published in, include the publication details of the work being reviewed.
  • Note: some reviews, like the one below, do not have a title – in this case, simply leave out the title of the review.

Reviewer (year) 'Title of review', review of Title of work by Author in Title of Journal, volume(issue):page range.

Ames-Lewis F (1987) Review of Mantegna by Lightbrown R in Renaissance Studies, 1(2):273–279.

Government, NGO and legal

Select a topic

Government overview

In-text citations

The author of government reports and other publications is often a specific department or agency.

  • Only use a shortened form of a department or agency if it is in common use.
  • Spell out the full name of a department or agency the first time you use it, then use the shortened form from that point on.

According to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT 2020), Australia ranks 23 in Afghanistan’s principal export destinations.

DFAT (2020) states …

One aim is to better understand intergenerational disadvantage (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW] 2020:para.12).

Reliable data is important when discussing factors that influence wellbeing (AIHW 2020:para.2).


Reference list
  • If you use a shortened form in your text, provide the reference list entry under the shortened form of the name, followed by the full name in brackets.
  • For online sources, hyperlink the title if the source is freely available to the public.
  • For reports that are part of a series, provide the title of the series.
  • Provide a catalogue number, if one exists.
  • Include the name of the government that the department belongs to.
  • Cite according to source type. See also the Harvard topics: Book, Web page, Web document, Media release, Report.

Report on a web page:

Note: In this example, the source is also a part of a series, and has a catalogue number and a DOI.

Shortened Form (Agency) (year) ‘Title of report’, Title of series, catalogue number, Agency, Government, DOI

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2020) ‘Australia’s welfare 2019: data insights’, Australia’s Welfare Series 14, catalogue number AUS 226, AIHW, Australian Government, doi:10.25816/5d5e14e6778df

Print report with a named author:

Author (year) Title of report, Department, Government, Place of publication.

Baslum S (2000) Payments to Vietnam veterans: a summary, Department of Veterans’ Affairs, Australian Government, Canberra.

Web document:

Shortened Form (Department) (year) Title of document, Department, Government, accessed date.

DFAT (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) (2020) Fact sheets for countries, economies and regions: ‘Afghanistan’, DFAT, Australian Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Department of Justice, Community and Justice Policy (2007) Step forward: getting help about sexual violence, Department of Justice, Northern Territory Government, accessed 25 August 2019.

Web page:

Shortened Form (Department) (year) Title of webpage, Department, Government, accessed date.

DET (Department of Education and Training) (2020) Bushfire at-risk register (BARR), DET, State Government of Victoria, accessed 3 October 2020.

ABS

In-text citations

Spell out the full name of the Australian Bureau of Statistics the first time you use it, then use the shortened form ABS from that point on.

… (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS] 2013).

... (ABS 2013).

Reference list

  • Hyperlink the title of the ABS publication to the precise URL.
  • Provide the ABS catalogue number, where relevant.
  • Learn more about citing various ABS resources (but then always apply the advice in this guide to your final citation).

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (year) Title of publication, catalogue number, accessed date.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2013) Industrial disputes, Australia, June 2013, catalogue number 6321.0.55.001, accessed 8 July 2020.

Bills

The following advice is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style. For further details, see the Deakin guide to AGLC.

The following details are included in both in-text citations and the reference list.

  • Title and year: the title of the Bill is followed by the year (but they are not in italics, as with Acts)
  • Jurisdiction: abbreviated and in round brackets, e.g. (Cth) = Commonwealth
  • Pinpoint reference: references are often to clauses or subclauses. For example, cl = clause; sub-cl = subclause (see section 3.1.4 and Appendix C of the AGLC).

In-text citations
  • Citations of Bills may be integrated into the sentence or cited in round brackets at the end of the sentence.

Title of Legislation year (Abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint

In regards to the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83 …

… (Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83).


Reference list
  • There is no full stop at the end of reference list entries.
  • Note: you may be asked in your unit to create a separate section for legal sources (e.g. Acts and Bills).

Title of Bill year (abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83

Cases

The following advice is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style. For further details, see the Deakin guide to AGLC.

The following details are included in both in-text citations and the reference list.

  • Case name: full name of case in italics
  • Year: in square brackets – if case has a unique court identifier or if law report volume is organised by year
  • Year: in round brackets – if law report is organised by continuous volume numbers
  • Unique court identifier: See rule 2.3.1 and Appendix B of the AGLC for a list of unique court identifiers
  • Judgement number
  • Pinpoint: if required, refer to the paragraph number

In-text citations

Citations of cases may be integrated into the sentence or cited in round brackets at the end of the sentence.

Case name [year] Unique court identifier Judgement number pinpoint

In Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39 [27], it is stated that …

… (Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39 [27]).


Reference list
  • There is no full stop at the end of reference list entries.
  • Create a separate section for cases within the reference list, under the sub-heading 'Cases'. List cases alphabetically.

Case name [year] Unique court identifier Judgement number Pinpoint

Minister for Immigration and Citizenship v SZIAI [2009] HCA 39

Cases without a unique court identifier (Reported cases):

  • Where a case does not use a unique court identifier in the citation, it has come from a law report series. The abbreviations for law reports are in Appendix A of the AGLC.
  • Note that both round and square brackets are used around the year. Copy the reference details as they appear in your source.
  • Some of these cases have no volume number.

