IEEE


The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) referencing style is used widely in electrical, electronic and computing publications.

Before using this referencing guide, you should always consult your unit guide, which may specify variations on this style. If you are still unsure, please check with your unit chair, lecturer or tutor.

The information in this guide is based on the following sources:

Deakin guide to IEEE

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IEEE. (2014). IEEE Author Tool Box [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/authors/authors_journals.html

IEEE. (2014). IEEE Editorial Style Manual [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/documents/style_manual.pdf

Further resources:

Monash University. (2014, Aug.). Citing and Referencing: IEEE [Online]. Available: http://guides.lib.monash.edu/citing-referencing/ieee


General principles

The IEEE style consists of:

  1. In-text citations in the form of numbers in square brackets, e.g. [9]. Citations are numbered according to the order of their first appearance in the body of the paper. The same number is used for each work throughout a paper.
  2. A reference list at the end of the paper. This provides full bibliographic details of all in-text citations. The references are ordered numerically.

How do I format in-text citations?

Works are cited in the body of the text, in square brackets and inside punctuation marks.

… as shown by Jones [4], [5].

… as mentioned earlier [2], [4]–[7], [9]; …

Nguyen [4] and Percy and Pirelli [5] …

Colonna et al. [7] …

They can also be included in the narrative, where the citation acts like a noun.

… as demonstrated in [3]; according to [4] and [6]–[9].

Repeat citations

When repeating an in-text citation, use the original number as first cited. In the example below, Salzmann et al. [1] is cited in the first and last sentence.

Salzmann et al. [1] explore the established misconception that digital web-based languages are out of date before even being used. Another common opinion is that XML mark-up will be obsolete within five years [2]. However, many studies [1] [3] [4] have since challenged these opinions …

How do I compile a reference list?

  • List only the works that contributed directly to your research.
  • Reference numbers are enclosed in square brackets. They are set flush left and the reference list entries.
  • Do not combine two sources into one reference. There must be only one source per reference number.
  • Use the required abbreviations as summarised below.
  • In all references, the given name of the author or editor is abbreviated to the initial and precedes the last name. Use commas around Jr., Sr., and III in names.
  • List the names of all authors up to the first five authors. If there are six or more names listed, use "et al." after the first-listed author.
  • Format book and journal titles in italics; article titles are in double quotation marks.
  • When citing IEEE Transactions, if the issue number or month is not available, research IEEEXplore to update the information.
  • When referencing a patent, include the day and month.

Sample reference list

[1]  A. Bensky, "Communication systems," in Electrical Engineering: Know It All, C. Maxfield et al., Eds. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Science, 2011, pp. 735-836.

[2]  P. Laplante, Ed., Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering, 2nd ed. London, UK: Taylor and Francis, 2005.

[3]  J. Iovine, "Telepresence robot," in Robots, Androids, and Animatrons: 12 Incredible Projects You Can Build, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002, ch. 9, pp. 201-212.

[4]  S. Chapman, A. St. George, K. Waller, and V. Cakic, "The pattern of complaints about Australian wind farms does not match the establishment and distribution of turbines: support for the psychogenic, 'communicated disease' hypothesis," PLOS One, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1-11, Oct., 2013.

[5]  T. Do, E. Kijak, L. Amsaleg, and T. Furon, "Enlarging hacker's toolbox: deluding image recognition by attacking keypoint orientations," presented at the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Kyoto, Japan, 2012, pp. 1817-1820.

[6]  H. I. Smith, "Fabrication techniques for surface-acoustic-wave and thin-film optical devices," Proc. IEEE, vol. 62, pp. 1361-1387, 1974.

[7]  B. Badwin, Your Career as an Engineer. London, UK: Smith and Co., n.d.

[8]  Engineers Without Borders Australia. (2014). EWB: Our History [Website]. Available: http://www.ewb.org.au/about/our-story

Number of authors

One to five authors

In-text citation

As Smith noted [1] ...

As Schenk and Chan stated [2] ...

Reference list

Include the names of all authors.

[1]  H. I. Smith, "Fabrication techniques for surface-acoustic-wave and thin-film optical devices," Proc. IEEE, vol. 62, pp. 1361-1387, 1974.

[2]   K. F. Schenk and S. Chan, "Incorporation and impact of a wind energy conversion system in generation expansion planning power apparatus and systems," IEEE Transactions, vol. 100, pp. 4710-4718, 1981.

Six or more authors

Where there are six or more authors, provide the names of the first-listed author followed by "et. al."

In-text citation

Wu et al. [9] describe the ...

