Deakin guide to referencing - Oxford

Learn about how and why we use sources in academic writing.

Referencing explained:

Did you miss an Orientation session on referencing? View the recording in UniStart.

Still have a question? Study Support can help.

Before you browse the guide, first learn about how and why we use sources in academic writing

Referencing explained:

Did you miss an Orientation session on referencing? View the recording in UniStart.

Still have a question? Study Support can help.

Deakin guide to Oxford

Different units at Deakin use different referencing styles. Always check your unit assessment information to find which style you are required to use.

Note: There are a number of interpretations of the Oxford style referencing used by different publishers and universities. Check with your teacher, supervisor or publisher whether you are required to follow a variant of Oxford that differs from the advice presented in this guide.

Last updated: 13 October 2020

Deakin guide to Oxford (PDF, 493.7KB)


Oxford explained

Select a topic

Overview

The Oxford style of referencing consists of:

  1. A superscript (raised) number in the body of the text that refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page.
  2. Footnotes provide the bibliographic details of a source and are numbered consecutively throughout a paper or chapter.
    Endnotes are an alternative to footnotes. They appear at the end of a paper or chapter.
  3. A bibliography is a full list of sources cited, sources consulted in preparing a paper, and other sources thought to be of interest to the reader. The list is ordered alphabetically according to the family name of the first author.
Recent changes to the Deakin guide to Oxford

In October 2020, a number of updates were made to this guide, including:

  • All main words in all titles begin with a capital letter.
  • “op.cit” and “ibid” are no longer used for repeat citations.
  • The year of publication, place and publisher name are placed in brackets.
  • “p.” and “pp.” are no longer used for page numbers.
  • In most cases, there is no need to include a URL for e-books nor for journal articles.
  • Where possible, a DOI should be provided for journal articles:
    e.g. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800
  • No need to include the name of Library database where an article has been sourced, nor a database URL.

Students can access the previous version of the Deakin guide to Oxford until early 2021:

Archive of previous Deakin guide to Oxford (PDF, 443.0KB)

This guide is based on the New Oxford Style Manual (Oxford: OUP, 2016).

First citations

Sources need to be cited wherever ideas from those sources are discussed, summarised, paraphrased or quoted.


Footnotes

The first time a source is cited in a paper or chapter, the footnote should provide the full bibliographic details of the source, including the author, title, year of publication and other publication details.

  • For quotes and paraphrases, provide a page number or alternative marker (e.g. section, paragraph), where possible, in the footnote.
  • For summaries or general references to works, you do not have to provide a page number, but you may wish to provide one in order to direct the reader to a specific passage in the text.

In all footnotes, regardless of the source type:

  • Two or three authors
    – use an ampersand ‘&’ between the last two authors.
  • More than three authors
    – include the family name of the first-listed author only, followed by ‘et al.’
  • All titles
    – all main words begin with a capital letter.
  • Titles of publications
    – e.g. books, journals and websites – are formatted in italics
  • Titles of works within publication
    – e.g. articles, chapters, web pages – are placed within single quote marks

Here is an example of a first citation from a book:

Kostof notes, 'Ggantija is a wholly manmade form, which is to say it is thought out and reproduceable'.1


1. S. Kostof, A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (2nd edn, New York: OUP, 1995), 35.

Here is an example of a first citation from a journal article:

…while others provide ethical guidance in the relationship between researchers and participants.23


23. L. Allemann S. Dudeck, ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Arctic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 899, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800


Bibliography

Sources cited in footnotes require corresponding entries in the bibliography:

Allemann, L. Dudeck, S., ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Arctic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 890–906, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800

Kostof, S., A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (2nd edn, New York: OUP, 1995).


How do bibliography entries differ from footnotes?

In a bibliography:

  • The entry begins with the family name of the first author
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the family names of authors.
  • A hanging indent style of paragraph is used.
  • Specific page numbers or sections of text cited is not given.
  • The full page range of book chapters and journal articles is included.

Subsequent citations


Footnotes

When sources are referred to more than once in a paper or chapter, full bibliographic details do not need to be given after the initial footnote.

For subsequent citations of the same work, provide the:

  • family name only
  • shortened (but accurate) title of the article, book or other source
  • relevant page numbers specific to each citation.

5. S. Kostof, A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (2nd edn, New York: OUP, 1995), 35.

6. Kostof, A History of Architecture, 41–45.

7. H. Gardner, Gardner's Art through the Ages (6th edn, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975), 31.

8. Kostof, A History of Architecture, 38.

Where you need to cite the same source multiple times in a single paragraph, cite using only a single footnote. However, if it cannot be made clear which text in your work is being cited, then you may need to use multiple footnotes to the same source in a single paragraph.


Bibliography

Each source cited requires a corresponding entry in the bibliography:

Gardner, H., Gardner's Art through the Ages (6th edn, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975).

Kostof, S., A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (2nd edn, New York: OUP, 1995).

Bibliography

A bibliography is an alphabetically ordered list at the end of paper or chapter that includes:

  • all the sources cited in the paper
  • other sources consulted in preparing the paper
  • other sources that might be of interest to the reader.

Sample Bibliography

Allemann, L. & Dudeck, S., ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Artic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 890–906, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800

Arakawa, Y., Zen Painting, tr. J. Bester (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1970).

Arnau, E. et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), 15–17, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081

Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘Industrial Disputes, Australia, June 2013’, cat. no. 6321.0.55.001, (5 Sep 2013), https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/6321.0.55.001Main+Features1Jun%202013, accessed Mar 2020.

Crafti, S., 'Winning Design Moored in Spain', The Age, Business Day (25 Aug. 2010), 16.