Case name (year) or [year] Volume if applicable Abbreviation of law report series First page of case, pinpoint

Waltons Stores (Interstate) Ltd v Mather (1988) 164 CLR 387, 390

Legislation

The following advice is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style. For further details, see the Deakin guide to AGLC.

The following details are included in both in-text citations and the reference list.

  • Title and year: the title of the Act is followed by the year, and are both in italics
  • Jurisdiction: abbreviated and in round brackets e.g. (Cth) = Commonwealth
  • Pinpoint reference: reference to a page, paragraph, section, clause, etc. For example, s = section; pt = part (see rule 3.1.4 and Appendix C of the AGLC).

In-text citations

Citations of legislation may be integrated into the sentence or cited in round brackets at the end of the sentence.

Title of Act year (abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint

In the Transfer of Land Act 1958 (Vic) s 74, we find that …

… (Banking Act 1959 (Cth) s 5).

Australian consumer law:

The principle consumer protection law in Australia is found in schedule 2 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth). The first citation of this Act should be:

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) sch 2 (‘Australian Consumer Law’)

Subsequent citations should be shortened to Australian Consumer Law. See rule 3.1.7 in the AGLC for more information on individual parts of legislative material.

Unconscionable conduct is prohibited under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) sch 2 (‘Australian Consumer Law’). In relation to goods and services, the relevant provision is s 21 of the Australian Consumer Law.


Reference list
  • There is no full stop at the end of reference list entries.
  • Note: you may be asked in your unit to create a separate section for legal sources (e.g. Acts and Bills).

Title of Act year (abbreviation of jurisdiction) pinpoint

Banking Act 1959 (Cth) s 5

Transfer of Land Act 1958 (Vic) s 74

NGO

In-text citations
  • Only use a shortened form of a non-government organisation (NGO) if it is in common use.
  • Spell out the full name of an organisation the first time you use it, then use the shortened form from that point on.

The World Health Organization (WHO 2014) states that …

The WHO (2014) reports ...

… (Australia for UNHCR 2019)


Reference list
  • If you use a shortened form in your text, provide the reference list entry under the shortened form of the name, followed by the full name in brackets.
  • Cite according to source type. See also the Harvard topics: Book, Web page, Web document, Media release.

Organisation (year) Title of document, Name of Website/Organisation, accessed date.

Australia for UNHCR (2019) 2019 annual report, UN Refugee Agency, accessed 3 July 2020.

WHO (World Health Organization) (2014) WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion, WHO, accessed 3 August 2020.

Organisation (year) Title of web page, Name of Website/Organisation, accessed date.

UNICEF Australia (n.d.) Early childhood development, UNICEF Australia, accessed 26 March 2019.

Parliament

Parliamentary debates and proceedings:

In-text citations

… (Australian Senate 2000).


Reference list

When citing Australian parliamentary debate, or Hansard, provide:

  • the volume number before a colon
  • page number range after the colon.

Name of Parliamentary Committee or House (year) Debates, volume:page range.

Australian House of Representatives (2000) Debates, HR103:2–9.


Australian Senate (2000) Debates, S25:68.

When citing official recordings of proceedings in Parliament, provide:

  • the issue number in parentheses, or the volume number
  • page number range after the colon.

Name of Parliamentary Committee or House (year) Journals or Votes and Proceedings, (issue) or volume:page range.

Australian House of Representatives (2000–01) Votes and Proceedings, 1:631.

Australian Senate (2000–01) Journals, (123):718.

Treaties

The following advice is based on the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) referencing style. For further details, see the Deakin guide to AGLC.

Treaties (also known as Conventions, Covenants, Declarations, Protocols and Statutes) are international agreements between states and are part of international law.


In-text citations

The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (‘CISG’) governs contracts of sale of commercial goods between signatories. A written contract is not mandatory (CISG art 11) and an offer becomes effective when it reaches the offeree (CISG art 15).


Reference list

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, signed 11 April 1980, 1489 UNTS 3 (entered into force 1 January 1988).

Web and video

Select a topic

Overview

There are endless sources of information to be found on the internet, but not all of it is appropriate to contribute to your academic writing.

  1. What is the purpose of your writing task? Which sources will support your response to the task?
  2. Use your set unit readings as a starting point. Look at the citations in those readings.
  3. Then use the Deakin Library databases and Resource Guides to find further sources.
  4. Always ask yourself: Is this a credible and reliable source of information?
  5. Seek advice from teaching staff in your unit.
  6. You can also get help from the Deakin Library and Study Support.

Do I always need to include a URL and date of access?

In the Australian Harvard style of referencing, online sources that can be easily updated require:

  1. the full URL hyperlinked in the title of the work
  2. the date you accessed the source.

This applies to the following source types:

  • web pages or documents
  • online news reports
  • blog posts
  • online videos e.g. YouTube
  • podcasts.

Only provide links to freely available sources. If a source is behind a paywall, requires a log in (e.g. a Deakin Library database) or is private access only, do not hyperlink to it.

If you are submitting your work in print format only, in your reference list you will need to provide the full URL after the accessed date instead of hyperlinking titles. Do not place a full stop at the end of a URL.


Note: most e-books and online journal articles do not require a URL nor a date accessed, and they do not require any information about the Library database where they were found. They are mostly cited the same way as print books and articles.