Reference list

[2]   L. T. Wu et al., "Real-time analytic sensitivity method for transient security assessment and prevent control," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 135, pt. C, pp. 107-117, Mar. 1988.

Primary sources

In some referencing styles, it is common to cite a source that has been cited in another source (a secondary source). However, the IEEE style requires you to cite the primary source.

For example, if you have read about Einstein's theory of special relativity (1905) in a book by Eric Badwin (2010), you must consult and cite the original (primary) source – Einstein's 1905 article. You do not cite Badwin.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations must be used for:

  • Months: e.g. Jan., Feb., Mar., etc
  • Standard IEEE terminology: e.g. statist. automat.
  • Journal titles: e.g. IEEE Journal on Technology in Computer Aided Design = TCAD
  • Conference proceedings: e.g. Proceedings of the IEEE = Proc. IEEE

For further details see:

IEEE. (2014). IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/documents/trans_journal_names.pdf

IEEE. (2014). IEEE Editorial Style Manual [Online], pp. 39-46. Available: http://www.ieee.org/documents/style_manual.pdf

No author

If the name of the author is not provided, begin the reference list entry with the title of the work.

[1]   Encyclopaedia of Electrical Engineering, New York, Smith and Co., 1998.

No date

If no date is provided, place "n.d." in place of the date.

[1]   B. Badwin, Your Career as an Engineer, London, Smith and Co., n.d.

How is IEEE different from Harvard?

  1. IEEE in-text citations are numbers in square brackets that follow the relevant text, e.g. 'It was only discovered in 2010 [1].' Only one reference number is used per source throughout the text. In Harvard style, the author and date are provided in-text for each citation.
  2. IEEE references are numbered in-text according to the order that they first occur in the text. The IEEE reference list is also ordered numerically, not alphabetically, as in the Harvard style.
  3. In IEEE, the date of publication is placed at the end of the reference list entry, whereas in Harvard the date is placed after the author.
  4. Unlike Harvard, IEEE uses abbreviations extensively: for months, standard IEEE terminology, journal titles, conference proceedings and theses details. See the section above on abbreviations.
  5. In IEEE, you are not permitted to cite a secondary source (i.e. a source cited within another source), whereas this is permitted in Harvard style.
  6. When citing titles of articles and book chapters, IEEE style uses double quotation marks, whereas Harvard uses single quote marks.

Books

Whole book

[1]    A. A. Author, Title of the Book. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, year.

[2]   D. Blockley, Engineering: A Very Short Introduction. New York: OUP, 2012.

[3]  M. T. Simpson, Hands-on Ethical Hacking and Network Defence. Boston: Course Technology, Cengage Learning, 2011.

Chapter in a book

Use the following format for books where there is single author or single set of authors.

[1]  A. A. Author and B. B. Author, "Title of chapter," in Title of Book, xth ed. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xx–xx.

[2]   R. C. Dorf and R. H. Bishop, "The performance of feedback control systems," in Modern Control Systems,10th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2005, ch. 5, sec. 5.9, pp. 267–276.

[3]   J. Iovine, "Telepresence robot," in Robots, Androids, and Animatrons: 12 Incredible Projects You Can Build, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002, ch. 9, pp. 201-212.

Chapter in an edited book

Use the following format where a book contains chapters written by various authors.

[1]  A. A. Author et al., "Title of chapter," in Title of Book, xth ed., A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, Eds. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, year, ch. x, sec. x, pp. xx–xx.

[2]  A. Bensky, "Communication systems," in Electrical Engineering: Know It All, C. Maxfield et al., Eds. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Science, 2011, pp. 735-836.

Dictionary or encyclopedia

Format the dictionary or encyclopedia according to the source type (e.g. book, e-book, website) and provide the relevant details.

Whole publication

[1]  P. Laplante, Ed., Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering, 2nd ed. London: Taylor and Francis, 2005.

[2]  J. A. Angelo, Jr., The Dictionary of Space Technology, 2nd ed. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999. Available: http://www.ebscohost.com/

Chapter or entry in a publication

[3]  S. Restivo, Ed.,"Physics and astronomy" in Science, Technology, and Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 12-14. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780195141931.001.0001

e-book

  • If a DOI is available, provide the DOI.
  • If no DOI is available, provide the full URL or homepage URL.

[1]   A. Author,Title of e-book [e-book]. City of Publisher, Country if not USA: Publisher, Date of original publication. Available: URL or DOI.

[2]   J. L. Brewer and K. C. Dittman, Methods of IT project management [e-book]. Indiana: Purdue University Press, 2013. Available: http://www.ebscohost.com/

[3]   S. Restivo, Ed., Science, Technology, and Society [e-book]. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 12- 14. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780195141931.001.0001.