Gardner, H., Gardner's Art through the Ages (6th edn, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975).

Goldthwaite, R.A., 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 977–1012, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

Gombrich, E.H., 'The Early Medicis as Patrons of Art', in E.F. Jacob, ed., Italian Renaissance Studies (London: Faber & Faber, 1960), 279–311.

Martin, S.K., ‘Tracking Reading in Nineteenth-Century Melbourne Diaries’, Australian Humanities Review, 56 (May 2014), http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org, accessed 23 June 2020.

Porter, R., ‘Lion of the Laboratory’, review of G.L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton, 1995), in TLS (16 June 1995), 3–4.

Rutten, E., Fedor J., & Zvereva, V., eds., Memory, Conflict and New Media: Web Wars in Post-Socialist States (Milton Park: Routledge, 2013).

Specter, M., ‘The Dangerous Philosopher’, The Graduate Forum NYU (2 Apr. 2001), http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf, accessed 3 Feb. 2020.


How do entries in the bibliography differ from footnotes?

In a bibliography:

  • The entry begins with the family name of the first author
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the family names of authors.
  • A hanging indent style of paragraph is used.
  • Specific page numbers or sections of text cited is not given.
  • The full page range of book chapters and journal articles is included.

Otherwise, the same rules apply to both footnotes and the bibliography:

  • Two or three authors – use an ampersand ‘&’ between the last two authors.
  • More than three authors – include the family name of the first-listed author only, followed by ‘et al.’
  • All titles – all main words begin with a capital letter.
  • Titles of publications – e.g. books, journals and websites – are formatted in italics
  • Titles of works within publication – e.g. articles, chapters, web pages – are placed within single quote marks.

Note: There is no need to divide a bibliography into subsections unless you have been instructed to do so (e.g. into sections for primary and secondary sources).

Number of authors

Footnotes
  • Authors’ names should be in the order they appear in the publication
  • An author can be an organisation.

One author

21. R.A. Goldthwaite, 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 978, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

Two to three authors

  • Separate the final two authors with an ampersand ‘&’.

23. L. Allemann & S. Dudeck, ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Arctic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 899, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800

Four or more authors

  • Include only the family name of the first-listed author, followed by ‘et al.’ (meaning 'and others').

36. E. Arnau et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), 16, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081


Bibliography

Allemann, L. & Dudeck, S., ‘Sharing Oral Histories With Arctic Indigenous Communities: Ethical Implications of Bringing Back Research’, Qualitative Inquiry, 25/9–10 (Nov/Dec 2019), 890–906, https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800417738800

Arnau, E. et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), 15–17, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081

Goldthwaite, R.A., 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 977–1012, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

Group author

Sometimes the author is an organisation, government agency, association or corporate body.

  • Cite the full name of the organisation.
  • If the publisher is identical to the author, there is no need to repeat the publisher’s name.

Footnotes

1. Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Proposed Common Use Infrastructure on Christmas Island (Canberra: Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 2002), 52.

2. Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995), 41.


Bibliography

The entry is listed alphabetically under the name of the organisation (excluding ‘The’).

Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995).

Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works, Proposed Common Use Infrastructure on Christmas Island (Canberra: Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia, 2002).

No author

  • For works that do not provide the name of an author, the citation should begin with the title of the work.

For example, here is an online encyclopaedia entry with no author:


Footnotes

5. ‘Gunpowder Plot’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249505/Gunpowder-Plot, accessed 5 Aug. 2020.


Bibliography

‘Gunpowder Plot’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249505/Gunpowder-Plot, accessed 5 Aug. 2020.

No date

  • If a source has no publication date, use the latest copyright date.
  • If no date can be found, use ‘n.d.’ in place of a date.
  • If there is no date because the source is a forthcoming journal article, see the topic in this guide: In-press.

Footnotes

23. U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. and World Population Clock (U.S. Department of Commerce, n.d.), https://www.census.gov/popclock, accessed 9 Aug. 2020.


Bibliography

U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. and World Population Clock (U.S. Department of Commerce, n.d.), https://www.census.gov/popclock, accessed 9 Aug. 2020.

No page numbers

If your source has no page numbers (for example, some e-books and online articles are not paginated) then cite another locator within the source, such as a chapter, sub-heading or paragraph number.

For example, here is a citation of an online journal article with no page numbers where a sub-heading has been used as a locator.


Footnotes

Author, ‘Title of Article’, Title of Journal, issue/volume (Month Year), Title of Sub-heading, DOI

8. E. Arnau et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), The EC Thesis and Cognitive Approaches, https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081


Bibliography

Author, A., ‘Title of Article’, Title of Journal, issue/volume (Month Year), DOI

Arnau, E. et al., ‘The Extended Cognition Thesis: Its Significance for the Philosophy of (Cognitive) Science’, Philosophical Psychology, 27/1 (Feb. 2014), https://doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2013.836081

Source within a source

Footnote

When citing an author (who you have not read) who has been cited by another author (who you have read):

  • provide the full bibliographic details of both works in the footnote.
  • use the phrase ‘cited in
  • include the page number of the work that you have read.

In the example below, the student has read a book by Brown, in which is cited a book by Smith, but the student has not read Smith.

10. A. Smith, Italian Architecture (Melbourne: Penguin, 2000) cited in D. Brown, Renaissance Italy (London: Faber & Faber, 2002), 45.


Bibliography
  • Provide only the details of the source you have read.

Brown, D., Renaissance Italy (London: Faber & Faber, 2002).

Quotation style

Before quoting your source, first consider whether it would be more appropriate to paraphrase your source. We recommend using quotes sparingly.

Whether you are summarising, paraphrasing or quoting sources, include a citation.