Likewise, citations of films or TV episodes, even those accessed via digital streaming platforms, do not require the name of the platform (e.g. Netflix) nor a URL.


How do I hyperlink a title?

If you are using Microsoft Word:

  1. Select the title you want to hyperlink.
  2. Click CTRL and K (PC) or COMMAND + K (Apple).
  3. Paste the URL into the address.
  4. Save.
  5. Check that your link is correct.

Is this source available to the general public?

Sources that are not available to the general public, such as private social media posts, wikis and email messages, should be treated as Personal communications. If you are not sure whether it is appropriate to cite social media or personal communications in your assessment, seek clarification from the teachers in your unit.

Web page

  • Note: Many web pages do not include the names of individual authors. Learn more in the Harvard topics: Group authors, Government overview, NGOs.
  • It is preferable to cite a web page rather than an entire website – this provides a more accurate location of your source.
  • Provide the day, month and year, where available (commonly provided for an article on a webpage) but do not use the copyright date. Be aware that some web pages do not provide any date – and in this case give the date as (n.d.) ‘no date’.

In-text citations
  • For longer webpages, provide section titles or paragraph numbers (instead of page numbers).
  • When citing multiple sub-pages or sub-sections of a website, you may provide the titles of the specific sections in your in-text citation. In the reference list, provide the single web page where all sub-sections/pages can be found.

It is now recognised that ideas once relegated to ‘fringe’ economic thought may soon instead be part of an innovative solution (United Nations 2020:para.7)

Responsibility and accountability are key aspects of this (Deakin University n.d.:‘GLO6 self-management’).


Reference list
  • Include the day. month and year, where available.
  • Hyperlink the title of web page to the URL if the source is freely available to the public.
  • Do not link to a URL from a library catalogue or database.
  • Do not link to a source that requires a log in. Instead, provide the homepage URL in text.
  • Include the date you accessed the web page.

Organisation (day month year) Title of web page, Website/Organisation, accessed date.

Deakin University (n.d.) Deakin graduate learning outcomes, Deakin University, accessed 8 September 2020.

United Nations (3 September 2020) Women are key to response and recovery out of the COVID era: Deputy UN Chief, UN News, accessed 14 September 2020.

If a site is not freely available (e.g. requires a log in), include the homepage URL after the title.

Organisation (day month year) Title of web page, homepage URL, Organisation, accessed date.

ABCB (Australian Building Codes Board) (2019) NCC 2019 volume one, https://ncc.abcb.gov.au/, National Construction Code, accessed 2 May 2020.

Web document

  • Note: Many web documents do not include the names of individual authors. Learn more in the Harvard topics: Group authors, Government overview, NGOs.
  • Provide the day, month and year, where available, but do not use the copyright date. Be aware that some web documents do not provide any date – and in this case give the date as (n.d.) ‘no date’.

In-text citations

For a long document with no page numbers:

  • you may cite a paragraph number, sub-heading or section title.
  • never cite the page numbers of your printed version of the document.

Core relief was delivered to more than 20,000 Syrian refugees in this period (Australia for UNHCR 2019:10).

An average of $829,000 is reported in losses to cybercrime every day in Australia (ACCC 2020:‘Australian Cyber Security Centre’).


Reference list
  • Include the day, month and year, where available.
  • Hyperlink directly to the URL of the PDF (or to the landing webpage where the document can be found) if the source is freely available to the public.
  • Do not link to a source that requires a log in. Instead, provide the homepage URL in text.
  • Include the date you accessed the document.

Author (year) Title of document, Name of Website/Organisation, accessed date.

ACCC (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission) (2020) Be safe, be alert online, ACCC, Australian Government, accessed 1 October 2020.

Australia for UNHCR (2019) 2019 annual report, UN Refugee Agency, accessed 3 July 2020.

WHO (World Health Organization) (2014) WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion, WHO, accessed 15 August 2020.

Blog post

In-text citations
  • Provide the author and year.
  • As most blog posts are short they do not require paragraph numbers, sub-headings or other locators – but they can be provided for longer posts, if needed.

The Prefab21 tiny home offers homeless residents of Geelong ‘safety, dignity, comfort … and the time to transition to more permanent housing’ (A+B blog 2020).

Smith (2020) explores some of the debates around ‘academic quality’ in the context of some of the recent organisational disruptions.


Reference list

For blog posts, provide:

  • the author’s name as it appears in the post
  • the blog as author if a post has no named author
  • the day, month and year of the post
  • a hyperlinked title of the post
  • the date you accessed the post.

Author of post (day month year) 'Title of post', Title of blog, accessed date.

A+B blog (31 March 2020) ‘Collaborative tiny home project unveiled’, A+B blog, Deakin University, accessed 31 August 2020.

Smith P (3 September 2020) ‘Rethinking higher education’, Inside higher ed, accessed 1 October 2020.

Social media post

Before citing a social media source, ask yourself:

  • Is it acceptable to cite social media sources for an assessment in this unit?
  • What is the purpose of citing this source?
  • Is this a credible and reliable source of information?
  • If the post is referring to content that can be found elsewhere, should I try to find the original source?
  • Is the social media post/update public or private? Posts from private social media accounts should be treated as Personal communications. All the following examples are of public social media posts.