Periodicals

Journal article

Titles of journals are often abbreviated in IEEE style. For further details see:

IEEE. (2014). IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/documents/trans_journal_names.pdf

Print article

[1]   A. A. Author and B. B. Author, "Title of article," Abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xx-xx, month, year.

[2]   S. Chapman, A. St. George, K. Waller, and V. Cakic,  "The pattern of complaints about Australian wind farms does not match the establishment and distribution of turbines: support for the psychogenic, 'communicated disease' hypothesis," PLOSOne, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1-11, Oct., 2013.

Online article with DOI

It is preferable to use this format for online articles and include the DOI.

[1]  A. A. Author and B. B. Author, "Title of article," Abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. x, no. x, pp. xx-xx, month, year. DOI

[2]   Li, J. Vucic, V. Jungnickel, and J. Armstrong, "On the capacity of intensity-modulated direct-detection syst. and the inform. rate of ACO-OFDM for indoor optical wireless applications," IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 60, pp. 799-809, Mar. 2012. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2012.020612.090300X

 Online article with no DOI

  • Only use this format where no DOI is available.
  • Note that this format differs in use of punctuation, placement of date, absence of quotation marks around the title, and the formatting of the journal number and issue.
  • Provide the full date, if available.

[1]   A. A. Author. (year, month day). Title of article, Abbrev. Title of Journal [Online]. vol.(no.), pp. xx-xx. Available: URL

[2]  R. J. Vidmar. (1992, Aug.). On the use of atmospheric plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. [Online]. 21(3), pp. 876–880. Available: http://www.halcyon.com/pub/journals/21ps03-vidmar

Newspaper article

[1]  A. A. Author. "Title of newspaper article," Title of Newspaper: Title of section, pp. xx-xx, month date, year.

[2]  P. Hannam. "Wind farms in NSW to face more red tape," The Sydney Morning Herald: Environment, p. 8, Mar., 20, 2014.


Other sources

Conference

  • If the year is given in the conference title, it may be omitted from the end of the reference.
  • For some common abbreviations in conferences, see p. 34 of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual: http://www.ieee.org/documents/style_manual.pdf

Paper presented at a conference

[1]  A. A. Author, "Title of paper," presented at the Abbreviated name of conference, City of Conference, State, year.

[2]  J. G. Kreifeldt, "An analysis of surface-detected EMG as an amplitude-modulated noise," presented at the 1989 Int. Conf. Medicine and Biological Engineering, Chicago, IL.

Published conference proceedings

  • Providing the city of the conference is optional.

[1]  A. A. Author, "Title of paper," in Abbreviated name of conference, City of conference, year, pp. xx-xx.

[2]   G. R. Faulhaber, "Design of service systems with priority reservation," in Conf. Rec. 1995 IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., pp. 3-8.

[3]  T. Do, E. Kijak, L. Amsaleg, and T. Furon, "Enlarging hacker's toolbox: deluding image recognition by attacking keypoint orientations," presented at the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Kyoto, Japan, 2012, pp. 1817-1820.

Patent

[1]  A. A. Author, "Title of patent," Patent authority xxxx, month, day, year.

[2]  W. Sheppard, "Improved liquid soap," U.S. Patent 49561, Aug., 22, 1865.

Report

[1]  A. A. Author, "Title of report", Abbreviated name of company or institution, City of company or institution, Rep. xxxxx, year, vol. x.

[2]  R. E. Haskell and C. T. Case, "Transient signal propagation in lossless isotropic plasmas," USAF Cambridge Res. Labs, Cambridge, MA, Rep. ARCRL-66-234 (II), 1994, vol. 2.

Standards

If the year of the standard is included in the Standard reference number, then you do not have to add the year again. For an example of this, see the AS/NZS citation below.

[1]  Title of Standard, Standard number, year.

[2]  Quality Management Systems – Requirements, AS/NZS ISO 9001:2008.

[3]  Standard Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials, ASTM E23 12c, 2013.

Website, webpage or web document

Provide the full date, if available.

[1]  A. A. Author (year, month day). Title of Webpage or Web Document (edition) [Medium]. Available: URL

[2]  Engineers Without Borders Australia. (2014). EWB: Our History [Website]. Available: http://www.ewb.org.au/about/our-story

[3]  R. Crow and Open Society Institute (2004, Aug.). A Guide to Institutional Repository Software (3rd ed.) [Online]. Available: http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/openaccess/pdf/OSI_Guide_to_IR_Software_v3.pdf

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