In addition, quotes and paraphrases should always be accompanied by your commentary and analysis – and clearly support your response to the assessment task.

Use single quotation marks for short quotes.

Kostof notes that ‘Ggantija is a wholly manmade form, which is to say it is thought out and reproduceable’.1 This can be interpreted as …

For longer quotes:

  • do not use quotation marks
  • start the quote on a new line
  • indent the quote on the both the left and the right
  • use a font one size smaller.

Morley-Warner suggests that students should focus on how journal articles in their subject are written and structured. She describes another benefit of this process:

You will also gain a sense of the complexity of being an apprentice writer in an academic culture, or rather cultures, where expectations may vary from discipline to discipline, even subject to subject and where you can build a repertoire of critical thinking and writing skills that enable you to enter the academic debates, even to challenge.24

However, Morely-Warner fails to address how students might…

Books

Select a topic

Overview

  • In most cases, e-books are cited the same way as print books. There usually is no need to include a URL, database name or date of access. Learn more in the topic: e-books.
  • Include the following elements for book sources, where available and relevant.

Footnotes

Author

Authors’ names should be in the order they appear in the publication

A. Author & B. Author, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page.

1. S. Piggin & R.D. Linder, The Fountain of Public Prosperity: Evangelical Christians in Australian History 1740–1914 (Melbourne: Monash University Press, 2018), 31.

An author can be an organisation. If this organisation is also the publisher, do not include twice in the footnote.

Organisation, Title of Book (Place, year), page number.

3. Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995), 36–8.


Place of publication, publisher and year

After the title, the place of publication, publisher and year is placed in brackets

A. Author, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page number.

5. J. Pilger, Distant Voices (London: Vintage, 1994), 523.

If the publisher is also the author, or the publisher’s name is in the book title, there is no need to include twice.

2. M. Dibdin, ed., The Picador Book of Crime Writing (London, 1993), 85–6.


Edition

  • Include the edition number of a book before the place of publication and inside the brackets.
  • This is not necessary for a first edition.

A. Author, Title of Book (edition, Place: Publisher, year), page number.

9. H. Gardner, Gardner's Art through the Ages (6th edn, New York: Harcourt Brace, 1975), 126–8.


Volumes

  • Use roman numerals for volume numbers (e.g. i, ii, iii, iv).
  • Include the volume title if there is one.

A. Author, Title of Book, number of volume: Title of Volume (Publisher, year), page number.

10. J. Hocking, Gough Whitlam, i: A Moment in History (Melbourne: MUP, 2008), 201.


Translators, revisers and editors

  • Other contributors to the publication are placed after the title.
  • Use tr., rev., ed. and eds. before the name of the translator, reviser, editor or editors.

A. Author, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book, tr. A. Translator (Place: Publisher, year), page number.

4. E. Galeano, Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, tr. C. Belfrage (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973), 38.


Bibliography

Amnesty International, Prisoners Without a Voice: Asylum Seekers in the United Kingdom (London, 1995).

Dibdin, M., ed., The Picador Book of Crime Writing (London, 1993).

Galeano, E., Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent, tr. C. Belfrage (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973).

Hocking, J., Gough Whitlam, i: A Moment in History (Melbourne University Publishing, 2008).

Piggin, S. & Linder, R.D., The Fountain of Public Prosperity: Evangelical Christians in Australian History 1740 – 1914 (Melbourne: Monash University Press, 2018).

e-book

Footnotes

In most cases, e-books citations:

  • are the same as forprint books (with the addition of a DOI, if available)
  • do not require a URL, database name, or date of access.

For example, here is a footnote that refers to an e-book accessed via a Deakin database. Note how this citation has the same elements as citation for a print book.

3. G.L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton University Press, 1995), 85.

e-reader editions

However, for special e-reader editions that have differing page numbers, it may sometimes be useful to provide further information about the edition.

For e-books editions that do not have page numbers, you may cite a chapter or section in the footnote.

Author, Title of Book, rev. A Reviser, tr. A. Translator (e-book edition, Publisher, year), ‘Title of Chapter’.

28. Herodotus, The Histories, rev. J. Marincola, tr. A. Selincourt (Kindle edn, Penguin, 2002), ‘Book Seven’.

Author, Title of Book (e-book edition, Publisher, year), chapter, section, paragraph.

29. M. Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success (Kindle edn, New York: Little, Brown & Company, 2008), ch. 1, section 2, para. 5.

Digitised books

For digitised print books, you may want include further information to direct your reader to the source, such as the: URL and the date you accessed the website.

18. J. Maritain, An Introduction to Philosophy, tr. E.I. Watkin (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1937),170, https://archive.org/details/introductiontoph0000mari, accessed 20 June 2020.

19. L. Carroll, Alice in Wonderland (Project Gutenberg, 2008) http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11, accessed 13 Feb. 2020.


Bibliography

Carroll, L., Alice in Wonderland (Project Gutenberg, 2008), http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11, accessed 13 Feb. 2020.

Geison, G.L., The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton University Press, 1995).

Gladwell, M., Outliers: The Story of Success (Kindle edn, New York: Little, Brown & Company, 2008).

Herodotus, The Histories, rev. J. Marincola, tr. A. Selincourt, (Kindle edn, Penguin, 2002).

Maritain, J., An Introduction to Philosophy, tr. E.I. Watkin (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1937), https://archive.org/details/introductiontoph0000mari, accessed 20 June 2020.

Chapter

If citing a chapter in a book by a single author or single set of authors, there is no need to cite a specific chapter. Cite the whole book. See the Oxford Book topics: Overview and e-books.

However, if the chapter is from an edited collection, a book of collected works by different authors, then also include the:

  • author of the chapter
  • title of the chapter
  • editor of the book.