In-text citations

Provide the author of the post and year.

Dawkins (2014) suggests that children learn from a young age to see through ‘a certain class of falsehoods’.


Reference list

For social media posts and updates, provide the:

  • author name (can also be username or name of an organisation)
  • day month and year of the post
  • first 10 words of the post followed by an ellipsis (…), hyperlinked to the URL of the post
  • the type of post in square brackets
  • the date you accessed the post.

Author of post (day month year) ‘First 10 words of post ...’ [type of post], Name of page/handle, accessed date.

Facebook:

Goodall J (23 April 2020) ‘What I’m doing now is my job, trying to wake…’ [Facebook post], Jane Goodall, accessed 29 May 2020.

Instagram:

Kristensen A (4 August 2020) ‘Yesterday, as Melbourne woke up to its first morning under…’ [Instagram post], @annika_kristensen, accessed 10 September 2020.

Twitter:

Dawkins R (4 June 2014) ‘Fairy tales, as well as charming, can be good training…’ [Tweet], @RichardDawkins, accessed 9 June 2020.

Online video

In-text citations

‘Online video’ here refers to videos that have been uploaded to a website or a social media platform such as YouTube. It does not refer to any film or episode that may have been viewed online (e.g. on Netflix or ABC iview). For further details see also the Harvard topics: Films and TV episodes.

  • Place the creator or owner of the video in the in-text citation
  • In some cases, you might provide the presenter in the in-text citation (if it is a video with a single presenter, e.g. a TED talk).
  • In addition, when citing a specific speaker in the video (e.g. interviewee), include their name in text.

Hilary Mantel discusses the possibility and process of changing popular perceptions of historical figures (Waterstones 2020).

Einstein’s theory of relativity has contributed to a range of contemporary everyday technologies, including GPS (Lagerstrom 2015).


Reference list

For online videos, provide the:

  • name of video creator/owner, which may be a username or the name of an organisation
    (if there is only one speaker, such as in a TED talk, you can place their name in the author position).
  • Day, month and year the video was uploaded, if available
  • title hyperlinked to the URL of the video
  • medium as [video]
  • name of the channel or the name of the organisation that owns the content
  • name of the website (if different from the authoring organisation, e.g. YouTube)
  • date you accessed the video.

Creator/Owner of video (day month year) ‘Title of video’ [video], Channel/Organisation, Website, accessed date.

Fitzpatrick S (7 April 2017) ‘The Russian Revolution of 1917 and World History: A Centenary Reflection’ [video], Schwartz Media, YouTube, accessed 23 May 2020.

Waterstones (24 February 2020) ‘Hilary Mantel: The Waterstones Interview - Wolf Hall Trilogy’ [video], Waterstones, YouTube, accessed 6 May 2020.

Creator/Owner of video (day month year) ‘Title of video’ [video], Organisation/Website, accessed date.

Transport Accident Commission (21 July 2016) ‘TAC: Meet Graham concept’, Best Ads, accessed 3 August 2020.

Speaker/presenter (month year) ‘Title of video’ [video], Organisation/Website, accessed date.

Lagerstrom L (January 2015) ‘Einstein’s Miracle Year’ [video], TED-Ed, accessed 8 August 2020.

Film

In-text citations
  • Provide the director and the original release year of the film.
  • Italicise film titles when mentioned in text.

‘I love the smell of napalm in the morning’ (Coppola 1979) continues to be one of the most parodied lines in TV and cinema.

Sunday too far away (Hannam 1975) was the first ever Australian film to be selected for the Directors' Award at the Cannes Film Festival.


Reference list

Whether a film has been accessed via Netflix, the Deakin Library or on DVD is irrelevant. Therefore, do not include information about the platform/distributor or the format in which you viewed the film.

  • Provide the name of the director and their role (or producer, if director unknown).
  • Provide the medium as [motion picture].

Note: IMDb (the International Movie Database) is a reliable source of information on films, including release years.

Director (director) (year) Title of film [motion picture], Film Studio/Publisher, Place of Production.

Bognar S and Reichert J (directors) (2019) American Factory [motion picture], Higher Ground Productions, Chicago.

Coppola FF (director) (1979) Apocalypse now [motion picture], Zoetrope Studios, San Francisco.

Hannam K (director) (1975) Sunday too far away [motion picture], South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide.

TV episode

In-text citations
  • Provide the director (or producer if the director is not known) and the original release year of the episode.
  • Place episode titles in singe quote marks, if mentioned in text.
  • Italicise names of series, if mentioned in text.

Several doctors were found to have prescribed drugs to patients who did not need them (ABC Television 2020).


Reference list

Whether a TV episode has been accessed via broadcast, streaming (Netflix or via a Deakin Library database) or on DVD is irrelevant. Therefore, do not include information about the platform or distributor i.e. how you accessed the episode.

  • Begin the citation with the director. If it not relevant/available, begin the citation with the producer or production organisation.
  • You may hyperlink to the TV episode, but only if the episode is freely available (e.g. ABC TV, SBS On Demand).
  • Include numbers of the episode and season, where relevant.
  • If an episode doesn’t have a name, provide the name of the program first.
  • Provide the medium as [television program].
  • Include the name of the studio/company that produced the episode (not the distributor or platform provider, e.g. Netflix, but note that in some cases this can be the same organisation).
  • Note: IMDb (the International Movie Database) is a reliable source of information on TV series and episodes.