Footnotes

A. Author, 'Title of Chapter', in A. Editor, ed., Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page.

9. E.H. Gombrich, 'The Early Medicis as Patrons of Art', in E.F. Jacob, ed., Italian Renaissance Studies (London: Faber and Faber, 1960), 280.


Bibliography

Include the page range of the chapter.

Author, A., 'Title of Chapter', in A. Editor, ed., Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page range.

Gombrich, E.H., 'The Early Medicis as Patrons of Art', in E.F. Jacob, ed., Italian Renaissance Studies (London: Faber and Faber, 1960), 279–311.

Journal articles

Select a topic

Overview

For academic journal articles:

  • Include the volume number and issue number.
  • Some journals use the month in addition to, or instead of, a volume and issue number.
  • Some online journals use an article number instead of a volume and issue number.
  • Most journal articles sourced online or from a Library database are cited the same way as print articles – in most cases you do not need to include a URL nor a date accessed.
  • Include a DOI if the article has one.
  • Note that news articles are cited differently to journal articles. See Other sources.

Footnotes

A. Author, 'Title of Article', Title of Journal, volume/issue (year), page. DOI

13. R.A. Goldthwaite, 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 999, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

14. A. Haebich, ‘Neoliberalism, Settler Colonialism and the History of Indigenous Child Removal in Australia’, Australian Indigenous Law Review, 19/1 (2015), 26–7.

Online article – no DOI and no page numbers

  • If an online article is available on a web page only and there is no DOI, provide the URL and date accessed.
  • If an online article has no page numbers, provide paragraph references.

A. Author, 'Title of article', Title of Journal, volume/issue (Month year), paragraph, URL, accessed date.

16. S.K. Martin, ‘Tracking Reading in Nineteenth-Century Melbourne Diaries’, Australian Humanities Review, 56 (May 2014), para. 6, http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org, accessed 23 June 2020.


Bibliography

Provide the page range of the article.

Goldthwaite, R.A., 'The Florentine Palace as Domestic Architecture', American Historical Review, 77/4 (1972), 997–1012, https://doi.org/10.1086/ahr/77.4.977

Haebich, A., ‘Neoliberalism, Settler Colonialism and the History of Indigenous Child Removal in Australia’, Australian Indigenous Law Review ,19/1 (2015), 20–31.

Martin, S.K., ‘Tracking Reading in Nineteenth-Century Melbourne Diaries’, Australian Humanities Review, 56 (May 2014), http://www.australianhumanitiesreview.org, accessed 23 June 2020.

In press

  • Use the term “in press” to refer to a peer-reviewed article accepted for publication in a future issue of a journal.
  • Use the term “advance online publication” to refer to a peer-reviewed article that has not yet gone to print.
  • If a DOI not yet is available, provide the URL of the journal home page.
  • If the issue, volume or page number is not confirmed, do not guess. Simply leave out this information.

Footnote

A. Author & B. Author, 'Title of Article', Title of Journal, in press, (year).

2. E. K. Russell,  & B. Carlton, ‘Counter–Carceral Acoustemologies: Sound, Permeability and Feminist Protest at the Prison Boundary’, Theoretical Criminology, in press, (2018).


Bibliography

Russell, E. K. & Carlton, B., ‘Counter–Carceral Acoustemologies: Sound, Permeability and Feminist Protest at the Prison Boundary’, Theoretical Criminology, in press, (2018).

Review

  • Include the title of the review only if it has a title different from the name of the book being reviewed.
  • In addition to details of the review and the journal, include the publication details of the book being reviewed.

Footnote

A. Reviewer, review of B. Author, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), in Title of Journal, issue/volume (year), page.

13. F. Ames-Lewis, review of R. Lightbrown, Mantegna (Oxford: Phaidon, 1986), in Renaissance Studies, 1 (1987), 276.

14. R. Porter, ‘Lion of the Laboratory’, review of G.L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton University Press, 1995), in TLS (16 June 1995), 3.


Bibliography

Include the page range of the review.

Ames-Lewis, F., review of R. Lightbrown, Mantegna (Oxford: Phaidon, 1986), in Renaissance Studies, 1 (1987), 273–9.

Porter, R., ‘Lion of the Laboratory’, review of G.L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton, 1995), in TLS (16 June 1995), 3–4.

Web and video

Select a topic

Overview

There are endless sources of information to be found on the internet, but not all of it is appropriate to contribute to your academic writing.

  1. What is the purpose of your writing task? Which sources will support your response to the task?
  2. Use your set unit readings as a starting point. Look at the citations in those readings.
  3. Then use the Deakin Library databases and Resource Guides to find further sources.
  4. Always ask yourself: Is this a credible and reliable source of information?
  5. Seek advice from teaching staff in your unit.
  6. You can also get help from the Deakin Library and Study Support.

Do I always need to include a URL and date of access?

In the Oxford style of referencing, online sources that can be updated by the publisher require the full URL and the date you accessed, for example:

  • Websites
  • Documents published online
  • Online news reports
  • Blog posts
  • Online videos e.g. YouTube
  • Podcasts.

However, note that most e-books and online journal articles, including those sourced from Library databases, are mostly cited the same way as print books and articles. In general, these sources do not require the name of the database, nor a URL, nor a date of access.

Likewise, citations of Films or TV episodes accessed via a digital streaming platform do not require the name of the platform e.g. Netflix, nor a URL.


Ask yourself: Is this source available to the general public?

Sources that are not available to the general public, such as private social media posts, wikis and email messages, should be treated as Personal communications. If you are not sure whether it is appropriate to cite social media or personal communications in your assessment, seek clarification from your teachers in your unit.