Episode with title:

Producer (year) ‘Title of episode’ [television program], Name of show, Name of Station/Studio/Producer, Place of production.

ABC Television (2020) ‘Opioids Inc.’ [television program], Four corners, ABC Television, Sydney.

Episode with season/episode numbers instead of title:

Director (director) (year) Name of series (season, episode) [television program], Name of Station/Studio/Producer, Place of production.

Rochant E (director) (2018) The bureau (season 4, episode 9) [television program], The Oligarchs, Paris.

Podcast

In-text citations
  • Cite the name of the podcast host or producer in the in-text citation.
  • When citing a specific speaker within the podcast (e.g. an interviewee), include their name in text.

Brian Deer has debunked the often alleged link between MMR and autism (Adams 2020).


Reference list

Provide the:

  • name of the host or the producer of the podcast
  • the day, month and year of publication or original broadcast
  • title hyperlinked to the webpage where the episode is available (a landing page is preferable to linking directly to a file), if freely available to the public
  • medium as [podcast]
  • the episode and season number, where relevant.

Host (host) (day month year) ‘Title of episode’ [podcast], Name of podcast (season, episode), Radio Network, accessed date.

Spiegel A and Rosin H (hosts) (8 March 2020) ‘The Last Sound’ [podcast], Invisibilia (season 6, episode 6), NPR, accessed 6 May 2020.

Host (host) (day month year) ‘Title of episode’ [podcast], Name of show, Radio Network, accessed date.

Adams P (host) (9 September 2020) ‘Andrew Wakefield's fraudulent war on vaccines’ [podcast], Late night live, ABC Radio National, accessed 11 September 2020.

Other sources

Select a topic

Artwork

The following advice is around citing artwork viewed in a gallery or museum.

  • For artworks viewed online see also the Harvard topics: 
    Web pageOnline video and Digital collection.
  • For advice on how to include images in your work, see the Harvard topic: Figures, tables.
  • Check with your unit teaching staff whether you are required to include a ‘List of Artworks’ as a separate list to your reference list.
  • For further information around citing artworks, see the Australian Government Style Manual (but then always apply the advice in this guide to your final citation).

In-text citations
  • Include the artist's name and year of the artwork.
  • Maintain the original capitalisation used in the title of the artwork and format in italics, if mentioning in text.

Ngarra minytji relates to a sacred men’s ceremony and a totemic ancestor associated with the coast of Arnhem Land (Wilingarr 1937).


Reference list
  • Maintain the original capitalisation used in the title of the artwork.
  • Include details about the medium of the artwork.
  • Provide details about where the artwork was viewed, including the title of the exhibition and the exhibition dates. Alternatively, you might find the artwork online, in which case you have the option of linking to a Digital collection.

Artwork in an exhibition:

Creator (year) Title of work [medium], Title of exhibition, Gallery, Location, date of exhibition.

Wilingarr M (1937) Ngarra minytji (Ngarra ceremony design) [natural pigments on bark], Transformations: early bark paintings from Arnhem Land, Ian Potter Museum of Art, University of Melbourne, 13 November 2013 – 23 February 2014.

Exhibition catalogue:

Author or Gallery Name (year) Title of exhibition [exhibition catalogue], date of exhibition, Gallery/Publisher, Location.

Witt-Dörring C and Asenbaum P (2011) Vienna: art and design – Klimt, Schiele, Hoffmann, Loos [exhibition catalogue], 18 June – 9 October 2011, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Construction regulation

In-text citations

When citing legislation from a publication, include the details of the legislation in addition to an in-text citation for the publication. For further details on how to cite legislation, see the Harvard topic: Legislation.

… as stated in ‘CP2 Spread of fire’ in BCA Vol.1 (ABCB 2019).

OHS Regulations 2017 (Vic) Pt 3.3 (Prevention of Falls) s21 requires the duty holder to manage risks ... (WorkSafe Victoria 2017:27).


Reference list
  • Cite according to the source type – usually a web document.
  • Hyperlink to the source only if freely available to the public.

Author (year) Title of regulation/code, Website/Publisher, date accessed.

ABCB (Australian Building Codes Board) (2019) NCC 2019 volume one, https://ncc.abcb.gov.au, National Construction Code, accessed 2 May 2020.

WorkSafe Victoria (2017) Guide to the occupational health and safety regulations 2017, Worksafe Victoria, Victoria State Government, accessed 17 September 2020.

Computer code

In-text citations

… (Cansdale et al. 2020)


Reference list
  • Hyperlink the title to the landing page where the code can be accessed.
  • Include details of the version and the medium.
  • Provide an accessed date.

Author (day month year) Title of code [medium], version, Publisher/Website, date accessed.

Cansdale J, Kirk S, Gaita A, Goldman S, Haack P,  Okuda D and Greenaway J (10 June 2020) VisualStudio: GitHub extension [source code], v2.11.104, GitHub, accessed 14 September 2020.

Conference paper

  • Cite according to the source type, e.g. web document.
  • Include [conference presentation] or [unpublished conference presentation] after the title.
  • Provide the full date, the name and the place of the conference.