Web page

When citing a web page:

  • do not cite an entire website in general – always cite a specific webpage and include the full URL
  • provide all available details of the date of publication or last date updated e.g. Day Month Year
  • include the date that you accessed the source
  • if there are no page numbers, and the text is very long, provide the paragraph number or section.

Footnotes

Author, ‘Title of Web Page’, Title of Website (Day Month year), section number and title, URL, accessed date.

8. Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘The Suspension and Reinstatement of the RDA and Special Measures in the NTER’, Australian Human Rights Commission (12 Dec. 2011), 4. The 2010 Welfare Reform Act, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/suspension-and-reinstatement-rda-and-special-measures-nter-0, accessed 17 Mar. 2020.

Citing multiple sections from a single web page

In the first footnote, provide the full publication details.

In subsequent footnotes, provide only the:

  • author
  • web page title
  • section number/title or paragraph number.

8. Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘The Suspension and Reinstatement of the RDA and Special Measures in the NTER’, Australian Human Rights Commission (12 Dec. 2011), 4. The 2010 Welfare Reform Act, https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/suspension-and-reinstatement-rda-and-special-measures-nter-0, accessed 17 Mar. 2020.

9. Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘The Suspension and Reinstatement of the RDA and Special Measures in the NTER’, 2. The Proposed Change in the 2009 Welfare Reform Bill.


Bibliography

Author, ‘Title of Web Page’, Title of Website (Day Month year), URL, accessed date.

Australian Human Rights Commission, ‘The Suspension and Reinstatement of the RDA and Special Measures in the NTER’, Australian Human Rights Commission (12 Dec. 2011), https://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/suspension-and-reinstatement-rda-and-special-measures-nter-0, accessed 17 Mar. 2020.

Web document

When citing a document (e.g. a PDF) from a website:

  • if the author is the same as the website title, include the author name only
  • provide all available details of the date of publication (e.g. Day Month Year) and place of publication, if available
  • include the full URL of the document – if this not accessible, provide the URL where the document is hosted
  • include the date you accessed the source.

Footnotes

if there are no page numbers, and the text is very long, provide the paragraph number or section.

A. Author, ‘Title of Document’, Title of Website (Place, Day Month Year), page/paragraph, URL, accessed date.

10. M. Specter, ‘The Dangerous Philosopher’, The Graduate Forum NYU (2 Apr. 2001), para. 12, http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf, accessed 3 Feb. 2020.

12. Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO), ‘Respect Women: Preventing Violence Against Women’, World Health Organization, (Geneva, 2019), 14–15, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/312261/WHO-RHR-18.19-eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed 16 June 2020.


Bibliography

Author, A., ‘Title of Document’, Title of Website (Place, Day Month Year), URL, accessed date.

Specter, M., ‘The Dangerous Philosopher’, The Graduate Forum NYU (2 Apr. 2001), http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~pillow/gradforum/materials/DangerousPhilosopher.pdf, accessed 3 Feb. 2020.

Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO), ‘Respect Women: Preventing Violence Against Women’, World Health Organization, (Geneva, 2019), https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/312261/WHO-RHR-18.19-eng.pdf?ua=1, accessed 16 June 2020.

Blog post

  • Note that an author of a blog post is sometimes different to the author/publisher of a blog.
  • If the blog has no named author, begin with the title.
  • Include the medium as [blog post], unless obvious from the title of the blog.

Footnotes

If the post is lengthy, you may provide details about the paragraph or section heading.

A. Author, ‘Title of Post’, Title of Blog [blog post] (Day Month Year), paragraph, URL, accessed date.

16. C. Raddato, ‘The Acts of the Arval Brethren of AD 120 (#Hadrian1900)’, Following Hadrian [blog post] (16 Jan. 2020), para. 8, https://followinghadrian.com/2020/01/16/the-acts-of-the-arval-brethren-of-ad-120-hadrian1900/, accessed 3 May 2020.

17. S. Morris, ‘Hilary Mantel and Shakespeare: Fiction Versus Fact’, The Shakespeare Blog (4 July 2017), http://theshakespeareblog.com/2017/07/hilary-mantel-and-shakespeare-fiction-versus-fact/, accessed 29 May 2020.


Bibliography

Author, A. ‘Title of Post’, Title of Blog [blog post] (Day Month Year), URL, accessed date.

Morris, S., ‘Hilary Mantel and Shakespeare: Fiction Versus Fact’, The Shakespeare Blog (4 July 2017), http://theshakespeareblog.com/2017/07/hilary-mantel-and-shakespeare-fiction-versus-fact/, accessed 29 May 2020.

Raddato, C., ‘The Acts of the Arval Brethren of AD 120’, Following Hadrian [blog post], (16 Jan. 2020), https://followinghadrian.com/2020/01/16/the-acts-of-the-arval-brethren-of-ad-120-hadrian1900/, accessed 3 May 2020.

Social media

Before citing a social media source, ask yourself:

  • Is this a credible and reliable source of information?
  • Is it acceptable to cite social media for an assessment in this unit?
  • Is the social media account/post public or private? Posts from private social media accounts should be treated as Personal communications. All the following examples are public social media posts.

Provide the:

  • author name (which may be a username)
  • text from the beginning of the post
  • full date of the post
  • full URL and the date accessed.

Footnotes

A. Author/username, ‘First part of post/comment/update…’ [Social media post] (Day Month Year), URL, accessed date.

13. J. Goodall, ‘What I’m doing now is my job, trying to wake people up…’ [Facebook post] (23 Apr. 2020), https://www.facebook.com/janegoodall/, accessed 29 Apr. 2020.

17. R. Dawkins, ‘Fairy tales, as well as charming, can be good training in critical thinking…’ [Twitter post] (4 June 2014), https://twitter.com/richarddawkins/status/474420845428109312, accessed 9 June 2019.


Bibliography

Dawkins, R., ‘Fairy tales, as well as charming, can be good training in critical thinking…’ [Twitter post] (4 June 2014), https://twitter.com/richarddawkins/status/474420845428109312, accessed 9 June 2019.

Goodall, J. ‘What I’m doing now is my job, trying to wake people up…’ [Facebook post] (23 Apr. 2020), https://www.facebook.com/janegoodall/, accessed 29 Apr. 2020.

Podcast

Depending on who you are citing, you can begin the citation of a podcast with the:

  • main interviewee
  • presenter or producer
  • or the title of the episode if there is no named speaker/producer.

Include the medium in square brackets [podcast], if this is not obvious from the title of the podcast series.

Note: you can use elements of this format if you need to cite broadcast radio.


Footnotes

A. Interviewee, interview with A. Presenter, ‘Title of Episode’ [podcast], Title of Show (Day Month Year), Publisher/Broadcaster, URL, accessed date.

16. M. Kingwell, interview with J. Gelonesi, ‘The Hipster Philosopher’ [podcast], The Philosophers’ Zone (5 Jan. 2014), ABC Radio National, https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/philosopherszone/the-hipster-philosopher/5017288 accessed 9 June 2020.

‘Title of Episode’ [podcast], Title of Show (Day Month Year), Publisher/Broadcaster, URL, accessed date.

18. ‘The Last Sound’ [podcast], Invisibilia (3 Apr. 2020), NPR, https://www.npr.org/2020/03/25/821648089/the-last-sound, accessed 6 May 2020.


Bibliography

Kingwell, M., interview with J. Gelonesi, ‘The Hipster Philosopher’ [podcast], The Philosophers’ Zone (5 Jan. 2014), ABC Radio National, https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/philosopherszone/the-hipster-philosopher/5017288 accessed 9 June 2020.

‘The Last Sound’ [podcast], Invisibilia (3 Apr. 2020), NPR, https://www.npr.org/2020/03/25/821648089/the-last-sound, accessed 6 May 2020.

Online video

Depending on who you are citing, you can begin the citation of a video with the:

  • interviewee/speaker/presenter
  • producer/director (which in some cases may be the user who uploaded the video)
  • or the title of the video if there is no named speaker, producer or director.

Include the medium in square brackets [video].


Footnotes

Video on social media platform (e.g. YouTube)

The date of publication refers to the date uploaded.

A. Interviewee, ‘Title of Video’ [video], Social Media Platform (Day Month Year), URL, date accessed.

21. H. Mantel, ‘Hilary Mantel: The Waterstones Interview - Wolf Hall Trilogy’ [video], YouTube (24. Feb. 2020), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsZrYQ2Ud_c, accessed 6 May 2020.

The producer of the video can also be provided in brackets before the date.

A. Speaker, ‘Title of Video’ [video], Social Media Platform (Producer, Day Month Year), URL, date accessed.

22. S. Fitzpatrick, ‘The Russian Revolution of 1917 and World History: A Centenary Reflection’ [video], YouTube (Schwartz Media, 7 Apr. 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyH1NF_kh-s, accessed 23 May 2020.

For clips of previously released videos, films or episodes that may only be available now in an online platform, include the original date in addition to the date uploaded.

See also the topics in this guide: TV episodes and Film.

A. Director (dir.), ‘Title of Video’ [video], Social Media Platform (recorded Year, uploaded Day Month Year), URL, date accessed.

23. J. Pilger (dir.), ‘John Pilger: Palestine is Still the Issue’ [video], YouTube (recorded 1977, uploaded 21. Nov. 2015), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYF0td7Ykus, accessed 6 May 2020.

Video on producer website

A. Speaker, ‘Title of Video’ [video], Producer (Day Month Year), URL, date accessed.

31. L. Lagerstrom, ‘Einstein’s Miracle Year’ [video], TED-Ed (Jan. 2015), https://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lagerstrom_einstein_s_miracle_year, accessed 8 Aug. 2020.


Bibliography

Fitzpatrick, S., ‘The Russian Revolution of 1917 and World History: A Centenary Reflection’, [video], YouTube (Schwartz Media, 7 Apr. 2017), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyH1NF_kh-s, accessed 23 May 2020.

Lagerstrom, L., ‘Einstein’s Miracle Year’ [video], TED-Ed (Jan. 2015), https://www.ted.com/talks/larry_lagerstrom_einstein_s_miracle_year, accessed 8 Aug. 2020.

Mantel, H., ‘Hilary Mantel: The Waterstones Interview - Wolf Hall Trilogy’ [video], YouTube (24. Feb. 2020), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsZrYQ2Ud_c, accessed 6 May 2020.

Pilger, J. (dir.), ‘John Pilger: Palestine is Still the Issue’ [video], YouTube (recorded 1977, uploaded 21. Nov. 2015), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYF0td7Ykus, accessed 6 May 2020.

TV episode

  • Begin the citation with the director. If it not relevant/available, begin the citation with the title of the episode.
  • Include the medium in square brackets [video].
  • Whether a TV episode has been accessed via a TV broadcast, Netflix, via a Deakin Library database, or on DVD is irrelevant. Therefore, do not include information about the platform or distributor i.e. how you accessed the episode.
  • Include the name of the producer/broadcaster (this is different to a distributor or platform provider or format, but note that in some cases this may be the same organisation).
  • Include numbers of the episode and season, if relevant.
  • Note: IMDb (the International Movie Database) is a reliable source of information on TV series and episodes.