In-text citations

Howell (2016) recommends that …


Reference list

Published:

Author (day month year of conference) ‘Title of presentation’ [conference presentation], Name of Conference, Location, accessed date.

Howell J (28–30 September 2016) ‘Making connections: enhancing program outcomes via stakeholder partnerships' [conference presentation], WIL 2020: Pushing the boundaries, Macquarie University, Sydney, accessed 1 February 2020.

Unpublished:

Author (day month year of conference) ‘Title of presentation’ [unpublished conference presentation], Name of Conference, Location.

Blaiklock B (25–26 November 2009) 'Seeking a new model of learning support' [unpublished conference presentation], 9th Biennial National Conference of the Association for Academic Language and Learning, University of Queensland, St Lucia.

Dataset

In-text citations

… (ABS 2019)


Reference list
  • Cite according to the source type, e.g. web page or web document.
  • Provide the ‘date last updated’ as the year.
  • The medium of [data set] can be provided if the medium is not obvious.
  • Include a catalogue number, where relevant.

Author (year) Title of data set [data set], catalogue number, Website/Publisher, accessed date.

ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2019) Prisoners in Australia, 2019, catalogue number 4517.0, ABS, Commonwealth of Australia, accessed 20 August 2020.

Department of Planning, Industry and Environment (2019) State Environmental Planning Policy (Kosciuszko National Park-Alpine Resorts) 2007 [data set], Data.NSW, NSW Government, accessed 3 September 2020.

Deakin content

  • Note: in some units it is not acceptable to cite course materials (e.g. class presentations and slides).
  • Cite only if you have been given permission to do so.

In-text citations

… (Doolan 2019)


Reference list

Author (day month year) Title or your own descriptive title of class/topic [medium], Full name and code of unit, Deakin University.

Doolan L (13 April 2019) Week 2: Being and Time [class slides], Introduction to Phenomenology PHP267, Deakin University.

Dictionary, encyclopedia

Please note: in some units, citing dictionaries or encyclopaedias is not acceptable. Consult your unit guide for further details.

While Wikipedia can be a good starting point for gathering general information before you begin your research, a site such as Wikipedia can be updated at any point and by multiple authors, so it cannot be relied on as source for an academic assignment.


In-text citations
  • For most dictionaries and encyclopaedias, provide an in-text citation only.
  • No entry in the reference list is required.

The Macquarie dictionary (2018) defines political correctness as ...

However, if you are citing a more comprehensive authored entry from an encyclopaedia, you may cite according to the source type (e.g. Book, Chapter, Web page).

Glassman (2008) outlines eight ‘humanistic values’ or norms.


Reference list

Glassman U (2008) ‘Group work values’, in Gitterman A and Salmon R (eds) Encyclopedia of social work with groups, Routledge, New York.

Digital collection

The following advice is for artworks, images and manuscripts held in online repositories, databases or galleries.

See also the Harvard topics: Artworks and Figures, tables.


In-text citations
  • Provide the creator of the original work in the in-text citation, if known.
  • Italicise the titles of works if mentioned in text.

Wilson (1915) did not believe this characterisation of the American public was warranted nor that their sympathies were ‘controlled by their pocket books’.

It has been suggested that The seven deadly sins (Bosch c.1500) is less characteristic of his style.


Reference list
  • If the author is unknown, begin the citation with the title (or descriptive title) of the artwork or the name of publication in which the work originally appeared.
  • The original date of the work or the digital release date may be cited.
  • Use ‘c.’ (circa) for estimated dates.
  • You may choose to hyperlink the title to freely available web sources; however, do not hyperlink to a University Library database or other source that is not accessible to the public.
  • Include a catalogue or other reference number, if relevant.

Digitised image or artwork:

Artist (year) Title of artwork [medium of original artwork], catalogue number, Digital collection, date accessed.

Bosch H (c.1500) The seven deadly sins [oil on wood], ARTstor Digital Library, accessed 4 March 2020.

Cartier-Bresson, H (1945) Dessau: exposing a Gestapo informer [photograph], ARTstor Digital Library, accessed 19 October 2019.

Descriptive title of artwork (year) [medium of original artwork], catalogue number, Digital collection, date accessed.

Gay liberation badge, UK (c.1984) [brass, enamel], registration number 1984,0210.1, The British Museum Collection Online, accessed 3 September 2020.

Digitised manuscript or record:

Author (year) ‘Title of manuscript’, Title of archive series [medium], Digital collection, date accessed.

Wilson W (1914) ‘Memorandum of interview Samuel K Ratcliffe, March 25 1915’, Woodrow Wilson Papers: Series 5: Peace Conference Correspondence and Documents, 1914–1921; Subseries A: Policy Documents, 1914–1919; 1914, Dec. 26–1917, Oct. 31 [manuscript/mixed material], Library of Congress, accessed 13 August 2020.

Digitised newspaper article:

If the author is unknown, begin the citation with the name of the newspaper.

Newspaper (day month year) ‘Title of article’, Digital collection, Location, date accessed.

The Argus (10 January 1880) ‘The Unfairness of the Advocates of the Plebiscite’, Trove, National Library of Australia, accessed 23 June 2020.

See also the Harvard topic: News article

Figures, tables

This topic covers two distinct sub-topics:

  1. Including figures or tables in your own work
  2. Citing images, figures or tables

You may also want to browse these Harvard topics: Artwork, Dataset and Digital collection.