Footnotes

There is no need to provide a URL if you have all of the other relevant production/broadcast details:

‘Title of Episode [video], Title of TV Program (Producer, Day Month Year of original broadcast/release).

24. ‘Trapped in the Volcano’ [video], Four Corners (ABC TV, 27 Apr. 2020).

However, you may choose to include a URL to a publicly available site if you think it would assist your reader to locate your source. Here is the same footnote as above, but with a URL provided:

24. ‘Trapped in the Volcano’ [video], Four Corners (ABC TV, 27 Apr. 2020), https://www.abc.net.au/4corners/trapped-in-the-volcano/12189154, accessed 8 May 2020.

Here is an example of an episode produced by Netflix – but remember, Netflix is only listed here as the producer of the TV series, not as the platform it was accessed on.

A. Director (dir.), ‘Title of Episode’ [video], Episode, Season, Title of TV Series (Producer, Day Month Year of original broadcast/release).

25. D. DiMauro (dir.), ‘Slumlord Millionaire’ [video], Episode 3, Season 2, Dirty Money (Netflix, 11 March 2020).


Bibliography

DiMauro, D., (dir.), ‘Slumlord Millionaire’ [video], Episode 3, Season 2, Dirty Money (Netflix, 11 March 2020).

‘Trapped in the Volcano’ [video], Four Corners (ABC TV, 27 Apr. 2020), https://www.abc.net.au/4corners/trapped-in-the-volcano/12189154, accessed 8 May 2020.

Film

  • The citation can begin with the director, where relevant. If not available, begin the citation with the title of the film.
  • Whether a film has been accessed via Netflix, the Deakin Library or on DVD is irrelevant. Therefore, do not include information about the platform/distributor or format.
  • Include the name of the producer (this is different to a distributor / platform provider, but note that in some cases this may be the same organisation).
  • IMDb (the International Movie Database) is a reliable source of information on films.

Footnotes

A. Director (dir.), Title of Film [film], (Production Company, Day Month Year of original release).

26. S. Bognar (dir.), American Factory [film], (Higher Ground Productions, 2019).

31. M. Blackwood (dir.), Art in our Time: Toward a New Museum of Modern Art [film], (Michael Blackwood Productions, 2001).


Bibliography

Blackwood, M. (dir.), Art in our Time: Toward a New Museum of Modern Art [film], (Michael Blackwood Productions, 2001).

Bognar, S. (dir.), American Factory [film], (Higher Ground Productions, 2019).

Other sources

Select a topic

ABS

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) web pages, reports and publications are cited much the same way as other web pages or documents, but with the addition of an ABS catalogue number, where available.
  • Always cite the full URL.

Footnotes

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Title of Publication, catalogue number (day month year), URL, accessed date.

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Industrial Disputes, Australia, June 2013, cat. no. 6321.0.55.001 (5 Sep. 2013), https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/6321.0.55.001Main+Features1Jun%202013, accessed 8 Oct. 2019.


Bibliography

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Industrial Disputes, Australia, June 2013, cat. no. 6321.0.55.001 (5 Sep. 2013), https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/6321.0.55.001Main+Features1Jun%202013, accessed 8 Oct. 2019.

Conference paper

Cite conference papers according to the format in which they are published, e.g. book chapter, web page or web document.

Here is an example of a conference paper published as a web document (note: URL is to a landing page where document can be accessed):


Footnotes

A. Author, ‘Title of Paper', paper presented to Name of Conference, Place (Dates of conference), page, URL, accessed date.

22. A. Fenton, 'Using a Strengths Approach in Collaborative Education', paper presented to the ACEN National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong (29 Oct. – 2 Nov. 2012), 75–6, http://acen.edu.au/resource-type/conference-proceedings/, accessed 23 Dec. 2019.


Bibliography

Author, A. ‘Title of Paper', paper presented to Name of Conference, Place (Dates of conference), page range, URL, accessed date.

Fenton, A., 'Using a Strengths Approach in Collaborative Education', paper presented to the ACEN National Conference, Deakin University, Geelong (29 Oct. – 2 Nov. 2012), 71-6, http://acen.edu.au/resource-type/conference-proceedings/, accessed 23 Dec. 2019.

Course materials

Please note: in some units it is not acceptable to cite course materials (e.g. class presentations and slides). Cite only if you have been given permission to do so.

Cite in a footnote only; do not provide an entry in the bibliography.

A. Lecturer, Descriptive Title including Course Code and Title, University [class lecture/slides/notes], day month year.

5. L. Doolan, Week 2 Phenomenology PHP367, Deakin University [class slides], 13 Apr. 2018.

Dictionary or encyclopaedia

Discuss with your unit staff whether is acceptable to cite a dictionary or encyclopaedia, and which sources they would recommend.

Please note: while Wikipedia can be a good starting point for gleaning general information before you begin your research, a site such as Wikipedia can be updated at any point and by multiple authors, so it cannot be relied on as a source for an academic assignment.

  • Consider whether your source is a book, e-book or website, and cite accordingly.
  • If there is no named author, begin with the title of the entry.

Here is an example of an online encyclopaedia entry with no named author:


Footnotes

'Title of Entry’, Title of Encyclopaedia (year), URL, date accessed.

13. ‘Gunpowder Plot’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249505/Gunpowder-Plot, accessed 5 Aug. 2020.


Bibliography

Title of Entry’, Title of Encyclopaedia (year), URL, date accessed.

‘Gunpowder Plot’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (2019), http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249505/Gunpowder-Plot, accessed 5 Aug. 2020.

Government sources

  • Consider whether your source is a book, website or web document and cite accordingly.
  • Include the jurisdiction (e.g. Commonwealth or State) after the name of the government department/ministry/commission, if this is not clear from other bibliographic details provided.
  • See also the topic Media release.