Note: You can include a separate ‘List of artworks cited’ or ‘List of figures and tables’ in addition to your main reference list. Check with teaching staff in your unit to determine if you are required to do this.


1. Including figures or tables in your own work

When adding figures (e.g. images, maps, graphs) or tables into your own work (e.g. document, slide presentation), each figure/table requires:

  • A figure/table number, e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2; Table 1, Table 2 – so that you can easily refer to them in your text – together with a brief, accurate and descriptive title .
  • An in-text citation and corresponding reference list entry if your figure/table has been copied or adapted from another source.
  • Copyright and permission information
    When you copy something (e.g. image, table) from a source which is for a public audience, you may need to add copyright details about, for example:

    - a website or other source that asks you to credit them for re-using their work
    - Creative Commons (CC) licensed material
    - journals or other publications.

Learn more in the Deakin Copyright modules for students 3: Copyright for your studies.

See also these Deakin Library guides to using Creative Commons, finding copyright-free images and finding image resources in the Library.


Including (or adapting) an image/map/graph/table from a publication

In your text:

  • Refer to the figure number.

Table 3 shows that the mortality rate for men is significantly higher in Eastern European countries.

The mortality rate for men is significantly higher in Eastern European countries (see Table 3).

Immediately above your figure/table:

  • Include the figure number and title.

Table 3. Correlation between coronary heart disease and reduced fresh food supply.

Immediately below your figure/table:

  • Include an in-text citation.

Source: Adapted from Marmot and Wilkinson (2003:27).

Reference list:

  • Include a copyright statement in addition to the usual reference details of the source.

Marmot M and Wilkinson R (2003) Social determinants of health – the solid facts, World Health Organization, Geneva. Copyright WHO 2003.


Including an image licensed under Creative Commons

Immediately above your figure:

  • Include a figure number and title.

Figure 1. Mainz Cathedral.

Immediately below your figure:

  • Include an in-text citation.
  • Note: in some cases the author may be a username.

Source: (barnyz 2014)

Reference list:

barnyz (18 July 2014) Mainz Cathedral interior [photo], Flickr, accessed 5 October 2020. Available under Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0).


Using your own image
  • Provide a descriptive title.
  • A citation is not required.

Figure 5. Screenshot of the author’s journal: databases searched and keywords used.


2. Citing figures/tables from a publication

In-text citations

When citing a specific figure or a table within a publication (e.g. book, article, web document), include the figure/table number in text in addition to the in-text citation.

In the AIHW (2020:11) report into welfare (see Figure 1.4), the authors clarify …

Huyghe's location photographs of incomplete architecture in Chantier permanent are an early investigation into the 'open present' (see Figure 2.1, Barikin 2012:43).

Reference list

  • The details of the figure or table are not provided in the reference list entry.
  • Cite according to the source type, e.g. Web document, Book.

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2020) ‘Australia’s welfare 2019: data insights’, Australia’s Welfare Series 14, catalogue number AUS 226, AIHW, Australian Government, doi:10.25816/5d5e14e6778df

Barikin A (2012) Parallel presents: the art of Pierre Huyghe, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Industry report

In-text citations

The author of an Industry report may be an individual but is more likely to be an organisation.

... (Marketline 2019)


Reference list
  • For online sources that are not accessible to the public, do not hyperlink the title. Provide the homepage URL in text.
  • Do not include the name of the Library database where the report was accessed.
  • Include a report/profile number, where relevant.

Author (year) Title of report/profile, Website name or home page URL, accessed date.

Marketline (2019) Company profile: Rio Tinto, www.marketline.com, accessed 14 June 2020.

Media release

In-text citations

Spence (2020) outlines …


Reference list

Author (day month year) Title of media release [media release], Organisation, accessed date.

ASRC (Asylum Seeker Resource Centre) (7 October 2020) Budget 2020 abandons people seeking asylum and refugees [media release], Asylum Seeker Resource Centre, accessed 19 October 2020.

Author (Title, if relevant) (day month year) Title of media release [media release], Government, accessed date.

Spence R (Minster for Multicultural Affairs) (14 September 2020) Making multicultural communities stronger [media release], Victorian State Government, accessed 15 September 2020.

News article

This topic covers online and print news and magazine articles.

  • If an article has been accessed via a Library database, such as Newsbank or Factiva, do not include database information. Cite the article as it was originally published (e.g. in print).
  • For an example from Trove, see the Harvard topic: Digital collection.

In-text citations

The reason for this is made clear when looking more closely at the ‘range of uncertainty’ (Doman et al. 2020:para.44).

Afghan refugees faced an increased chance of being sent home (Narushima 2010).


Reference list
  • Include the day month and year of publication.
  • Hyperlink the title to an online article, if freely available to the public.
  • Online articles require a date accessed.

Online:

Author (day month year) 'Title of article', Title of Website, accessed date.

Doman M, Palmer A and Scott N (31 January 2020) ‘Cracking the code to Steve Smith's batting success’, ABC News Australia, accessed 5 February 2020.

Print:

Author (day month year) 'Title of article', Title of Newspaper.

Narushima Y (1 October 2010) 'Expulsion looming for Afghans', The Age.

No listed author:

Newspaper/site (day month year) 'Title of article' …

ABC News (1 September 2020) ‘NASA scientists zoomed in a million times on a far away galaxy and found a shape similar to Darth Vader's TIE fighter’, ABC News Australia, accessed 2 September 2020.

Personal communication

In-text citations 

Personal communications include letters, emails, private social media posts, personal interviews and telephone conversations.

  • It is advisable to get the permission of the person concerned before citing them.
  • The day, month and year can be provided within your text or as part of the in-text citation.

It is sometimes useful to indicate the role of the person being cited and their organisation.

When interviewed on 8 October 2019, Jenny Robinson, Manager of Heathville Community Centre, confirmed...

… (J Robinson, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, interview, 8 October 2019)

J Robinson (email with author, 8 October 2019) indicated ...

Reference list

No entry in the reference list is required.

Other print

This topic covers print advertisements, brochures, posters and newsletters.


In-text citations

Include the author or authoring organisation and year.

The print campaign by the Australian Heart Foundation (1999) clearly drew on earlier successes in community engagement.


Reference list
  • Provide the medium after the title in square brackets.
  • The year of publication may not always be known; however, if the year can be inferred with some certainty place a c. (meaning 'circa') before the year.

Author (year) Title of publication [medium], Name of Publisher/Organisation, Place of Publication.  

Australian Heart Foundation (1999) Be active every day: physical activity for a healthy heart [brochure], Australian Heart Foundation, Melbourne.

The Australian Greens (c. 2013) We're standing up for what matters [campaign flyer], The Australian Greens, Melbourne.

Report

This topic covers corporate, government, research and technical reports.

  • See also the Harvard topics: Web pages, Web documents, Government overview and NGOs.

In-text citations

Sydney Water (2013) states …


Reference List
  • Cite according to the source type, e.g. web documents, with the addition of a report number, where relevant.
  • Provide a description of the report if the report’s title does not adequately describe the document.

Online report without report number:

Author (year) Title of report, Organisation/Publisher, accessed date.

Rutledge S, Cohen-Vogel L and Osborne-Lampkin L (2012) Identifying the characteristics of effective high schools: report from year one of the national center on scaling up effective schools, National Center on Scaling Up Effective Schools, accessed 3 November 2019.

Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008) Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health, World Health Organization, accessed 22 June 2020.

Online report with report number:

Sydney Water (2013) Sydney Water annual report 2013, report number SW 103 10/13, Sydney Water, accessed 3 February 2020.

Report published in print:

NASW (National Association of Social Workers) (2012) 2011–2012 annual report, NASW, Washington, DC.

Song

In-text citations
  • Include the artist and year.
  • When including song titles in text, place within single quote marks.

‘Tomorrow never knows’ (Lennon and McCartney 1966) was a pioneering work in the history of sampling and electronic dance music.


Reference list

Check with teaching staff in your unit whether you are required to create a separate list for musical compositions.

Creator (year) ‘Title of song’ [song], Album, Publisher.

Lennon J and McCartney P (1966) ‘Tomorrow never knows’ [song], Revolver, Northern Songs.

Creator (year) Title of album [album], Publisher.

Beyoncé (2016) Lemonade [album], Parkwood Entertainment.

For further information on citing music, see the Australian Government Style Manual (but then always apply the advice in this guide to your final citation).

Standard

In-text citations

For procedures and practices relating to timber framed constructions in non-cyclonic areas... (Standards Australia 2006).

Nurses are obligated to ensure their decision making is informed and ethical (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia [NMBA] 2017:'Standard 1').


Reference list
  • Cite according to the source type – usually a web document.
  • In addition, provide a reference number for the standard.

Author (day month year) Full title of document, standard number, Website/Publisher, date accessed.

HIA (Housing Industry Association) (8 August 2019) Barriers and handrails, BCA 15-05, accessed 14 September 2020.

NMBA (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia) (2016) Registered nurses standards for practice, accessed 19 October 2020.

Standards Australia (2006) Residential timber-framed construction Part 2: Noncyclonic areas, AS 1684.2-2006, SAI Global, accessed 16 September 2020.

Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand (8 June 2001) Information technology - code of practice for information security management, AS/NZS ISO/IEC 17799:2001, Federation University, accessed 13 July 2019.

Thesis

In-text citations

Lee (2010) …


Reference list

Provide details of the thesis and whether it is published.

Author (year) ‘Title of thesis’ [type of thesis], Name of University, Location, date accessed.

Lee RL (2010) 'Mary De Garis: progressivism, early feminism and medical reform' [PhD thesis], Deakin University, Geelong, accessed 3 July 2020.

Author (year) Title of thesis [unpublished type of thesis], Name of University, Location.

Gray BE (2011) Exploring academic writing through corpus linguistics: when discipline tells only part of the story [unpublished PhD thesis], Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.

Unpublished

  • For unpublished sources, such as draft documents not available to the public or for internal reports and other documentation, provide as much relevant information as is available.
  • Always seek permission from the author/organisation before citing an unpublished work.
  • For private emails, interviews and private social media posts, see the Harvard topic: Personal communications.

In-text citations

Ng (2018) …


Reference list

Author (year) Title [unpublished manuscript/report], Organisation.

Ng A (2018) Machine learning yearning [unpublished manuscript], deeplearning.ai

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