Footnotes

Government Commission (Jurisdiction), Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page.

6. Commission of Enquiry into Poverty (Commonwealth of Australia), Poverty in Australia, First Main Report (Canberra: AGPS, 1975), 13.

Government Department, ‘Title of Web Page’, Title of Website (Day Month year), URL, accessed date.

25. Australian Border Force, ‘Operation Sovereign Borders: Fact sheet: Operational update 20 June 2014’, ABF Newsroom (20 June 2014), https://newsroom.abf.gov.au/channels/Operation-Sovereign-Borders/releases/operational-update-20-june, accessed 5 Oct. 2020.


Bibliography

Australian Border Force, ‘Operation Sovereign Borders: Fact sheet: Operational update 20 June 2014’, ABF Newsroom (20 June 2014), https://newsroom.abf.gov.au/channels/Operation-Sovereign-Borders/releases/operational-update-20-june, accessed 5 Oct. 2020.

Commission of Enquiry into Poverty (Commonwealth of Australia), Poverty in Australia, First Main Report (Canberra: AGPS, 1975).

Media release

  • Include the jurisdiction (e.g. Commonwealth or State) after the name of a government department/ministry/commission, if this is not clear from other bibliographic details provided.
  • Include the medium as [media release] after the title.

Footnotes

Author, Title [media release] (Day Month Year), URL, accessed date.

34. National Archives of Australia, Digital Countdown to Save the Things We Want to Keep [media release] (6 Nov. 2019), https://www.naa.gov.au/about-us/media-and-publications/media-releases/digital-countdown-save-things-we-want-keep, accessed 3 Aug. 2020.

Government Department (Jurisdiction), Title [media release] (Day Month Year), paragraph, URL, accessed date.

33. Department of Education (Commonwealth of Australia), National School Chaplaincy and Student Welfare Program High Court Judgment [media release] (19 June 2014), para. 3, http://education.gov.au/news/national-school-chaplaincy-and-student-welfare-program-high-court-judgment, accessed 20 June 2020.


Bibliography

Department of Education (Commonwealth of Australia), National School Chaplaincy and Student Welfare Program High Court Judgment [media release] (19 June 2014), http://education.gov.au/news/national-school-chaplaincy-and-student-welfare-program-high-court-judgment, accessed 20 June 2020.

National Archives of Australia, Digital Countdown to Save the Things We Want to Keep [media release] (6 Nov. 2019), https://www.naa.gov.au/about-us/media-and-publications/media-releases/digital-countdown-save-things-we-want-keep, accessed 3 Aug. 2020.

News article

  • If the author is not known, begin with the title.
  • Include the publication day, month and year.

Footnotes

Online news article

Provide paragraph references for long articles with no page numbers.

A. Author, ‘Title of Article’, Title of News Site (Day Month Year), paragraph, URL, accessed date.

4. M. Smith, ‘Museums Should Become Known as Sites of Cultural Revival, Not Scientific Racism’, The Guardian (31 Oct. 2019), para. 7, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/31/museums-should-become-known-as-sites-of-cultural-revival-not-scientific-racism, accessed 14 May 2020.

5. N. Klein, ‘Screen New Deal’, The Intercept (9 May 2020), para. 12, https://theintercept.com/2020/05/08/andrew-cuomo-eric-schmidt-coronavirus-tech-shock-doctrine/, accessed 12 May 2020.


Archived newspaper article

For archived sources, include the name of the repository and any further details that will help your reader locate the source.

‘Title of Article’, Title of Newspaper (Day Month Year), page number, Name of repository, URL, accessed date.

7. ‘The Unfairness of the Advocates of the Plebiscite’, The Argus (10 Jan. 1880), 9, Trove, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/title/13, accessed 23 June 2020.


Bibliography

Klein, N., ‘Screen New Deal’, The Intercept (9 May 2020), https://theintercept.com/2020/05/08/andrew-cuomo-eric-schmidt-coronavirus-tech-shock-doctrine/, accessed 12 May 2020.

Smith, M., ‘Museums Should Become Known as Sites of Cultural Revival, Not Scientific Racism’, The Guardian (31 Oct. 2019), https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/31/museums-should-become-known-as-sites-of-cultural-revival-not-scientific-racism, accessed 14 May 2020.

‘The Unfairness of the Advocates of the Plebiscite’, The Argus (10 Jan. 1880), Trove, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/title/13, accessed 23 June 2020.

Personal communication

Personal communications include interviews or discussions that you have conducted in your research.

  • Details about personal communications are included in-text, but are not included in the bibliography.
  • It is important to first obtain permission from the person you will be citing.
  • You might also provide further details of the communication in an appendix. A reference to the appendix can be provided in text or in a footnote.

Footnotes

A. Interviewee, description of communication, Day Month Year.

2. J. Robinson, interview with author, 11 May 2019.

11. V. Grossi, interview with author, 3 Apr. 2020. See Appendix B.

Thesis

Include a URL if the thesis is available online.


Footnotes

A. Author, ‘Title’, Degree, Institution, Place, year, page, URL, date accessed.

38. R. Lee, 'Mary De Garis: Progressivism, Early Feminism and Medical Reform', PhD thesis, Deakin University, Geelong, 2010, 93–4, https://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30033056, accessed 13 October 2020.


Bibliography

Author, A. ‘Title’, Degree, Institution, Place, year, URL, date accessed.

Lee, R., 'Mary De Garis: Progressivism, Early Feminism and Medical Reform', PhD thesis, Deakin University, Geelong, 2010, https://dro.deakin.edu.au/view/DU:30033056, accessed 13 October 2020.

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